Bio


Philip Bulterys is a third year resident in Anatomic and Clinical Pathology at Stanford, with a background in bacterial pathogenesis and drug discovery. He is interested in emerging infectious diseases, the role of the microbiome in health and disease, therapeutics and diagnostics development, and global health. He will be a Hematopathology fellow at Stanford Health Care in 2023-2024, and is currently performing postdoctoral microbiome research in the laboratory of Justin Sonnenburg.

He earned a B.S. in Biology (Microbes and Immunity track) with honors from Stanford University in 2010, a Ph.D. in Molecular Biology (Immunity, Microbes, and Molecular Pathogenesis track) from UCLA in June 2017, and a M.D. from the UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine in June 2019. For his Ph.D., Philip studied the Tier-1 Select Agent pathogens, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, in the laboratory of Jeff F. Miller.

Professional Education


  • BS, Stanford University, Biology (Microbes and Immunity) (2010)
  • PhD, University of California Los Angeles, Molecular Biology (Immunity, Microbes, and Molecular Pathogenesis) (2017)
  • MD, University of California Los Angeles, Medicine (2019)

All Publications


  • Cellular and humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and booster dose in immunosuppressed patients: An observational cohort study. Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Yang, L. M., Costales, C., Ramanathan, M., Bulterys, P. L., Murugesan, K., Schroers-Martin, J., Alizadeh, A. A., Boyd, S. D., Brown, J. M., Nadeau, K. C., Nadimpalli, S. S., Wang, A. X., Busque, S., Pinsky, B. A., Banaei, N. 2022; 153: 105217

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among immunosuppressed patients remain poorly defined, as well as variables associated with poor response.METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study at a large Northern California healthcare system of infection-naive individuals fully vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, or Ad26.COV2.S) with clinical SARS-CoV-2 interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) ordered between January through November 2021. Humoral and cellular immune responses were measured by anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG ELISA (anti-S1 IgG) and IGRA, respectively, following primary and/or booster vaccination.RESULTS: 496 immunosuppressed patients (54% female; median age 50 years) were included. 62% (261/419) of patients had positive anti-S1 IgG and 71% (277/389) had positive IGRA after primary vaccination, with 20% of patients having a positive IGRA only. Following booster, 69% (81/118) had positive anti-S1 IgG and 73% (91/124) had positive IGRA. Factors associated with low humoral response rates after primary vaccination included anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (P<0.001), sphingosine 1-phsophate (S1P) receptor modulators (P<0.001), mycophenolate (P=0.002), and B cell lymphoma (P=0.004); those associated with low cellular response rates included S1P receptor modulators (P<0.001) and mycophenolate (P<0.001). Of patients who had poor humoral response to primary vaccination, 35% (18/52) developed a significantly higher response after the booster. Only 5% (2/42) of patients developed a significantly higher cellular response to the booster dose compared to primary vaccination.CONCLUSIONS: Humoral and cellular response rates to primary and booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccination differ among immunosuppressed patient groups. Clinical testing of cellular immunity is important in monitoring vaccine response in vulnerable populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcv.2022.105217

    View details for PubMedID 35714462

  • Expression of CD47 Protein in Hematolymphoid Neoplasms: Implications for CD47-Mediated Cancer Immunotherapy Zhang, J., Bulterys, P., Fernandez-Pol, S., Younes, S., Zhao, S., Mansoor, A., Natkunam, Y. SPRINGERNATURE. 2022: 1052-1053
  • Expression of CD47 Protein in Hematolymphoid Neoplasms: Implications for CD47-Mediated Cancer Immunotherapy Zhang, J., Bulterys, P., Fernandez-Pol, S., Younes, S., Zhao, S., Mansoor, A., Natkunam, Y. SPRINGERNATURE. 2022: 1052-1053
  • Inflammatory pseudotumor-like follicular dendritic cell tumor of the spleen: a case report and approach to differential diagnosis. Radiology case reports Nguyen, A., Negrete, L. M., Bulterys, P. L., Shen, L. 2021; 16 (11): 3213-3216

    Abstract

    We present a case of an inflammatory pseudotumor-like follicular dendritic cell tumor of the spleen. The patient is a 44-year-old woman, without significant underlying history, who presented with nonspecific abdominal pain for a few months. Both a contrast enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a new 2.5 cm enhancing splenic lesion, which demonstrated hypermetabolic activity on subsequent positron emission tomography and computed tomography scan. Since the lesion was new compared to more remote imaging and hypermetabolic, a splenectomy was performed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis and demonstrated positivity for Epstein-Barr Virus .

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.07.078

    View details for PubMedID 34484521

  • Diagnosis of Dengue in a returning traveler from Pakistan suspected of COVID-19, California, USA. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease Bulterys, P. L., Solis, D., Verghese, M., Huang, C., Sibai, M., Costales, C., Sahoo, M. K., Pinsky, B. A. 2021; 101 (4): 115517

    Abstract

    Dengue and COVID-19 cocirculation presents a diagnostic conundrum for physicians evaluating patients with acute febrile illnesses, both in endemic regions and among returning travelers. We present a case of a returning traveler from Pakistan who, following repeated negative SARS-CoV-2 tests, was found to have a Dengue virus serotype 2 infection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2021.115517

    View details for PubMedID 34537475

  • A spatio-temporal analysis of scrub typhus and murine typhus in Laos; implications from changing landscapes and climate. PLoS neglected tropical diseases Roberts, T., Parker, D. M., Bulterys, P. L., Rattanavong, S., Elliott, I., Phommasone, K., Mayxay, M., Chansamouth, V., Robinson, M. T., Blacksell, S. D., Newton, P. N. 2021; 15 (8): e0009685

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus (ST) and murine typhus (MT) are common but poorly understood causes of fever in Laos. We examined the spatial and temporal distribution of ST and MT, with the intent of informing interventions to prevent and control both diseases.METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: This study included samples submitted from 2003 to 2017 to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, for ST and MT investigation. Serum samples were tested using IgM rapid diagnostic tests. Patient demographic data along with meteorological and environmental data from Laos were analysed. Approximately 17% of patients were positive for either ST (1,337/8,150 patients tested) or MT (1,283/7,552 patients tested). While both diseases occurred in inhabitants from Vientiane Capital, from the univariable analysis MT was positively and ST negatively associated with residence in Vientiane Capital. ST was highly seasonal, with cases two times more likely to occur during the wet season months of July-September compared to the dry season whilst MT peaked in the dry season. Multivariable regression analysis linked ST incidence to fluctuations in relative humidity whereas MT was linked to variation in temperature. Patients with ST infection were more likely to come from villages with higher levels of surface flooding and vegetation in the 16 days leading up to diagnosis.CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that as cities expand, high risk areas for MT will also expand. With global heating and risks of attendant higher precipitation, these data suggest that the incidence and spatial distribution of both MT and ST will increase.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0009685

    View details for PubMedID 34432800

  • Impact of COVID-19 shelter-in-place order on transmission of gastrointestinal pathogens in Northern California. Journal of clinical microbiology Bulterys, P. L., Leung, N. Y., Saleem, A., Budvytiene, I., Banaei, N. 2021

    Abstract

    In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, California was the first state to impose a strict shelter-in-place (SIP) order in March 2020..

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JCM.00449-21

    View details for PubMedID 33846223

  • Case-Control Study of Individuals with Discrepant Nucleocapsid and Spike Protein SARS-CoV-2 IgG Results. Clinical chemistry Wang, H. n., Wiredja, D. n., Yang, L. n., Bulterys, P. L., Costales, C. n., Röltgen, K. n., Manalac, J. n., Yee, J. n., Zehnder, J. n., Shi, R. Z., Boyd, S. D., Pinsky, B. A. 2021

    Abstract

    Laboratory-based methods for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection vary widely in performance. However, there are limited prospectively-collected data on assay performance, and minimal clinical information to guide interpretation of discrepant results.Over a two-week period, 1080 consecutive plasma samples submitted for clinical SARS-CoV-2 IgG testing were tested in parallel for anti-nucleocapsid IgG (anti-N, Abbott) and anti-spike IgG (anti-S1, EUROIMMUN). Chart review was conducted for samples testing positive or borderline on either assay, and for an age/sex-matched cohort of samples negative by both assays. CDC surveillance case definitions were used to determine clinical sensitivity/specificity and conduct receiver operating characteristics curve analysis.There were 52 samples positive by both methods, 2 positive for anti-N only, 34 positive for anti-S1 only, and 27 borderline for anti-S1. Of the 34 individuals positive for anti-S1 alone, 8 (24%) had confirmed COVID-19. No anti-S1 borderline cases were positive for anti-N or had confirmed/probable COVID-19. The anti-N assay was less sensitive (84.2% [95% CI 72.1-92.5%] versus 94.7% [95% CI 85.4-98.9%]) but more specific (99.2% [95% CI 95.5-100%] versus 86.9% [95% CI 79.6-92.3%]) than anti-S1. Abbott anti-N sensitivity could be improved to 96.5% with minimal effect on specificity if the index threshold was lowered from 1.4 to 0.6.Real-world concordance between different serologic assays may be lower than previously described in retrospective studies. These findings have implications for the interpretation of SARS-CoV-2 IgG results, especially with the advent of spike antigen-targeted vaccination, as a subset of patients with true infection are anti-N negative and anti-S1 positive.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/clinchem/hvab045

    View details for PubMedID 33720347

  • GloFlow: Whole Slide Image Stitching from Video Using Optical Flow and Global Image Alignment Krishna, V., Joshi, A., Vrabac, D., Bulterys, P., Yang, E., Fernandez-Pol, S., Ng, A. Y., Rajpurkar, P., DeBruijne, M., Cattin, P. C., Cotin, S., Padoy, N., Speidel, S., Zheng, Y., Essert, C. SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG. 2021: 519-528
  • Chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK cells with TNFAIP3 and DNMT3A mutations. Blood Bulterys, P. L., Silva, O. 2021; 137 (24): 3460

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood.2021011812

    View details for PubMedID 34137843

  • Virulence from the rhizosphere: ecology and evolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei-complex species. Current opinion in microbiology French, C. T., Bulterys, P. L., Woodward, C. L., Tatters, A. O., Ng, K. R., Miller, J. F. 2020; 54: 18–32

    Abstract

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) and Burkholderia mallei (Bm) cause the often-lethal infectious diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Curiously, closely related species within the Bp complex share a nearly identical arsenal of virulence traits, yet are harmless to humans. Clues to the origin of virulence in this group can be found in their genetics and ecology. As a resident of the rhizosphere, Bp faces competition for nutrients and predation by other organisms. Adaptation over millennia has enabled Bp to accumulate mechanisms that overlap in their ability to promote fitness in the environment and virulence in mammals. Here, we review the ecology of Bp and its range of virulence attributes, and offer hypotheses on the evolution of virulence in the Bp complex which are relevant to other environmental pathogens.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mib.2019.12.004

    View details for PubMedID 32028234

  • Comparison of a laboratory-developed test targeting the envelope gene with three nucleic acid amplification tests for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Bulterys, P. L., Garamani, N. n., Stevens, B. n., Sahoo, M. K., Huang, C. n., Hogan, C. A., Zehnder, J. n., Pinsky, B. A. 2020; 129: 104427

    Abstract

    Numerous nucleic acid amplification tests, including real-time, reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) and isothermal amplification methods, have been developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA, including many that have received emergency use authorization (EUA). There is a need to assess their test performance relative to one another.The aim of this study was to compare the test performance of a high complexity laboratory-developed rRT-PCR EUA from Stanford Health Care (SHC) targeting the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (E) gene with other tests: the Atila isothermal amplification assay targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene and open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), the Altona E and spike (S) multiplex, real-time RT-PCR, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) N1 and N2 rRT-PCRs.A diagnostic comparison study was performed by testing nasopharyngeal samples from persons under investigation for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Assay performance was assessed by percent agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient.Positive percent agreement with the SHC EUA reference assay was 82.8 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 65.0 to 92.9) for Atila, 86.7 % (95 % CI 69.7 to 95.3) for the Altona E and S targets, and 86.7 % (95 % CI 69.7 to 95.3) and 90.0 % (95 % CI 73.6 to 97.3), for the CDC N1 and N2 targets, respectively. All assays demonstrated 100 % negative percent agreement. Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.86 to 0.92, indicating excellent agreement.Performance was comparable among the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification methods tested, with a limited number of discrepancies observed in specimens with low viral loads.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104427

    View details for PubMedID 32535398

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7207111

  • An in situ high-throughput screen identifies inhibitors of intracellular Burkholderia pseudomallei with therapeutic efficacy PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Bulterys, P. L., Toesca, I. J., Norris, M. H., Maloy, J. P., Fitz-Gibbon, S. T., France, B., Toffig, B., Morselli, M., Somprasong, N., Pellegrini, M., Schweizer, H. P., Tuanyok, A., Damoiseaux, R., French, C. T., Miller, J. F. 2019; 116 (37): 18597–606

    Abstract

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) and Burkholderia mallei (Bm) are Tier-1 Select Agents that cause melioidosis and glanders, respectively. These are highly lethal human infections with limited therapeutic options. Intercellular spread is a hallmark of Burkholderia pathogenesis, and its prominent ties to virulence make it an attractive therapeutic target. We developed a high-throughput cell-based phenotypic assay and screened ∼220,000 small molecules for their ability to disrupt intercellular spread by Burkholderia thailandensis, a closely related BSL-2 surrogate. We identified 268 hits, and cross-species validation found 32 hits that also disrupt intercellular spread by Bp and/or Bm Among these were a fluoroquinolone analog, which we named burkfloxacin (BFX), which potently inhibits growth of intracellular Burkholderia, and flucytosine (5-FC), an FDA-approved antifungal drug. We found that 5-FC blocks the intracellular life cycle at the point of type VI secretion system 5 (T6SS-5)-mediated cell-cell spread. Bacterial conversion of 5-FC to 5-fluorouracil and subsequently to fluorouridine monophosphate is required for potent and selective activity against intracellular Burkholderia In a murine model of fulminant respiratory melioidosis, treatment with BFX or 5-FC was significantly more effective than ceftazidime, the current antibiotic of choice, for improving survival and decreasing bacterial counts in major organs. Our results demonstrate the utility of cell-based phenotypic screening for Select Agent drug discovery and warrant the advancement of BFX and 5-FC as candidate therapeutics for melioidosis in humans.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1906388116

    View details for Web of Science ID 000485145400067

    View details for PubMedID 31439817

  • Climatic drivers of melioidosis in Laos and Cambodia: a 16-year case series analysis. The Lancet. Planetary health Bulterys, P. L., Bulterys, M. A., Phommasone, K., Luangraj, M., Mayxay, M., Kloprogge, S., Miliya, T., Vongsouvath, M., Newton, P. N., Phetsouvanh, R., French, C. T., Miller, J. F., Turner, P., Dance, D. A. 2018; 2 (8): e334-e343

    Abstract

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis, a serious and difficult to treat infection that is endemic throughout the tropics. Melioidosis incidence is highly seasonal. We aimed to identify the climatic drivers of infection and to shed light on modes of transmission and potential preventive strategies.We examined the records of patients diagnosed with melioidosis at the Microbiology Laboratory of Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane, Laos, between October, 1999, and August, 2015, and all patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis presenting to the Angkor Hospital for Children in Siem Reap, Cambodia, between February, 2009, and December, 2013. We also examined local temperature, humidity, precipitation, visibility, and wind data for the corresponding time periods. We estimated the B pseudomallei incubation period by examining profile likelihoods for hypothetical exposure-to-presentation delays.870 patients were diagnosed with melioidosis in Laos and 173 patients were diagnosed with melioidosis in Cambodia during the study periods. Melioidosis cases were significantly associated with humidity (p<0·0001), low visibility (p<0·0001), and maximum wind speeds (p<0·0001) in Laos, and humidity (p=0·010), rainy days (p=0·015), and maximum wind speed (p=0·0070) in Cambodia. Compared with adults, children were at significantly higher odds of infection during highly humid months (odds ratio 2·79, 95% CI 1·83-4·26). Lung and disseminated infections were more common during windy months. The maximum likelihood estimate of the incubation period was 1 week (95% CI 0-2).The results of this study demonstrate a significant seasonal burden of melioidosis among adults and children in Laos and Cambodia. Our findings highlight the risks of infection during highly humid and windy conditions, and suggest a need for increased awareness among at-risk individuals, such as children.Wellcome Trust.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2542-5196(18)30172-4

    View details for PubMedID 30082048

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6076299

  • Preventing malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Bulterys, P. L., Kaplan, J. E., Gutman, J. 2014; 58 (5): 660-2

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/cit805

    View details for PubMedID 24336822

  • Environmental predictors and incubation period of AIDS-associated penicillium marneffei infection in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Bulterys, P. L., Le, T., Quang, V. M., Nelson, K. E., Lloyd-Smith, J. O. 2013; 56 (9): 1273-9

    Abstract

    Penicillium marneffei is an emerging dimorphic mycosis endemic in Southeast Asia, and a leading cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people in the region. Factors governing the seasonal incidence of P. marneffei infection are unknown, and may yield critical insights into possible reservoirs or modes of acquisition.This study included HIV-infected patients presenting with P. marneffei (n = 719) and Cryptococcus neoformans (n = 1598) infection to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, from 2004 to 2010, and temperature, humidity, wind, precipitation, and HIV-related admissions data for the corresponding period. We used multivariate regression modeling to identify factors associated with P. marneffei and C. neoformans admissions. We estimated the P. marneffei incubation period by considering profile likelihoods for different exposure-to-admission delays.We found that P. marneffei admissions were strongly associated with humidity (P < .001), and that precipitation, temperature, and wind did not add explanatory power. Cryptococcus neoformans admissions were not seasonal, and P. marneffei admissions were more common relative to C. neoformans admissions during months of high (≥85%) humidity (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.01). Maximum likelihood estimation suggested a P. marneffei incubation period of 1 week (95% CI, 0-3 weeks).Our findings suggest that humidity is the most important environmental predictor of P. marneffei admissions, and may drive exposure by facilitating fungal growth or spore release in the environment. In addition, it appears that a high proportion of penicilliosis patients present to the hospital with primary disseminated infection within 3 weeks of exposure.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/cit058

    View details for PubMedID 23386634

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3888300

  • Placental Malaria and Mother-to-Child Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 in Rural Rwanda AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Bulterys, P. L., Chao, A., Dalai, S. C., Zink, M. C., Dushimimana, A., Katzenstein, D., Saah, A. J., Bulterys, M. 2011; 85 (2): 202-206

    Abstract

    We conducted a nested case-control study of placental malaria (PM) and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) within a prospective cohort of 627 mother-infant pairs followed from October 1989 until April 1994 in rural Rwanda. Sixty stored placentas were examined for PM and other placental pathology, comparing 20 HIV-infected mother-infant (perinatal transmitter) pairs, 20 HIV-uninfected pairs, and 20 HIV-infected mothers who did not transmit to their infant perinatally. Of 60 placentas examined, 45% showed evidence of PM. Placental malaria was associated with increased risk of MTCT of HIV-1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-29.1), especially among primigravidae (aOR = 12.0; 95% CI = 1.0-150; P < 0.05). Before antiretroviral therapy or prophylaxis, PM was associated with early infant HIV infection among rural Rwandan women living in a hyper-endemic malaria region. Primigravidae, among whom malaria tends to be most severe, may be at higher risk.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0589

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293613000004

    View details for PubMedID 21813835

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3144813

  • Viral Sequence Analysis from HIV-Infected Mothers and Infants: Molecular Evolution, Diversity, and Risk Factors for Mother-To-Child Transmission CLINICS IN PERINATOLOGY Bulterys, P. L., Dalai, S. C., Katzenstein, D. A. 2010; 37 (4): 739-?

    Abstract

    Great progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis, treatment, and transmission of HIV and the factors influencing the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Many questions regarding the molecular evolution and genetic diversity of HIV in the context of MTCT remain unanswered. Further research to identify the selective factors governing which variants are transmitted, how the compartmentalization of HIV in different cells and tissues contributes to transmission, and the influence of host immunity, viral diversity, and recombination on MTCT may provide insight into new prevention strategies and the development of an effective HIV vaccine.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clp.2010.08.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285485400005

    View details for PubMedID 21078447

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3175486

  • Cattle, other domestic animal ownership, and distance between dwelling structures are associated with reduced risk of recurrent Plasmodium falciparum infection in southern Zambia TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Bulterys, P. L., Mharakurwa, S., Thuma, P. E. 2009; 14 (5): 522–28

    Abstract

    To examine the associations between household Plasmodium falciparum infection and a number of factors including domestic animal ownership, potential mosquito breeding sites, indoor darkness, density of people, distance between dwelling structures, and insecticide-treated bed net use.Analyses were based on data collected from a household survey conducted in Macha, Zambia. Thirty-four households with recurrent malaria infection in 2005-2008 were selected as case households and compared with 37 control households with no malaria infection randomly selected from the same geographic area. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with household P. falciparum infection.In multivariate analysis, cattle ownership was associated with reduced risk of P. falciparum infection (adjusted odds ratio = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.05-0.69), as was increased distance between dwelling structures (aOR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.07-0.98). Ownership of the highest category of cattle, goats, dogs, or cats dramatically reduced the risk of P. falciparum infection (aOR = 0.13; 95% CI = 0.03-0.56).Domestic animal, in particular cattle, ownership and greater distance between dwelling structures were associated with reduced risk of recurrent P. falciparum infection at the household level. These factors should be further investigated as supplemental measures for malaria control in rural African settings.

    View details for PubMedID 19389038