Bio


Professor Levis' research focuses on the design and implementation of efficient software systems for embedded wireless sensor networks; embedded network sensor architecture and design; systems programming and software engineering.

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Faculty Fellow, Microsoft (2008)

Professional Education


  • PhD, UC Berkeley, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering (2005)

2018-19 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Unsupervised Large-Scale Search for Similar Earthquake Signals BULLETIN OF THE SEISMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Yoon, C. E., Bergen, K. J., Rong, K., Elezabi, H., Ellsworth, W. L., Beroza, G. C., Bailis, P., Levis, P. 2019; 109 (4): 1451–68

    View details for DOI 10.1785/0120190006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000477837700016

  • Automatically Distributing Eulerian and Hybrid Fluid Simulations in the Cloud ACM TRANSACTIONS ON GRAPHICS Mashayekhi, O., Shah, C., Qu, H., Lim, A., Levis, P. 2018; 37 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1145/3173551

    View details for Web of Science ID 000437485900013

  • Fonduer: Knowledge Base Construction from Richly Formatted Data. Proceedings. ACM-Sigmod International Conference on Management of Data Wu, S., Hsiao, L., Cheng, X., Hancock, B., Rekatsinas, T., Levis, P., Re, C. 2018; 2018: 1301–16

    Abstract

    We focus on knowledge base construction (KBC) from richly formatted data. In contrast to KBC from text or tabular data, KBC from richly formatted data aims to extract relations conveyed jointly via textual, structural, tabular, and visual expressions. We introduce Fonduer, a machine-learning-based KBC system for richly formatted data. Fonduer presents a new data model that accounts for three challenging characteristics of richly formatted data: (1) prevalent document-level relations, (2) multimodality, and (3) data variety. Fonduer uses a new deep-learning model to automatically capture the representation (i.e., features) needed to learn how to extract relations from richly formatted data. Finally, Fonduer provides a new programming model that enables users to convert domain expertise, based on multiple modalities of information, to meaningful signals of supervision for training a KBC system. Fonduer-based KBC systems are in production for a range of use cases, including at a major online retailer. We compare Fonduer against state-of-the-art KBC approaches in four different domains. We show that Fonduer achieves an average improvement of 41 F1 points on the quality of the output knowledge base-and in some cases produces up to 1.87* the number of correct entries-compared to expert-curated public knowledge bases. We also conduct a user study to assess the usability of Fonduer's new programming model. We show that after using Fonduer for only 30 minutes, non-domain experts are able to design KBC systems that achieve on average 23 F1 points higher quality than traditional machine-learning-based KBC approaches.

    View details for PubMedID 29937618

  • Poster Abstract: Design Considerations for Low Power Internet Protocols Ayers, H., Crews, P., Teo, H., McAvity, C., Levy, A., Levis, P., Assoc Comp Machinery ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2018: 317–18
  • Decoupling the Control Plane from Program Control Flow for Flexibility and Performance in Cloud Computing Qu, H., Mashayekhi, O., Shah, C., Levis, P., Assoc Comp Machinery ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2018
  • Poster Abstract: Dynamic Multi-Clock Management for Embedded Systems Chiang, H., Giffin, D., Levy, A., Levis, P., Assoc Comp Machinery ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2018: 347–48
  • Execution Templates: Caching Control Plane Decisions for Strong Scaling of Data Analytics Mashayekhi, O., Qu, H., Shah, C., Levis, P., USENIX Assoc USENIX ASSOC. 2017: 513–26
  • The Case for Writing a Kernel in Rust Levy, A., Campbell, B., Ghena, B., Pannuto, P., Dutta, P., Levis, P., ACM ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2017
  • Ebb: A DSL for Physical Simulation on CPUs and GPUs ACM TRANSACTIONS ON GRAPHICS Bernstein, G. L., Shah, C., Lemire, C., Devito, Z., Fisher, M., Levis, P., Hanrahan, P. 2016; 35 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1145/2892632

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377286900012

  • Deflating link buffers in a wireless mesh network AD HOC NETWORKS Jamshaid, K., Shihada, B., Showail, A., Levis, P. 2014; 16: 266-280
  • Applications of Self-Interference Cancellation in 5G and Beyond IEEE COMMUNICATIONS MAGAZINE Hong, S., Brand, J., Il Choi, J., Jain, M., Mehlman, J., Katti, S., Levis, P. 2014; 52 (2): 114-121
  • CTP: An Efficient, Robust, and Reliable Collection Tree Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. In ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN) Gnawali, O., Fonseca, R., Jamieson, K., Kazandjieva, M., Moss, D., Levis, P. 2014
  • CTP: An Efficient, Robust, and Reliable Collection Tree Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks ACM TRANSACTIONS ON SENSOR NETWORKS Gnawali, O., Fonseca, R., Jamieson, K., Kazandjieva, M., Moss, D., Levis, P. 2013; 10 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1145/2529988

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329134500016

  • Measuring and analyzing the energy use of enterprise computing systems SUSTAINABLE COMPUTING-INFORMATICS & SYSTEMS Kazandjieva, M., Heller, B., Gnawali, O., Levis, P., Kozyrakis, C. 2013; 3 (3): 218-229
  • Long-term modification of cortical synapses improves sensory perception NATURE NEUROSCIENCE Froemke, R. C., Carcea, I., Barker, A. J., Yuan, K., Seybold, B. A., Martins, A. R., Zaika, N., Bernstein, H., Wachs, M., Levis, P. A., Polley, D. B., Merzenich, M. M., Schreiner, C. E. 2013; 16 (1): 79-U120

    Abstract

    Synapses and receptive fields of the cerebral cortex are plastic. However, changes to specific inputs must be coordinated within neural networks to ensure that excitability and feature selectivity are appropriately configured for perception of the sensory environment. We induced long-lasting enhancements and decrements to excitatory synaptic strength in rat primary auditory cortex by pairing acoustic stimuli with activation of the nucleus basalis neuromodulatory system. Here we report that these synaptic modifications were approximately balanced across individual receptive fields, conserving mean excitation while reducing overall response variability. Decreased response variability should increase detection and recognition of near-threshold or previously imperceptible stimuli. We confirmed both of these hypotheses in behaving animals. Thus, modification of cortical inputs leads to wide-scale synaptic changes, which are related to improved sensory perception and enhanced behavioral performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nn.3274

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312633900016

    View details for PubMedID 23178974

  • Measuring and Analyzing the Energy Use of Enterprise Computing Systems. In Journal of Sustainable Couputing Kazandjieva, M., Gnawali, O., Levis, P., Kozyrakis, C. 2013
  • Green Enterprise Computing Data: Assumptions and Realities 3rd International Green Computing Conference (IGCC) Kazandjieva, M., Heller, B., Gnawali, O., Levis, P., Kozyrakis, C. IEEE. 2012
  • A Scalable Server for 3D Metaverses. Cheslack-Postava, E., Azim, T., Mistree, B., Horn, D., Terrace, J., Levis, P. 2012
  • RFC 6719 - The Minimum Rank with Hysteresis Objective Function. In Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), Request for Comments: 6719 Gnawali, O., Levis, P. 2012
  • Unsupervised Conversion of 3D models for Interactive Metaverses. Terrace, J., Cheslack-Postava, E., Levis, P., Freedman, M. 2012
  • Experiences from a Decade of TinyOS Development. Levis, P. 2012
  • Beyond Full Duplex Wireless 46th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers Choi, J. I., Hong, S., Jain, M., Katti, S., Levis, P., Mehlman, J. IEEE. 2012: 40–44
  • Connecting Low-Power and Lossy Networks to the Internet IEEE COMMUNICATIONS MAGAZINE Ko, J., Terzis, A., Dawson-Haggerty, S., Culler, D. E., Hui, J. W., Levis, P. 2011; 49 (4): 96-101
  • Measuring school contact networks using wireless sensor technology Jones, J. H., Salathe, M., Feldman, M. W., KAZANDJIEVA, M., Lee, J. W., Levis, P. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2011: 263–63
  • Energy Management in Mobile Devices with the Cinder Operating System 6th ACM EuroSys Conference on Computer Systems (EuroSys 2011) Roy, A., Rumble, S. M., Stutsman, R., Levis, P., Mazieres, D., Zeldovich, N. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2011: 139–152
  • Emerson: Accessible Scripting for Applications in an Extensible Virtual World. Mistree, B., Chandra, B., Cheslack-Potava, E., Levis, P., Gay, D. 2011
  • Practical, Real-time, Full-Duplex Wireless. Jain, M., Choi, J. I., Kim, T., Bharadia, D., Seth, S., Srinivasan, K., Levis, P. A. 2011
  • Buffer Sizing in Wireless Mesh Networks. Jamshaid, K., Shihada, B., Xia, L., Levis, P. 2011
  • A high-resolution human contact network for infectious disease transmission PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Salathe, M., Kazandjieva, M., Lee, J. W., Levis, P., Feldman, M. W., Jones, J. H. 2010; 107 (51): 22020-22025

    Abstract

    The most frequent infectious diseases in humans--and those with the highest potential for rapid pandemic spread--are usually transmitted via droplets during close proximity interactions (CPIs). Despite the importance of this transmission route, very little is known about the dynamic patterns of CPIs. Using wireless sensor network technology, we obtained high-resolution data of CPIs during a typical day at an American high school, permitting the reconstruction of the social network relevant for infectious disease transmission. At 94% coverage, we collected 762,868 CPIs at a maximal distance of 3 m among 788 individuals. The data revealed a high-density network with typical small-world properties and a relatively homogeneous distribution of both interaction time and interaction partners among subjects. Computer simulations of the spread of an influenza-like disease on the weighted contact graph are in good agreement with absentee data during the most recent influenza season. Analysis of targeted immunization strategies suggested that contact network data are required to design strategies that are significantly more effective than random immunization. Immunization strategies based on contact network data were most effective at high vaccination coverage.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1009094108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285521800019

    View details for PubMedID 21149721

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3009790

  • Physically-based models of low-power wireless links using signal power simulation COMPUTER NETWORKS Rusak, T., Levis, P. 2010; 54 (4): 658-673
  • An Empirical Study of Low-Power Wireless ACM TRANSACTIONS ON SENSOR NETWORKS Srinivasan, K., Dutta, P., Tavakoli, A., Levis, P. 2010; 6 (2)
  • Granting Silence to Avoid Wireless Collisions. Choi, J. I., Jain, M., Kazandjieva, M. A., Levis, P. 2010
  • The kappa Factor: Inferring Protocol Performance Using Inter-link Reception Correlation 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking / 11th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiCom/MobiHoc) Srinivasan, K., Jain, M., Cho, J. I., Azim, T., Kim, E. S., Levis, P., Krishnamachari, B. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2010: 317–328
  • Achieving Single Channel, Full Duplex Wireless Communication. Choi, J. I., Jain, M., Srinivasan, K., Levis, P., Katti, S. 2010
  • Emerson: Scripting for Federated Virtual Worlds. Chandra, B., Cheslack-Postava, E., Mistree, B., Levis, P., Gay, D. 2010
  • Experiences in Measuring a Human Contact Network for Epidemiology Research. Kazandjieva, M., Lee, J. W., Salathe, M., Feldman, M. W., Jones, J. H., Levis, P. 2010
  • A Case for Evaluating Sensor Network Protocols Concurrently. Gnawali, O., Guibas, L., Levis, P. 2010
  • Whirlpool Routing for Mobility. Lee, J. W., Kusy, B., Azim, T., Levis, P., Shihada, B. 2010
  • The k-factor: Inferring Protocol Performance Using Inter-Link Reception Correlation. Srinivasan, K., Jain, M., Choi, J. I., Azim, T., Kim, E. S., Levis, P. 2010
  • Apprehending Joule Thieves with Cinder COMPUTER COMMUNICATION REVIEW Rumble, S. M., Stutsman, R., Levis, P., Mazieres, D., Zeldovich, N. 2010; 40 (1): 106-111
  • Scaling Virtual Worlds with a Physical Metaphor IEEE PERVASIVE COMPUTING Horn, D., Cheslack-Postava, E., Azim, T., Freedman, M. J., Levis, P. 2009; 8 (3): 50-54
  • Surviving Sensor Network Software Faults 22nd ACM SIGOPS Symposium on Operating Systems Principles Chen, Y., Gnawali, O., Kazandjieva, M., Levis, P., Regehr, J. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2009: 235–246
  • The Case for a Network Protocol Isolation Layer 7th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SENSYS) Choi, J. I., Kazandjieva, M. A., Jain, M., Levis, P. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2009: 267–280
  • Collection Tree Protocol 7th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SENSYS) Gnawali, O., Fonseca, R., Jamieson, K., Moss, D., Levis, P. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2009: 1–14
  • Energy Dumpster Diving. In Second Workshop on Power Aware Computing (HotPower) Kazandjieva, M., Heller, B., Levis, P., Kozyrakis, C. 2009
  • Burstiness and scaling in the structure of low-power wireless links. In ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review Rusak, T., Levis, P. 2009
  • TOSThreads: Thread-safe and Non-invasive Preemption in TinyOS 7th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SENSYS) Klues, K., Liang, C. M., Paek, J., Musaloiu-E, R., Levis, P., Terzis, A., Govindan, R. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2009: 127–140
  • The Case for a Network Protocol Isolation Layer. Choi, J. I., Kazandjieva, M., Jain, M., Levis, P. 2009
  • TOSThreads: Thread-Safe and Non-Invasive Preemption in TinyOS. Klues, K., Liang, C. M., Paek, J., Razvan, M., Levis, P., Terzis, A. 2009
  • Collection Tree Protocol. Gnawali, O., Fonseca, R., Jamieson, K., Moss, D., Levis, P. 2009
  • SWAT: Know Your Network 8th International Symposium on Information Processing Sensor Networks Srinivasan, K., Kazandjieva, M. A., Jain, M., Kim, E., Levis, P. IEEE. 2009: 431–432
  • Starburst SSD: An Efficient Protocol for Selective Dissemination IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2009) Azim, T., Mansoor, Q., Levis, P. IEEE. 2009: 74–79
  • Apprehending Joule Thieves with Cinder 1st ACM Workshop on Networking, Systems, and Applications for Mobile Handhelds Rumble, S. M., Stutsman, R., Levis, P., Mazieres, D., Zeldovich, N. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2009: 49–54
  • Mesh networking - Research and technology for multihop wireless networks IEEE INTERNET COMPUTING Madden, S., Levis, P. 2008; 12 (4): 9-11
  • The emergence of a networking primitive in wireless sensor networks COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM Levis, P., Brewer, E., Culler, D., Gay, D., Madden, S., Patel, N., Polastre, J., Shenker, S., Szewczyk, R., Woo, A. 2008; 51 (7): 99-106
  • Investigating a Physically-Based Signal Power Model for Robust Low Power Wireless Link Simulation 11th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems Rusak, T., Levis, P. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2008: 37–46
  • Quanto: Tracking Energy in Networked Embedded Systems. Fonseca, R., Dutta, P., Levis, P., Stoica, I. 2008
  • SWAT: Enabling Wireless Network Measurements 6th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems Srinivasan, K., Kazandjieva, M. A., Jain, M., Kim, E., Levis, P. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2008: 395–396
  • The beta-factor: Measuring Wireless Link Burstiness 6th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems Srinivasan, K., Kazandjieva, M. A., Agarwal, S., Levis, P. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2008: 29–41
  • Data discovery and dissemination with DIP 7th International Symposium on Information Processing Sensor Networks Lin, K., Levis, P. IEEE COMPUTER SOC. 2008: 433–444
  • On the Scaling Properties of Low Power Wireless Links 6th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems Rusak, T., Levis, P. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2008: 441–442
  • Software design patterns for TinyOS Conference on Languages, Compilers and Tools for Embedded Systems Gay, D., Levis, P., Culler, D. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2007
  • Four-Bit Wireless Link Estimation. Fonseca, R., Gnawali, O., Jamieson, K., Levis, P. 2007
  • Integrating Concurrency Control and Energy Management in Device Drivers. Klues, K., Handziski, V., Lu, C., Wolisz, A., Culler, D., Gay, D., Levis, P. A. 2007
  • Opening the Sensornet Black Box. Choi, J. I., Lee, J. W., Wachs, M., Levis, P. 2007
  • Flush: A Reliable Bulk Transport Protocol for Multihop Wireless Networks 5th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems Kim, S., Fonseca, R., Dutta, P., Tavakoli, A., Culler, D., Levis, P., Shenker, S., Stoica, I. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2007: 351–365
  • Visibility: A New Metric For Protocol Design 5th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems Wachs, M., Il Choi, J., Lee, J. W., Srinivasan, K., Chen, Z., Jain, M., Levis, P. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2007: 73–86
  • The Design and Implementation of a Declarative Sensor Network System 5th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems Chu, D., Popa, L., Tavakoli, A., Hellerstein, J. M., Levis, P., Shenker, S., Stoica, I. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2007: 175–188
  • Improving wireless simulation through noise modeling 6th International Symposium on Information Processing Sensor Networks Lee, H., Cerpa, A., Levis, P. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2007: 21–30
  • Interface contracts for TinyOS 6th International Symposium on Information Processing Sensor Networks Archer, W., Levis, P., Regehr, J. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2007: 158–165
  • Fair Waiting Protocol: Achieving Isolation in Wireless Sensornets 5th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems Il Choi, J., Lee, J. W., Chen, Z., Levis, P. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2007: 411–412
  • RSSI Is Under-Appreciated. Srinivasan, K., Levis, P. 2006
  • Some Implications of Low-Power Wireless to IP Routing. Srinivasan, K., Dutta, P., Tavakoli, A., Levis, P. 2006
  • Software design patterns for TinyOS Conference on Languages, Compilers and Tools for Embedded Systems Gay, D., Levis, P., Culler, D. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2005: 40–49
  • Active sensor networks 2nd Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI 05) Levis, P., Gay, D., Culler, D. USENIX ASSOC. 2005: 343–356
  • A Unifying Link Abstraction for Wireless Sensor Networks. Polastre, J., Hui, J., Levis, P., Zhao, J., Culler, D., Shenker, S. 2005
  • Towards a Sensor Network Architecture: Lowering the Waistline. Culler, D., Dutta, P., Eee, C. T., Fonseca, R., Hui, J., Levis, P. 2005
  • The Firecracker Protocol. Levis, P., Culler, D. 2004
  • The emergence of networking abstractions and techniques in TinyOS 1st Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation Levis, P., Madden, S., Gay, D., Polastre, J., Szewczyk, R., Woo, A., Brewer, E., Culler, D. USENIX ASSOC. 2004: 1–14
  • TOSSIM: Accurate and Scalable Simulation of Entire TinyOS Applications. Levis, P., Lee, N., Welsh, M., Culler, D. 2003
  • Mate: A tiny virtual machine for sensor networks ACM SIGPLAN NOTICES Levis, P., Culler, D. 2002; 37 (10): 85-95
  • Mate: A Tiny Virtual Machine for Sensor Networks. Levis, P., Culler, D. 2002
  • Policies for Dynamic Clock Scheduling. Grunwald, D., Levis, P., Morrey III, Charles, B., Neufeld, M. 2000