Co-Director, Cardiovascular Pulmonary Sciences Application (2005 - Present)
Executive Committee, Stanford Cardiovascular Institute (2010 - Present)
Honors & Awards
Established Investigator Award, American Heart Association (2008)
Fellow, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology Council of the American Heart Association (2003)
Department of Medicine Teaching Award, Stanford (2003)
PhD, Thomas Jefferson University, Cardiovascular Physiology (1991)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
Our primary interests are in understanding the molecular underpinnings of vascular disease as well as assessing disease risk. We use a wide range of biochemical, molecular and physiological techniques to make primary observations in cell systems as well as preclinical models. Furthermore, we continue to extend our findings to human subjects in order to confirm their clinical applicability. Current research projects include:
Mechanisms regulating atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm disease: While single genes can have dramatic effects in cellular biology, it is becoming increasingly clear that vascular disease (and health) is regulated by the coordinated expression of gene cassettes or pathways. By monitoring expression patterns of the entire genome simultaneously, we can begin to identify networks of genes that work in concert to affect disease progression. Moreover, this approach can often implicate specific nexus genes that are at the center of larger networks and/or participate in multiple pathways. Additionally, we are investigating the role microRNAs, a newly discovered class of small RNA molecues, in orchestrating the activity of multiple genes during the course of disease.
Role of insulin resistance: Reduced activity of the endogenous hormone, insulin, is now recognized as a cardinal feature of type 2 diabetes and an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have investigated the effects of insulin resistance in several tissues and have recently focused our attention on adipose tissue biology and how it relates to CVD. Long known as a storage vehicle for excess calories, the fat cell is now recognized to be a factory of different products that can not only affect local activity, but can circulate in the blood as hormones and regulate many biological processes. For example, we have recently reported that the novel hormone, apelin, is produced by fat tissue and has important effects upon insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes, all of which have significant implications for cardiovascular disease.
Biomarkers for risk assessment: In addition to target identification, we are applying transcriptional profiling and pathway analysis for another important aspect of cardiovascular disease management--biomarker discovery. As the name connotes, a biomarker should be a good indication of the disease state and thereby allow for early detection as well as monitoring disease progression and, hopefully, efficacy of an applied therapy. Biomarkers can encompass a wide range of molecules including DNA variants, RNA, proteins, as well as lipids. They can even encompass modalities such as molecular imaging. We are engaged in not only identifying novel biomarkers for cardiovascular disease, but also in producing algorithms that combine multiple biomarkers to optimally assess risk.
Effects of Dietary Antioxidants on Cardiovascular Risk Factors
The aim of the Antioxidant Study is to compare the efficacy of foods naturally rich in antioxidants with that of antioxidants in a pill form on markers of inflammation and plasma cholesterol in healthy adults at risk of cardiovascular disease.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Antonella Dewell, (650) 736 - 8577.
Effects of Glutathione (an Antioxidant) and N-Acetylcysteine on Inflammation
The rationale for the potential role of antioxidants in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remains strong despite the disappointing results of recent trials with a few select antioxidant vitamins. Glutathione (GSH) is one of the body's most powerful antioxidant agents but there is a surprising paucity of data on its use as an interventional therapy. Glutathione, when taken orally, is immediately broken down into its constituent amino acids, of which cysteine is the only one to be essential. Available cysteine is the critical determinant of intracellular GSH concentrations. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant supplement that has been used to provide a source of cysteine to replete GSH levels. By replenishing endogenous glutathione, it is possible that NAC would exert the same effect(s) as exogenous GSH. However, there is a new delivery system, liposomal GSH, which keeps glutathione intact. In this study, the investigators propose to match the cysteine content of NAC and GSH and compare the effects of these two supplements, at two different doses, on markers of inflammation and oxidative stress.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Antonella Dewell, (650) 736 - 8577.
Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Markers of Inflammation
The major purpose of this study is to examine the effect of two sources of dietary omega-3 fatty acids, each given at two doses, on potential health benefits related to cardiovascular disease prevention. The two sources of dietary omega-3 fatty acids will be fish oil, and flax seed oil.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Antonella Dewell, (650) 736 - 8577.
Exercise Therapy to Treat Adults With Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a weakened and enlarged area in the abdominal aorta, which is a large blood vessel in the abdomen. If an AAA ruptures, it can be life-threatening. Research has shown that sedentary individuals are at increased risk of developing AAAs. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of an exercise program at limiting the growth of small AAAs in older individuals.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Ronald Dalman, (650) 723 - 2169.
- Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Sciences Seminar
MED 223 (Aut, Win, Spr)
Independent Studies (8)
- Directed Reading in Medicine
MED 299 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Early Clinical Experience in Medicine
MED 280 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Graduate Research
BIO 300 (Sum)
- Graduate Research
MED 399 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Medical Scholars Research
MED 370 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Out-of-Department Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology
BIO 199X (Sum)
- Out-of-Department Graduate Research
BIO 300X (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Undergraduate Research
MED 199 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Directed Reading in Medicine
- Prior Year Courses
- miR-24 limits aortic vascular inflammation and murine abdominal aneurysm development NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2014; 5
Pathogenesis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: MicroRNAs, Proteases, Genetic Associations
ANNUAL REVIEW OF MEDICINE, VOL 65
2014; 65: 49-62
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease is a common, morbid, and highly lethal pathology. Extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of AAAs. Although surgery is highly effective in preventing death by rupture for larger AAAs, no guidance or preventive therapy is currently available for the >90% of patients whose aneurysms are below the surgical threshold. Predictive animal models of AAA as well as human pathological samples have revealed a complex circuit of AAA formation and progression. The proteolytic destruction of matrix components of the aorta by different proteases has been extensively studied over many years. Recently, a novel class of small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, was identified as "fine-tuners" of the translational output of target genes; they act by promoting mRNA degradation. Their therapeutic potential in limiting AAA development appears very intriguing. Further, current studies assessing genetic and heritable associations for AAA disease have provided great insight into its pathogenesis, potentially enabling us to better clinically manage affected patients.
View details for DOI 10.1146/annurev-med-101712-174206
View details for Web of Science ID 000336053000004
View details for PubMedID 24274177
MicroRNA-21 Blocks Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Development and Nicotine-Augmented Expansion
SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE
2012; 4 (122)
Identification and treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains among the most prominent challenges in vascular medicine. MicroRNAs are crucial regulators of cardiovascular pathology and represent possible targets for the inhibition of AAA expansion. We identified microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a key modulator of proliferation and apoptosis of vascular wall smooth muscle cells during development of AAA in two established murine models. In both models (AAA induced by porcine pancreatic elastase or infusion of angiotensin II), miR-21 expression increased as AAA developed. Lentiviral overexpression of miR-21 induced cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis in the aortic wall, with protective effects on aneurysm expansion. miR-21 overexpression substantially decreased expression of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein, leading to increased phosphorylation and activation of AKT, a component of a pro-proliferative and antiapoptotic pathway. Systemic injection of a locked nucleic acid-modified antagomir targeting miR-21 diminished the pro-proliferative impact of down-regulated PTEN, leading to a marked increase in the size of AAA. Similar results were seen in mice with AAA augmented by nicotine and in human aortic tissue samples from patients undergoing surgical repair of AAA (with more pronounced effects observed in smokers). Modulation of miR-21 expression shows potential as a new therapeutic option to limit AAA expansion and vascular disease progression.
View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3003441
View details for Web of Science ID 000300952100004
View details for PubMedID 22357537
Inhibition of microRNA-29b reduces murine abdominal aortic aneurysm development
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
2012; 122 (2): 497-506
MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and play crucial roles in vascular integrity. As such, they may have a role in modifying abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) expansion, the pathophysiological mechanisms of which remain incompletely explored. Here, we investigate the role of miRs in 2 murine models of experimental AAA: the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) infusion model in C57BL/6 mice and the AngII infusion model in Apoe-/- mice. AAA development was accompanied by decreased aortic expression of miR-29b, along with increased expression of known miR-29b targets, Col1a1, Col3a1, Col5a1, and Eln, in both models. In vivo administration of locked nucleic acid anti-miR-29b greatly increased collagen expression, leading to an early fibrotic response in the abdominal aortic wall and resulting in a significant reduction in AAA progression over time in both models. In contrast, overexpression of miR-29b using a lentiviral vector led to augmented AAA expansion and significant increase of aortic rupture rate. Cell culture studies identified aortic fibroblasts as the likely vascular cell type mediating the profibrotic effects of miR-29b modulation. A similar pattern of reduced miR-29b expression and increased target gene expression was observed in human AAA tissue samples compared with that in organ donor controls. These data suggest that therapeutic manipulation of miR-29b and its target genes holds promise for limiting AAA disease progression and protecting from rupture.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI61598
View details for Web of Science ID 000299765800016
View details for PubMedID 22269326
Transcriptional profiling and network analysis of the murine angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm
2011; 43 (17): 993-1003
We sought to characterize temporal gene expression changes in the murine angiotensin II (ANG II)-ApoE-/- model of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Aortic ultrasound measurements were obtained over the 28-day time-course. Harvested suprarenal aortic segments were evaluated with whole genome expression profiling at 7, 14, and 28 days using the Agilent Whole Mouse Genome microarray platform and Statistical Analysis of Microarrays at a false discovery rate of <1%. A group of angiotensin-treated mice experienced contained rupture (CR) within 7 days and were analyzed separately. Progressive aortic dilatation occurred throughout the treatment period. However, the numerous early expression differences between ANG II-treated and control were not sustained over time. Ontologic analysis revealed widespread upregulation of inflammatory, immune, and matrix remodeling genes with ANG II treatment, among other pathways such as apoptosis, cell cycling, angiogenesis, and p53 signaling. CR aneurysms displayed significant decreases in TGF-?/BMP-pathway signaling, MAPK signaling, and ErbB signaling genes vs. non-CR/ANG II-treated samples. We also performed literature-based network analysis, extracting numerous highly interconnected genes associated with aneurysm development such as Spp1, Myd88, Adam17 and Lox. 1) ANG II treatment induces extensive early differential expression changes involving abundant signaling pathways in the suprarenal abdominal aorta, particularly wide-ranging increases in inflammatory genes with aneurysm development. 2) These gene expression changes appear to dissipate with time despite continued growth, suggesting that early changes in gene expression influence disease progression in this AAA model, and that the aortic tissue adapts to prolonged ANG II infusion. 3) Network analysis identified nexus genes that may constitute aneurysm biomarkers or therapeutic targets.
View details for DOI 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00044.2011
View details for Web of Science ID 000294730000002
View details for PubMedID 21712436
MicroRNA-26a Is a Novel Regulator of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Function
JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY
2011; 226 (4): 1035-1043
Aberrant smooth muscle cell (SMC) plasticity has been implicated in a variety of vascular disorders including atherosclerosis, restenosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. While the pathways governing this process remain unclear, epigenetic regulation by specific microRNAs (miRNAs) has been demonstrated in SMCs. We hypothesized that additional miRNAs might play an important role in determining vascular SMC phenotype. Microarray analysis of miRNAs was performed on human aortic SMCs undergoing phenotypic switching in response to serum withdrawal, and identified 31 significantly regulated entities. We chose the highly conserved candidate miRNA-26a for additional studies. Inhibition of miRNA-26a accelerated SMC differentiation, and also promoted apoptosis, while inhibiting proliferation and migration. Overexpression of miRNA-26a blunted differentiation. As a potential mechanism, we investigated whether miRNA-26a influences TGF-?-pathway signaling. Dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated enhanced SMAD signaling with miRNA-26a inhibition, and the opposite effect with miRNA-26a overexpression in transfected human cells. Furthermore, inhibition of miRNA-26a increased gene expression of SMAD-1 and SMAD-4, while overexpression inhibited SMAD-1. MicroRNA-26a was also found to be downregulated in two mouse models of AAA formation (2.5- to 3.8-fold decrease, P?0.02) in which enhanced switching from contractile to synthetic phenotype occurs. In summary, miRNA-26a promotes vascular SMC proliferation while inhibiting cellular differentiation and apoptosis, and alters TGF-? pathway signaling. MicroRNA-26a represents an important new regulator of SMC biology and a potential therapeutic target in AAA disease.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jcp.22422
View details for Web of Science ID 000287258800019
View details for PubMedID 20857419
Apelin Decreases Lipolysis via G(q), G(i), and AMPK-Dependent Mechanisms
2011; 152 (1): 59-68
The release of free fatty acids (FFAs) from adipocytes (i.e. lipolysis) is increased in obesity and is a contributory factor to the development of insulin resistance. A recently identified adipokine, apelin, is up-regulated in states of obesity. Although apelin is secreted by adipocytes, its functions in them remain largely unknown. To determine whether apelin affects lipolysis, FFA, glycerol, and leptin levels, as well as abdominal adiposity, were measured at baseline and after reintroduction of exogenous apelin in apelin-null mice. To examine apelin's effects in vitro, isoproterenol-induced FFA/glycerol release, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation were investigated in 3T3-L1 cells and isolated wild-type adipocytes. Serum FFA, glycerol, and leptin concentrations, as well as abdominal adiposity, were significantly increased in apelin-null vs. wild-type mice; these changes were ameliorated in response to exogenous apelin. Apelin also reduced isoproterenol-induced FFA release in adipocytes isolated from wild-type but not APJ-null mice. In 3T3-L1 cells and isolated adipocytes, apelin attenuated isoproterenol-induced FFA/glycerol release. Apelin's inhibition was reversed by pertussis toxin, the G(q) inhibitor glycoprotein antagonist 2A, and the AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitors compound C and dorsomorphin. Apelin increased HSL phosphorylation at Ser-565 and also abrogated isoproterenol-induced HSL phosphorylation at Ser-563. Notably, apelin increased acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation, suggesting AMPK activation. In conclusion, apelin negatively regulates lipolysis. Its actions may be mediated by pathways involving G(q), G(i), and AMP-activated protein kinase.
View details for DOI 10.1210/en.2010-0576
View details for Web of Science ID 000285573000008
View details for PubMedID 21047945
Dichloroacetate prevents restenosis in preclinical animal models of vessel injury
2014; 509 (7502): 641-?
Despite the introduction of antiproliferative drug-eluting stents, coronary heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States. In-stent restenosis and bypass graft failure are characterized by excessive smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and concomitant myointima formation with luminal obliteration. Here we show that during the development of myointimal hyperplasia in human arteries, SMCs show hyperpolarization of their mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and acquire a temporary state with a high proliferative rate and resistance to apoptosis. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2 (PDK2) was identified as a key regulatory protein, and its activation proved necessary for relevant myointima formation. Pharmacologic PDK2 blockade with dichloroacetate or lentiviral PDK2 knockdown prevented ΔΨm hyperpolarization, facilitated apoptosis and reduced myointima formation in injured human mammary and coronary arteries, rat aortas, rabbit iliac arteries and swine (pig) coronary arteries. In contrast to several commonly used antiproliferative drugs, dichloroacetate did not prevent vessel re-endothelialization. Targeting myointimal ΔΨm and alleviating apoptosis resistance is a novel strategy for the prevention of proliferative vascular diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature13232
View details for Web of Science ID 000336457100053
View details for PubMedID 24747400
Hemodynamic Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species: Implications for Vascular Diseases
ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING
2014; 20 (6): 914-928
Significance: Arterial blood vessels functionally and structurally adapt to altering hemodynamic forces in order to accommodate changing needs and to provide stress homeostasis. This ability is achieved at the cellular level by converting mechanical stimulation into biochemical signals (i.e., mechanotransduction). Whereas physiological mechanical stress helps to maintain vascular structure and function, pathologic or aberrant stress may impair cellular mechano-signaling, and initiate or augment cellular processes which drive disease. Recent advances: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may represent an intriguing class of mechanically- regulated second messengers. Chronically enhanced ROS-generation may be induced by adverse mechanical stresses, and is associated with a multitude of vascular diseases. Although a causal relationship has clearly been demonstrated in large numbers of animal studies, an effective ROS-modulating therapy still remains to be established by clinical studies. Critical issues and Future directions: This review article focuses on the role of various mechanical forces (in the form of laminar shear stress, oscillatory shear stress or cyclic stretch) as modulators of ROS- driven signaling, and their subsequent effects on vascular biology and homeostasis, as well as on specific diseases such as arteriosclerosis, hypertension and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Specifically, it highlights the significance of the various NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoforms as critical ROS generators in the vasculature. Directed targeting of defined components in the complex network of ROS (mechano)signaling may represent a key for successful translation of experimental findings into clinical practice.
View details for DOI 10.1089/ars.2013.5507
View details for Web of Science ID 000331289900006
MicroRNA-29b regulation of abdominal aortic aneurysm development
TRENDS IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE
2014; 24 (1): 1-6
Tremendous efforts have been initiated to elucidate the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease, which is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Recently, a novel class of small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, was identified as important transcriptional and posttranscriptional inhibitors of gene expression thought to simultaneously "fine tune" the translational output of multiple target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. Several research groups were able to identify the miR-29 family, and miR-29b in particular, as crucial regulators of-not only vascular fibrosis-but also cardiac-, kidney-, liver-, and skin-fibrosis. The current review briefly points out data indicating a causal role for miR-29 in various diseases, while focusing on its potential benefit during AAA initiation and propagation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tcm.2013.05.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000329384000001
View details for PubMedID 23871588
Micromanaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
2013; 14 (7): 14374-14394
The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to "fine tune" the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility.
View details for DOI 10.3390/ijms140714374
View details for Web of Science ID 000322171700085
Measurement of insulin-mediated glucose uptake: Direct comparison of the modified insulin suppression test and the euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2013; 62 (4): 548-553
Two direct measurements of peripheral insulin sensitivity are the M value derived from the euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp (EC) and the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration derived from the insulin suppression test (IST). Prior work suggests that these measures are highly correlated, but the agreement between them is unknown. To determine the agreement between SSPG and M and to develop transformation equations to convert SSPG to M and vice versa, we directly compared these two measurements in the same individuals.A total of 15 nondiabetic subjects (9 women and 6 men) underwent both an EC and a modified version of the IST within a median interval of 5days. We performed standard correlation metrics of the two measures and developed transformation regression equations for the two measures.The mean±SD age of the subjects was 57±7years and body mass index, 27.7±3.9kg/m(2). The median (interquartile range) SSPG concentration was 6.7 (5.1, 9.8) mmol/L and M value, 49.6 (28.9, 64.2) μmol/min/kg-LBM. There was a highly significant correlation between SSPG and M (r=-0.87, P <0.001). The relationship was best fit by regression models with exponential/logarithmic functions (R(2)=0.85). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated an excellent agreement between these measures of insulin action.The SSPG and M are highly related measures of insulin sensitivity and the results provide the means to directly compare the two measurements.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.metabol.2012.10.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000317530800010
MicroRNAs in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.
Current vascular pharmacology
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are an important source of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. Treatment options are limited, with open surgery or endovascular repair remaining the only curative treatments. Classical cardiovascular medications have generally failed to prevent or significantly alter AAA formation or progression. Therefore, there is a tremendous need for better therapeutic approaches. With increasing knowledge of microRNA (miR) regulation in the context of cardiovascular disease, and with improving technical options permitting alteration of miR-expression levels in vitro and in vivo, we are offered a glimpse into the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of using miRs to treat vascular pathobiology. This review focuses on the role of miRs in aneurysmal disease of the abdominal aorta, summarizing recent publications regarding this topic, and outlining known effects of relevant miRs in AAA formation, including miR-21 and miR-29b. Despite there being only limited studies available, several other miRs also display clear potential for alteration of the disease process including miR-26a, the miR-17-92-cluster, miRs-221/222, miR-133 and miR-146a. While studies have shown that miRs can regulate the activity and interplay of vascular inflammatory cells, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, all key elements leading to AAA formation, much work remains to be done.
View details for PubMedID 23713862
- Loss of CDKN2B Promotes p53-Dependent Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis and Aneurysm Formation ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY 2013; 33 (1): E1-?
Loss of CDKN2B promotes p53-dependent smooth muscle cell apoptosis and aneurysm formation.
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
2013; 33 (1): e1-e10
Genomewide association studies have implicated allelic variation at 9p21.3 in multiple forms of vascular disease, including atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm. As for other genes at 9p21.3, human expression quantitative trait locus studies have associated expression of the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2B with the risk haplotype, but its potential role in vascular pathobiology remains unclear.Here we used vascular injury models and found that Cdkn2b knockout mice displayed the expected increase in proliferation after injury, but developed reduced neointimal lesions and larger aortic aneurysms. In situ and in vitro studies suggested that these effects were attributable to increased smooth muscle cell apoptosis. Adoptive bone marrow transplant studies confirmed that the observed effects of Cdkn2b were mediated through intrinsic vascular cells and were not dependent on bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells. Mechanistic studies suggested that the observed increase in apoptosis was attributable to a reduction in MDM2 and an increase in p53 signaling, possibly due in part to compensation by other genes at the 9p21.3 locus. Dual inhibition of both Cdkn2b and p53 led to a reversal of the vascular phenotype in each model.These results suggest that reduced CDKN2B expression and increased smooth muscle cell apoptosis may be one mechanism underlying the 9p21.3 association with aneurysmal disease.
View details for DOI 10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300399
View details for PubMedID 23162013
Prospective Transcriptomic Pathway Analysis of Human Lymphatic Vascular Insufficiency: Identification and Validation of a Circulating Biomarker Panel
2012; 7 (12)
In our previous transcriptional profiling of a murine model, we have identified a remarkably small number of specific pathways with altered expression in lymphedema. In this investigation, we utilized microarray-based transcriptomics of human skin for an unbiased a priori prospective candidate identification, with subsequent validation of these candidates through direct serum assay. The resulting multi-analyte biomarker panel sensitively should sensitively discriminate human lymphedema subjects from normal individuals.We enrolled 63 lymphedema subjects and 27 normals in our attempt to discover protein analytes that can distinguish diseased individuals from controls. To minimize technical and biologically irrelevant variation, we first identified potential candidates by performing transcriptional microarray analysis on paired diseased and normal skin specimens sampled from the same individuals. We focused our attention on genes with corresponding protein products that are secreted and took these candidates forward to a protein multiplex assay applied to diseased and normal subjects. We developed a logistic regression-based model on an eventual group of six proteins and validated our system on a separate cohort of study subjects. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated to be 0.87 (95% CI : 0.75 to 0.97).We have developed an accurate bioassay utilizing proteins representing four central pathogenetic modalities of the disease: lymphangiogenesis, inflammation, fibrosis, and lipid metabolism, suggesting that these proteins are directly related to the pathogenesis of the tissue pathology in lymphatic vascular insufficiency. Further studies are warranted to determine whether this newly-identified biomarker panel will possess utility as an instrument for in vitro diagnosis of early and latent disease; the ultimate applicability to risk stratification, quantitation of disease burden, and response to therapy can easily be envisioned.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0052021
View details for Web of Science ID 000312483300046
View details for PubMedID 23272198
Coronary risk assessment among intermediate risk patients using a clinical and biomarker based algorithm developed and validated in two population cohorts
CURRENT MEDICAL RESEARCH AND OPINION
2012; 28 (11): 1819-1830
Many coronary heart disease (CHD) events occur in individuals classified as intermediate risk by commonly used assessment tools. Over half the individuals presenting with a severe cardiac event, such as myocardial infarction (MI), have at most one risk factor as included in the widely used Framingham risk assessment. Individuals classified as intermediate risk, who are actually at high risk, may not receive guideline recommended treatments. A clinically useful method for accurately predicting 5-year CHD risk among intermediate risk patients remains an unmet medical need.This study sought to develop a CHD Risk Assessment (CHDRA) model that improves 5-year risk stratification among intermediate risk individuals.Assay panels for biomarkers associated with atherosclerosis biology (inflammation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, chemotaxis, etc.) were optimized for measuring baseline serum samples from 1084 initially CHD-free Marshfield Clinic Personalized Medicine Research Project (PMRP) individuals. A multivariable Cox regression model was fit using the most powerful risk predictors within the clinical and protein variables identified by repeated cross-validation. The resulting CHDRA algorithm was validated in a Multiple-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) case-cohort sample.A CHDRA algorithm of age, sex, diabetes, and family history of MI, combined with serum levels of seven biomarkers (CTACK, Eotaxin, Fas Ligand, HGF, IL-16, MCP-3, and sFas) yielded a clinical net reclassification index of 42.7% (p?0.001) for MESA patients with a recalibrated Framingham 5-year intermediate risk level. Across all patients, the model predicted acute coronary events (hazard ratio?=?2.17, p?0.001), and remained an independent predictor after Framingham risk factor adjustments.These include the slightly different event definition with the MESA samples and inability to include PMRP fatal CHD events.A novel risk score of serum protein levels plus clinical risk factors, developed and validated in independent cohorts, demonstrated clinical utility for assessing the true risk of CHD events in intermediate risk patients. Improved accuracy in cardiovascular risk classification could lead to improved preventive care and fewer deaths.
View details for DOI 10.1185/03007995.2012.742878
View details for Web of Science ID 000310985600009
View details for PubMedID 23092312
Wall shear stress is decreased in the pulmonary arteries of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: An image-based, computational fluid dynamics study.
2012; 2 (4): 470-476
Previous clinical studies in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have concentrated predominantly on distal pulmonary vascular resistance, its contribution to the disease process, and response to therapy. However, it is well known that biomechanical factors such as shear stress have an impact on endothelial health and dysfunction in other parts of the vasculature. This study tested the hypothesis that wall shear stress is reduced in the proximal pulmonary arteries of PAH patients with the belief that reduced shear stress may contribute to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction and as a result, PAH progression. A combined MRI and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was used to construct subject-specific pulmonary artery models and quantify flow features and wall shear stress (WSS) in five PAH patients with moderate-to-severe disease and five age- and sex-matched controls. Three-dimensional model reconstruction showed PAH patients have significantly larger main, right, and left pulmonary artery diameters (3.5 ± 0.4 vs. 2.7 ± 0.1 cm, P = 0.01; 2.5 ± 0.4 vs. 1.9 ± 0.2 cm, P = 0.04; and 2.6 ± 0.4 vs. 2.0 ± 0.2 cm, P = 0.01, respectively), and lower cardiac output (3.7 ± 1.2 vs. 5.8 ± 0.6 L/min, P = 0.02.). CFD showed significantly lower time-averaged central pulmonary artery WSS in PAH patients compared to controls (4.3 ± 2.8 vs. 20.5 ± 4.0 dynes/cm(2), P = 0.0004). Distal WSS was not significantly different. A novel method of measuring WSS was utilized to demonstrate for the first time that WSS is altered in some patients with PAH. Using computational modeling in patient-specific models, WSS was found to be significantly lower in the proximal pulmonary arteries of PAH patients compared to controls. Reduced WSS in proximal pulmonary arteries may play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of PAH. This data may serve as a basis for future in vitro studies of, for example, effects of WSS on gene expression.
View details for DOI 10.4103/2045-8932.105035
View details for PubMedID 23372931
In vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies on apelin's effect on myocardial glucose uptake
2012; 37 (2): 320-326
Apelin is an endogenous peptide hormone recently implicated in glucose homeostasis. However, whether apelin affects glucose uptake in myocardial tissue remains undetermined. In this study, we utilized in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro methods to study apelin's effect on myocardial glucose uptake. Pyroglutamated apelin-13 (2mg/kg/day) was administered to C57BL6/J mice for 7 days. In vivo myocardial glucose uptake was measured by FDG-PET scanning, and GLUT4 translocation was assessed by immunofluorescence imaging. For in vitro studies, differentiated H9C2 cardiomyoblasts were exposed to pyroglutamated apelin-13 (100 nM) for 2h. To test their involvement in apelin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake, the energy sensing protein kinase AMPK were inhibited by pharmacologic inhibition (compound C) and RNA interference. IRS-1 phosphorylation was assessed by western blotting using an antibody directed against IRS-1 Ser-789-phosphorylated form. We found that apelin increased myocardial glucose uptake and GLUT4 membrane translocation in C57BL6/J mice. Apelin was also sufficient to increase glucose uptake in H9C2 cells. Apelin-mediated glucose uptake was significantly decreased by AMPK inhibition. Finally, apelin increased IRS-1 Ser-789 phosphorylation in an AMPK-dependent manner. The results of our study demonstrated that apelin increases myocardial glucose uptake through a pathway involving AMPK. Apelin also facilitates IRS-1 Ser-789 phosphorylation, suggesting a novel mechanism for its effects on glucose uptake.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.peptides.2012.08.004
View details for Web of Science ID 000310047700020
View details for PubMedID 22906703
Vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic plasticity: focus on chromatin remodelling
2012; 95 (2): 147-155
Differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) retain the capacity to modify their phenotype in response to inflammation or injury. This phenotypic switching is a crucial component of vascular disease, and is partly dependent on epigenetic regulation. An appreciation has been building in the literature for the essential role chromatin remodelling plays both in SMC lineage determination and in influencing changes in SMC behaviour and state. This process includes numerous chromatin regulatory elements and pathways such as histone acetyltransferases, deacetylases, and methyltransferases and other factors that act at SMC-specific marker sites to silence or permit access to the cellular transcriptional machinery and on other key regulatory elements such as myocardin and Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). Various stimuli known to alter the SMC phenotype, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), oxidized phospholipids, and retinoic acid, appear to act in part through effects upon SMC chromatin structure. In recent years, specific covalent histone modifications that appear to establish SMC determinacy have been identified, while others alter the differentiation state. In this article, we review the mechanisms of chromatin remodelling as it applies to the SMC phenotype.
View details for DOI 10.1093/cvr/cvs098
View details for Web of Science ID 000306141100004
View details for PubMedID 22362814
- Human Internal Mammary Artery (IMA) Transplantation and Stenting: A Human Model to Study the Development of In-Stent Restenosis JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS 2012
Three-Dimensional Microstructural Changes in Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Quantified Using Immunofluorescent Array Tomography
JOURNAL OF HISTOCHEMISTRY & CYTOCHEMISTRY
2012; 60 (2): 97-109
This study investigated the spatial and temporal remodeling of blood vessel wall microarchitecture and cellular morphology during abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development using immunofluorescent array tomography (IAT), a high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) microscopy technology, in the murine model. Infrarenal aortas of C57BL6 mice (N=20) were evaluated at 0, 7, and 28 days after elastase or heat-inactivated elastase perfusion. Custom algorithms quantified volume fractions (VF) of elastin, smooth muscle cell (SMC) actin, and adventitial collagen type I, as well as elastin thickness, elastin fragmentation, non-adventitial wall thickness, and nuclei amount. The 3D renderings depicted elastin and collagen type I degradation and SMC morphological changes. Elastin VF decreased 37.5% (p<0.01), thickness decreased 48.9%, and fragmentation increased 449.7% (p<0.001) over 28 days. SMC actin VF decreased 78.3% (p<0.001) from days 0 to 7 and increased 139.7% (p<0.05) from days 7 to 28. Non-adventitial wall thickness increased 61.1%, medial nuclei amount increased 159.1% (p<0.01), and adventitial collagen type I VF decreased 64.1% (p<0.001) over 28 days. IAT and custom image analysis algorithms have enabled robust quantification of vessel wall content, microstructure, and organization to help elucidate the dynamics of vascular remodeling during AAA development.
View details for DOI 10.1369/0022155411433066
View details for Web of Science ID 000299481300001
View details for PubMedID 22140132
miR-29b Participates in Early Aneurysm Development in Marfan Syndrome
2012; 110 (2): 312-?
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic connective tissue disorder notable for the development of aortic root aneurysms and the subsequent life-threatening complications of aortic dissection and rupture. Underlying fibrillin-1 gene mutations cause increased transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling. Although TGF-? blockade prevents aneurysms in MFS mouse models, the mechanisms through which excessive TGF-? causes aneurysms remain ill-defined.We investigated the role of microRNA-29b (miR-29b) in aneurysm formation in MFS.Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we discovered that miR-29b, a microRNA regulating apoptosis and extracellular matrix synthesis/deposition genes, is increased in the ascending aorta of Marfan (Fbn1(C1039G/+)) mice. Increased apoptosis, assessed by increased cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and decreased levels of the antiapoptotic proteins, Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, were found in the Fbn1(C1039G/+) aorta. Histological evidence of decreased and fragmented elastin was observed exclusively in the Fbn1(C1039G/+) ascending aorta in association with repressed elastin mRNA and increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and activity, both targets of miR-29b. Evidence of decreased activation of nuclear factor ?B, a repressor of miR-29b, and a factor suppressed by TGF-?, was also observed in Fbn1(C1039G/+) aorta. Furthermore, administration of a nuclear factor ?B inhibitor increased miR-29b levels, whereas TGF-? blockade or losartan effectively decreased miR-29b levels in Fbn1(C1039G/+) mice. Finally, miR-29b blockade by locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides prevented early aneurysm development, aortic wall apoptosis, and extracellular matrix deficiencies.We identify increased miR-29b expression as key to the pathogenesis of early aneurysm development in MFS by regulating aortic wall apoptosis and extracellular matrix abnormalities.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.253740
View details for Web of Science ID 000299432600015
View details for PubMedID 22116819
Human internal mammary artery (IMA) transplantation and stenting: a human model to study the development of in-stent restenosis.
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE
Preclinical in vivo research models to investigate pathobiological and pathophysiological processes in the development of intimal hyperplasia after vessel stenting are crucial for translational approaches (1,2). The commonly used animal models include mice, rats, rabbits, and pigs (3-5). However, the translation of these models into clinical settings remains difficult, since those biological processes are already studied in animal vessels but never performed before in human research models (6,7). In this video we demonstrate a new humanized model to overcome this translational gap. The shown procedure is reproducible, easy, and fast to perform and is suitable to study the development of intimal hyperplasia and the applicability of diverse stents. This video shows how to perform the stent technique in human vessels followed by transplantation into immunodeficient rats, and identifies the origin of proliferating cells as human.
View details for DOI 10.3791/3663
View details for PubMedID 22617624
Low- and High-Dose Plant and Marine (n-3) Fatty Acids Do Not Affect Plasma Inflammatory Markers in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome
JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
2011; 141 (12): 2166-2171
Chronic inflammation is considered to play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Various (n-3) fatty acids (FA) have been reported to have antiinflammatory effects, but there is a lack of consensus in this area, particularly in regard to optimal source(s) and dose(s). This study aimed to determine the effects of high and low doses of (n-3) FA from plant and marine sources on plasma inflammatory marker concentrations. One-hundred adults with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to a low or high dose of plant- (2.2 or 6.6 g/d ?-linolenic acid) or marine- (1.2 or 3.6 g/d EPA and DHA) derived (n-3) FA or placebo for 8 wk, using a parallel arm design (n = 20/arm). Fasting blood samples collected at 0, 4, and 8 wk were analyzed for concentrations of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-6, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and for cardiovascular risk factors. Baseline concentrations across all 5 groups combined were (mean ± SD) 103 ± 32 ng/L for MCP-1, 1.06 ± 0.56 ng/L for IL-6, and 0.197 ± 0.041 ng/L for sICAM-1. There were no significant differences in 8-wk changes in plasma inflammatory marker concentrations among the 5 groups. Plasma TG and blood pressure decreased significantly more and the LDL cholesterol concentration increased more in the high-dose fish oil group compared to the 8-wk changes in some of the other 4 groups (P ? 0.04). In conclusion, no beneficial effects were detected for any of the 3 inflammatory markers investigated in response to (n-3) FA in adults with metabolic syndrome regardless of dose or source.
View details for DOI 10.3945/jn.111.142240
View details for Web of Science ID 000297387200011
View details for PubMedID 22031659
In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Expression in Vascular Inflammation
MOLECULAR IMAGING AND BIOLOGY
2011; 13 (6): 1061-1066
Inflammation plays a critical role in atherosclerosis and is associated with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We studied bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to track iNOS gene expression in a murine model of vascular inflammation.Macrophage-rich vascular lesions were induced by carotid ligation plus high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetes in 18 iNOS-luc reporter mice. In vivo iNOS expression was imaged serially by BLI over 14 days, followed by in situ BLI and histology.BLI signal from ligated carotids increased over 14 days (9.7 ± 4.4 × 10(3 ) vs. 4.4 ± 1.7 × 10(3) photons/s/cm(2)/sr at baseline, p < 0.001 vs. baseline, p < 0.05 vs. sham controls). Histology confirmed substantial macrophage infiltration, with iNOS and luciferase expression, only in ligated left carotid arteries and not controls.BLI allows in vivo detection of iNOS expression in murine carotid lesions and may provide a valuable approach for monitoring vascular gene expression and inflammation in small animal models.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-010-0451-5
View details for Web of Science ID 000296794400002
View details for PubMedID 21057879
Immunobiology of naive and genetically modified HLA-class-I-knockdown human embryonic stem cells
JOURNAL OF CELL SCIENCE
2011; 124 (17): 3029-3037
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can serve as a universal cell source for emerging cell or tissue replacement strategies, but immune rejection of hESC derivatives remains an unsolved problem. Here, we sought to describe the mechanisms of rejection for naïve hESCs and upon HLA class I (HLA I) knockdown (hESC(KD)). hESCs were HLA I-positive but negative for HLA II and co-stimulatory molecules. Transplantation of naïve hESC into immunocompetent Balb/c mice induced substantial T helper cell 1 and 2 (Th1 and Th2) responses with rapid cell death, but hESCs survived in immunodeficient SCID-beige recipients. Histology revealed mainly macrophages and T cells, but only scattered natural killer (NK) cells. A surge of hESC-specific antibodies against hESC class I, but not class II antigens, was observed. Using HLA I RNA interference and intrabody technology, HLA I surface expression of hESC(KD) was 88%-99% reduced. T cell activation after hESC(KD) transplantation into Balb/c was significantly diminished, antibody production was substantially alleviated, the levels of graft-infiltrating immune cells were reduced and the survival of hESC(KD) was prolonged. Because of their very low expression of stimulatory NK ligands, NK-susceptibility of naïve hESCs and hESC(KD) was negligible. Thus, HLA I recognition by T cells seems to be the primary mechanism of hESC recognition, and T cells, macrophages and hESC-specific antibodies participate in hESC killing.
View details for DOI 10.1242/jcs.087718
View details for Web of Science ID 000294419200015
View details for PubMedID 21878509
Apelin and insulin resistance: Another arrow for the quiver?
JOURNAL OF DIABETES
2011; 3 (3): 225-231
Apelin is a newly discovered peptide hormone that has recently been linked to insulin resistance and obesity. Data collected from both the clinical and basic research settings show that apelin: (i) is correlated with the states of insulin resistance and obesity; (ii) stimulates glucose utilization; (iii) decreases insulin secretion; and (iv) negatively regulates catecholamine-mediated lipolysis. These and other lines of evidence demonstrate that apelin may be a potentially viable candidate in the search for treatments for Type 2 diabetes and the insulin resistance (metabolic syndrome). The present review summarizes the literature on the regulation by apelin of glucose and lipid metabolism and the signaling pathways involved.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1753-0407.2011.00132.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000307064700009
View details for PubMedID 21631898
Detecting Drug Interactions From Adverse-Event Reports: Interaction Between Paroxetine and Pravastatin Increases Blood Glucose Levels
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS
2011; 90 (1): 133-142
The lipid-lowering agent pravastatin and the antidepressant paroxetine are among the most widely prescribed drugs in the world. Unexpected interactions between them could have important public health implications. We mined the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) for side-effect profiles involving glucose homeostasis and found a surprisingly strong signal for comedication with pravastatin and paroxetine. We retrospectively evaluated changes in blood glucose in 104 patients with diabetes and 135 without diabetes who had received comedication with these two drugs, using data in electronic medical record (EMR) systems of three geographically distinct sites. We assessed the mean random blood glucose levels before and after treatment with the drugs. We found that pravastatin and paroxetine, when administered together, had a synergistic effect on blood glucose. The average increase was 19 mg/dl (1.0 mmol/l) overall, and in those with diabetes it was 48 mg/dl (2.7 mmol/l). In contrast, neither drug administered singly was associated with such changes in glucose levels. An increase in glucose levels is not a general effect of combined therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and statins.
View details for DOI 10.1038/clpt.2011.83
View details for Web of Science ID 000291853800023
View details for PubMedID 21613990
- The Use of Immunofluorescent Array Tomography to Study the Three-Dimensional Microstructure of Murine Blood Vessels CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOENGINEERING 2011; 4 (2): 311-323
Influences of Aortic Motion and Curvature on Vessel Expansion in Murine Experimental Aneurysms
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY
2011; 31 (2): 270-U102
To quantitatively compare aortic curvature and motion with resulting aneurysm location, direction of expansion, and pathophysiological features in experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs).MRI was performed at 4.7 T with the following parameters: (1) 3D acquisition for vessel geometry and (2) 2D cardiac-gated acquisition to quantify luminal motion. Male 24-week-old mice were imaged before and after AAA formation induced by angiotensin II (AngII)-filled osmotic pump implantation or infusion of elastase. AngII-induced AAAs formed near the location of maximum abdominal aortic curvature, and the leftward direction of expansion was correlated with the direction of suprarenal aortic motion. Elastase-induced AAAs formed in a region of low vessel curvature and had no repeatable direction of expansion. AngII significantly increased mean blood pressure (22.7 mm Hg, P<0.05), whereas both models showed a significant 2-fold decrease in aortic cyclic strain (P<0.05). Differences in patterns of elastin degradation and localization of fluorescent signal from protease-activated probes were also observed.The direction of AngII aneurysm expansion correlated with the direction of motion, medial elastin dissection, and adventitial remodeling. Anterior infrarenal aortic motion correlated with medial elastin degradation in elastase-induced aneurysms. Results from both models suggest a relationship between aneurysm pathological features and aortic geometry and motion.
View details for DOI 10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.216481
View details for Web of Science ID 000286376800010
View details for PubMedID 21071686
Human ferritin cages for imaging vascular macrophages
2011; 32 (5): 1430-1437
Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. Macrophages are key components of vascular inflammation, which contributes to the development and complications of atherosclerosis. Ferritin, an iron storage and transport protein, has been found to accumulate in macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. We hypothesized that ferritin could serve as an intrinsic nano-platform to target delivery of imaging agents to vascular macrophages to detect high-risk atherosclerotic plaques. Here we show that engineered human ferritin protein cages, either conjugated to the fluorescent Cy5.5 molecule or encapsulating a magnetite nanoparticle, are taken up in vivo by macrophages in murine atherosclerotic carotid arteries and can be imaged by fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging. These results indicate that human ferritin can serve as a nanoparticle platform to image vascular inflammation in vivo.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.09.029
View details for Web of Science ID 000287073000020
View details for PubMedID 21074263
Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR-II) Antagonist Reduces Body Weight Gain in Mice.
Journal of nutrition and metabolism
2011; 2011: 235389-?
Previous research has shown that mifepristone can prevent and reverse weight gain in animals and human subjects taking antipsychotic medications. This proof-of-concept study tested whether a more potent and selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist could block dietary-induced weight gain and increase insulin sensitivity in mice. Ten-week-old, male, C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet containing 60% fat calories and water supplemented with 11% sucrose for 4 weeks. Groups (n = 8) received one of the following: CORT 108297 (80?mg/kg QD), CORT 108297 (40?mg/kg BID), mifepristone (30?mg/kg BID), rosiglitazone (10?mg/kg QD), or vehicle. Compared to mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus vehicle, mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus either mifepristone or CORT 108297 gained significantly less weight. At the end of the four week treatment period, mice receiving CORT 108297 40?mg/kg BID or CORT 108297 80?mg/kg QD also had significantly lower steady plasma glucose than mice receiving vehicle. However, steady state plasma glucose after treatment was not highly correlated with reduced weight gain, suggesting that the effect of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist on insulin sensitivity may be independent of its mitigating effect on weight gain.
View details for DOI 10.1155/2011/235389
View details for PubMedID 21811679
Three-Dimensional Hemodynamics in the Human Pulmonary Arteries Under Resting and Exercise Conditions
ANNALS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
2011; 39 (1): 347-358
The biomechanical forces associated with blood flow have been shown to play a role in pulmonary vascular cell health and disease. Therefore, the quantification of human pulmonary artery hemodynamic conditions under resting and exercise states can be useful in investigating the physiology of disease development and treatment outcomes. In this study, a combined magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics approach was used to quantify pulsatile flow fields, wall shear stress (WSS), oscillations in WSS (OSI), and energy efficiency in six subject-specific models of the human pulmonary vasculature with high spatial and temporal resolution. Averaging over all subjects, WSS was found to increase from 19.8±4.0 to 51.8±6.7 dynes/cm2, and OSI was found to decrease from 0.094±0.016 to 0.081±0.015 in the proximal pulmonary arteries between rest and exercise conditions (p<0.05). These findings demonstrate the localized, biomechanical effects of exercise. Furthermore, an average decrease of 10% in energy efficiency was noted between rest and exercise. These data indicate the amount of energy dissipation that typically occurs with exercise and may be useful in future surgical planning applications.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10439-010-0124-1
View details for Web of Science ID 000287213100030
View details for PubMedID 20640512
Assessment of Elastase-Induced Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Comparison of Ultrasound Imaging with In Situ Video Microscopy
JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICINE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
The aim of this study was to definitively assess the validity of noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound (US) measurements of aortic luminal diameter (ALD) in a murine model of elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison with in situ video microscopy (VM).C57BL/6 mice underwent transient perfusion of the aorta with either elastase (n = 20: Elastase group) or saline (n = 10: Sham). Unoperated mice (n = 10) were also studied.ALD measurements by US had excellent linear correlation and absolute agreement with that by VM in both Control (unoperated or sham-operated mice) and elastase groups (r = 0.96, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.88 and r = 0.93, ICC = 0.92, resp.). Bland-Altman analysis of US compared with VM measurements in both groups indicated good agreement, however US measurements were slightly but significantly higher than VM measurements in the control group (mean bias 0.039?mm, P < .05). Linear regression analysis revealed excellent correlation between US and VM measurements in both groups. (R² = 0.91 in Control group, R² = 0.85 in elastase group.) The reliability of US measurements was also confirmed by ex vivo histological measurements.High-frequency US provides reliable ALD measurements in developing murine abdominal aortic aneurysms.
View details for DOI 10.1155/2011/252141
View details for Web of Science ID 000289091200001
View details for PubMedID 21331328
Chromatin Remodeling Pathways in Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation, and Evidence for an Integral Role for p300
2010; 5 (12)
Phenotypic alteration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to injury or inflammation is an essential component of vascular disease. Evidence suggests that this process is dependent on epigenetic regulatory processes. P300, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), activates crucial muscle-specific promoters in terminal (non-SMC) myocyte differentiation, and may be essential to SMC modulation as well.We performed a subanalysis examining transcriptional time-course microarray data obtained using the A404 model of SMC differentiation. Numerous chromatin remodeling genes (up to 62% of such genes on our array platform) showed significant regulation during differentiation. Members of several chromatin-remodeling families demonstrated involvement, including factors instrumental in histone modification, chromatin assembly-disassembly and DNA silencing, suggesting complex, multi-level systemic epigenetic regulation. Further, trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, accelerated expression of SMC differentiation markers in this model. Ontology analysis indicated a high degree of p300 involvement in SMC differentiation, with 60.7% of the known p300 interactome showing significant expression changes. Knockdown of p300 expression accelerated SMC differentiation in A404 cells and human SMCs, while inhibition of p300 HAT activity blunted SMC differentiation. The results suggest a central but complex role for p300 in SMC phenotypic modulation.Our results support the hypothesis that chromatin remodeling is important for SMC phenotypic switching, and detail wide-ranging involvement of several epigenetic modification families. Additionally, the transcriptional coactivator p300 may be partially degraded during SMC differentiation, leaving an activated subpopulation with increased HAT activity and SMC differentiation-gene specificity.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0014301
View details for Web of Science ID 000285246900013
View details for PubMedID 21179216
In Vivo Quantification of Murine Aortic Cyclic Strain, Motion, and Curvature: Implications for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Growth
JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
2010; 32 (4): 847-858
To develop methods to quantify cyclic strain, motion, and curvature of the murine abdominal aorta in vivo.C57BL/6J and apoE(-/-) mice underwent three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight MR angiography to position cardiac-gated 2D slices at four locations along the abdominal aorta where circumferential cyclic strain and lumen centroid motion were calculated. From the 3D data, a centerline through the aorta was created to quantify geometric curvature at 0.1-mm intervals. Medial elastin content was quantified with histology postmortem. The location and shape of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), created from angiotensin II infusion, were evaluated qualitatively.Strain waveforms were similar at all locations and between groups. Centroid motion was significantly larger and more leftward above the renal vessels than below (P < 0.05). Maximum geometric curvature occurred slightly proximal to the right renal artery. Elastin content was similar around the circumference of the vessel. AAAs developed in the same location as the maximum curvature and grew in the same direction as vessel curvature and motion.The methods presented provide temporally and spatially resolved data quantifying murine aortic motion and curvature in vivo. This noninvasive methodology will allow serial quantification of how these parameters influence the location and direction of AAA growth.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.22331
View details for Web of Science ID 000282764800010
View details for PubMedID 20882615
Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats
DIABETES & VASCULAR DISEASE RESEARCH
2010; 7 (4): 311-318
We recently reported that a preponderance of small adipose cells, decreased expression of cell differentiation markers, and enhanced inflammatory activity in human subcutaneous whole adipose tissue were associated with insulin resistance. To test the hypothesis that small adipocytes exhibited these differential properties, we characterised small adipocytes from epididymal adipose tissue of Zucker Obese (ZO) and Lean (ZL) rats. Rat epididymal fat pads were removed and adipocytes isolated by collagenase digestion. Small adipocytes were separated by sequential filtration through nylon meshes. Adipocytes were fixed in osmium tetroxide for cell size distribution analysis via Beckman Coulter Multisizer. Quantitative real-time PCR for cell differentiation and inflammatory genes was performed. Small adipocytes represented a markedly greater percentage of the total adipocyte population in ZO than ZL rats (58±4% vs. 12±3%, p<0.001). In ZO rats, small as compared with total adipocytes had 4-fold decreased adiponectin, and 4-fold increased visfatin and IL-6 levels. Comparison of small adipocytes in ZO versus ZL rats revealed 3-fold decreased adiponectin and PPAR? levels, and 2.5-fold increased IL-6. In conclusion, ZO rat adipose tissue harbours a large proportion of small adipocytes that manifest impaired cell differentiation and pro-inflammatory activity, two mechanisms by which small adipocytes may contribute to insulin resistance.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1479164110386126
View details for Web of Science ID 000285080700008
View details for PubMedID 20961992
Pioglitazone Increases the Proportion of Small Cells in Human Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue
2010; 18 (5): 926-931
Rodent and in vitro studies suggest that thiazolidinediones promote adipogenesis but there are few studies in humans to corroborate these findings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pioglitazone stimulates adipogenesis in vivo and whether this process relates to improved insulin sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, 12 overweight/obese nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals underwent biopsy of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue at baseline and after 12 weeks of pioglitazone treatment. Cell size distribution was determined via the Multisizer technique. Insulin sensitivity was quantified at baseline and postpioglitazone by the modified insulin suppression test. Regional fat depots were quantified by computed tomography (CT). Insulin resistance (steady-state plasma insulin and glucose (SSPG)) decreased following pioglitazone (P < 0.001). There was an increase in the ratio of small-to-large cells (1.16 +/- 0.44 vs. 1.52 +/- 0.66, P = 0.03), as well as a 25% increase in the absolute number of small cells (P = 0.03). The distribution of large cell diameters widened (P = 0.009), but diameter did not increase in the case of small cells. The increase in proportion of small cells was associated with the degree to which insulin resistance improved (r = -0.72, P = 0.012). Visceral abdominal fat decreased (P = 0.04), and subcutaneous abdominal (P = 0.03) and femoral fat (P = 0.004) increased significantly. Changes in fat volume were not associated with SSPG change. These findings demonstrate a clear effect of pioglitazone on human subcutaneous adipose cells, suggestive of adipogenesis in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, as well as redistribution of fat from visceral to subcutaneous depots, highlighting a potential mechanism of action for thiazolidinediones. These findings support the hypothesis that defects in subcutaneous fat storage may underlie obesity-associated insulin resistance.
View details for DOI 10.1038/oby.2009.380
View details for Web of Science ID 000277234800013
View details for PubMedID 19910937
Using Pre-existing Microarray Datasets to Increase Experimental Power: Application to Insulin Resistance
PLOS COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY
2010; 6 (3)
Although they have become a widely used experimental technique for identifying differentially expressed (DE) genes, DNA microarrays are notorious for generating noisy data. A common strategy for mitigating the effects of noise is to perform many experimental replicates. This approach is often costly and sometimes impossible given limited resources; thus, analytical methods are needed which increase accuracy at no additional cost. One inexpensive source of microarray replicates comes from prior work: to date, data from hundreds of thousands of microarray experiments are in the public domain. Although these data assay a wide range of conditions, they cannot be used directly to inform any particular experiment and are thus ignored by most DE gene methods. We present the SVD Augmented Gene expression Analysis Tool (SAGAT), a mathematically principled, data-driven approach for identifying DE genes. SAGAT increases the power of a microarray experiment by using observed coexpression relationships from publicly available microarray datasets to reduce uncertainty in individual genes' expression measurements. We tested the method on three well-replicated human microarray datasets and demonstrate that use of SAGAT increased effective sample sizes by as many as 2.72 arrays. We applied SAGAT to unpublished data from a microarray study investigating transcriptional responses to insulin resistance, resulting in a 50% increase in the number of significant genes detected. We evaluated 11 (58%) of these genes experimentally using qPCR, confirming the directions of expression change for all 11 and statistical significance for three. Use of SAGAT revealed coherent biological changes in three pathways: inflammation, differentiation, and fatty acid synthesis, furthering our molecular understanding of a type 2 diabetes risk factor. We envision SAGAT as a means to maximize the potential for biological discovery from subtle transcriptional responses, and we provide it as a freely available software package that is immediately applicable to any human microarray study.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000718
View details for Web of Science ID 000278125200026
View details for PubMedID 20361040
Inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue: relationship to adipose cell size
2010; 53 (2): 369-377
Inflammation is associated with increased body mass and purportedly with increased size of adipose cells. We sought to determine whether increased size of adipose cells is associated with localised inflammation in weight-stable, moderately obese humans.We recruited 49 healthy, moderately obese individuals for quantification of insulin resistance (modified insulin suppression test) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsy. Cell size distribution was analysed with a multisizer device and inflammatory gene expression with real-time PCR. Correlations between inflammatory gene expression and cell size variables, with adjustment for sex and insulin resistance, were calculated.Adipose cells were bimodally distributed, with 47% in a 'large' cell population and the remainder in a 'small' cell population. The median diameter of the large adipose cells was not associated with expression of inflammatory genes. Rather, the fraction of small adipose cells was consistently associated with inflammatory gene expression, independently of sex, insulin resistance and BMI. This association was more pronounced in insulin-resistant than insulin-sensitive individuals. Insulin resistance also independently predicted expression of inflammatory genes.This study demonstrates that among moderately obese, weight-stable individuals an increased proportion of small adipose cells is associated with inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue, whereas size of mature adipose cells is not. The observed association between small adipose cells and inflammation may reflect impaired adipogenesis and/or terminal differentiation. However, it is unclear whether this is a cause or consequence of inflammation. This question and whether small vs large adipose cells contribute differently to inflammation in adipose tissue are topics for future research. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00285844.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00125-009-1496-3
View details for Web of Science ID 000273084400019
View details for PubMedID 19816674
Distribution of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine among 980 Healthy, Older Adults of Different Ethnicities
2010; 56 (1): 111-120
Endothelium-derived nitric oxide plays a crucial role in the regulation of vascular tone and the development of cardiovascular disease. The endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has emerged as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. ADMA appears to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular and overall mortality. However, the majority of studies investigating the clinical role of ADMA were performed in European study populations with few individuals of other ethnicities.We performed a cross-sectional study of 980 healthy, older (age 60-72 years) individuals of different ethnicities living in the San Francisco Bay area and analyzed ADMA plasma concentrations and their relationship to other cardiovascular risk factors. Plasma ADMA concentrations were measured using a recently developed, highly sensitive ELISA.In our entire sample, we were able to define a reference interval for ADMA plasma concentrations of 0.47 (90% CI 0.46-0.48) mumol/L to 0.85 (0.84-0.89) mumol/L. The mean ADMA concentration was 0.63 (SD 0.11) mumol/L (median 0.61 mumol/L). Mean ADMA concentrations were significantly lower in African Americans (0.60 mumol/L; P < 0.01) and mixed non-Hispanics (0.60 mumol/L; P < 0.05) compared with whites (0.63 mumol/L). ADMA was positively correlated with cystatin-C in both men (rho = 0.29) and women (rho = 0.37), and median plasma ADMA concentrations increased across cystatin-C quintiles.ADMA varies nearly 2-fold across a healthy sample of older men and women, correlates with age, body mass index, and renal function, and is different across ethnic groups. Additional studies in a wider age range and including larger ethnic subgroups would be useful.
View details for DOI 10.1373/clinchem.2009.136200
View details for Web of Science ID 000273466300017
View details for PubMedID 19892843
Apelin is necessary for the maintenance of insulin sensitivity
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM
2010; 298 (1): E59-E67
The recently discovered peptide apelin is known to be involved in the maintenance of insulin sensitivity. However, questions persist regarding its precise role in the chronic setting. Fasting glucose, insulin, and adiponectin levels were determined on mice with generalized deficiency of apelin (APKO). Additionally, insulin (ITT) and glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed. To assess the impact of exogenously delivered apelin on insulin sensitivity, osmotic pumps containing pyroglutamated apelin-13 or saline were implanted in APKO mice for 4 wk. Following the infusion, ITT/GTTs were repeated and the animals euthanized. Soleus muscles were harvested and homogenized in lysis buffer, and insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was determined by Western blotting. Apelin-13 infusion and ITTs/GTTs were also performed in obese diabetic db/db mice. To probe the underlying mechanism for apelin's effects, apelin-13 was also delivered to cultured C2C12 myotubes. 2-[3H]deoxyglucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation were assessed in the presence of various inhibitors. APKO mice had diminished insulin sensitivity, were hyperinsulinemic, and had decreased adiponectin levels. Soleus lysates had decreased insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. Administration of apelin to APKO and db/db mice resulted in improved insulin sensitivity. In C2C12 myotubes, apelin increased glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation. These events were fully abrogated by pertussis toxin, compound C, and siRNA knockdown of AMPKalpha1 but only partially diminished by LY-294002 and not at all by L-NAME. We conclude that apelin is necessary for the maintenance of insulin sensitivity in vivo. Apelin's effects on glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation are in part mediated by a G(i) and AMPK-dependent pathway.
View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpendo.00385.2009
View details for Web of Science ID 000272793700007
View details for PubMedID 19861585
Modern role for clopidogrel in management of atrial fibrillation and stroke reduction.
Vascular health and risk management
2010; 6: 95-103
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. The prevalence of AF increases sharply in old age (prevalence approximately 10% among persons 80 years of age and older). The expected risk for ischemic stroke is increased five-fold by the presence of AF, primarily as a result of cardiogenic embolism. Multiple large-scale, randomized trials have been completed or are still underway to find optimal, efficacious, and relatively safe ways to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke and other systemic thromboembolic events related to AF. Antithrombotic strategies are accompanied by serious bleeding complications that threaten patients in need of medical stroke prevention. Treatment regimens for preventing thromboembolism in AF patients range from vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin or coumadins, antiplatelet drugs like aspirin or clopidogrel, to newly developed orally available antithrombotics like the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, or the Factor Xa-inhibitor rivaroxaban. The available anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs have different advantages and disadvantages. This review attempts to delineate the specific role of clopidogrel in patients with AF and at risk of stroke, taking into consideration new and ongoing trials in this important field of medical practice.
View details for PubMedID 20234784
New options with dabigatran etexilate in anticoagulant therapy.
Vascular health and risk management
2010; 6: 339-349
Thrombosis, the localized clotting of blood, occurs in both the arterial and venous circulation, and has a major impact on health outcomes. The primary etiology of myocardial infarctions, and approximately 80% of strokes, is acute arterial thrombosis. In combination this represents the most common cause of death in the Western world, while the third leading cause of cardiovascular-associated death is venous thromboembolism. An understanding of the pathogenic changes in the vessel wall and the blood that result in thrombosis is crucial for developing safer and more effective antithrombotic drugs. Dabigatran etexilate belongs to a new class of direct thrombin inhibitors. Following oral administration, dabigatran reaches peak plasma concentrations within 2 hours, shows linear pharmacokinetics, and a limited (but important) amount of direct drug interactions. Given once daily at 150 mg or 220 mg, it has proven to be competitive with enoxaparin in the prevention of venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery, with a comparable safety profile. For stroke prevention in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation, dabigatran administered at a dose of 110 mg twice daily was associated with rates of stroke and systemic embolism that were similar to those associated with warfarin, as well as lower rates of hemorrhage. Dabigatran given at a dose of 150 mg twice daily, as compared with warfarin, was associated with lower rates of stroke and systemic embolism but similar rates of major hemorrhage. Oral bioavailability of dabigatran, together with a rapid onset and offset of action and predictable anticoagulation response, makes this newly available antithrombotic drug an attractive alternative to traditional anticoagulant therapies for numerous thrombosis-related indications.
View details for PubMedID 20531953
Differential Intra-abdominal Adipose Tissue Profiling in Obese, Insulin-resistant Women
2009; 19 (11): 1564-1573
We recently identified differences in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from insulin-resistant (IR) as compared to obesity-matched insulin sensitive individuals, including accumulation of small adipose cells, decreased expression of cell differentiation markers, and increased inflammatory activity. This study was initiated to see if these changes in SAT of IR individuals were present in omental visceral adipose tissue (VAT); in this instance, individuals were chosen to be IR but varied in degree of adiposity. We compared cell size distribution and genetic markers in SAT and VAT of IR individuals undergoing bariatric surgery.Eleven obese/morbidly obese women were IR by the insulin suppression test. Adipose tissue surgical samples were fixed in osmium tetroxide for cell size analysis via Beckman Coulter Multisizer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for genes related to adipocyte differentiation and inflammation was performed.While proportion of small cells and expression of adipocyte differentiation genes did not differ between depots, inflammatory genes were upregulated in VAT. Diameter of SAT large cells correlated highly with increasing proportion of small cells in both SAT and VAT (r = 0.85, p = 0.001; r = 0.72, p = 0.01, respectively). No associations were observed between VAT large cells and cell size variables in either depot. The effect of body mass index (BMI) on any variables in both depots was negligible.The major differential property of VAT of IR women is increased inflammatory activity, independent of BMI. The association of SAT adipocyte hypertrophy with hyperplasia in both depots suggests a primary role SAT may have in regulating regional fat storage.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11695-009-9949-9
View details for Web of Science ID 000271282900016
View details for PubMedID 19711137
Hypercholesterolemia impairs exercise capacity in mice
2009; 14 (3): 249-257
We previously reported an attenuation of both exercise hyperemia and measures of aerobic capacity in hypercholesterolemic mice. In this study, we expanded upon the previous findings by examining the temporal and quantitative relationship of hypercholesterolemia to aerobic and anaerobic capacity and by exploring several potential mechanisms of dysfunction. Eight-week-old wild type (n = 123) and apoE knockout (n = 79) C57BL/6J mice were divided into groups with distinct cholesterol levels by feeding with regular or high-fat diets. At various ages, the mice underwent treadmill ergospirometry. To explore mechanisms, aortic ring vasodilator function and nitrate (NO(x)) activity, urinary excretion of NO(x), running muscle microvascular density and citrate synthase activity, as well as myocardial mass and histologic evidence of ischemia were measured. At 8 weeks of age, all mice had similar measures of exercise capacity. All indices of aerobic exercise capacity progressively declined at 12 and 20 weeks of age in the hypercholesterolemic mice as cholesterol levels increased while indices of anaerobic capacity remained unaffected. Across the four cholesterol groups, the degree of aerobic dysfunction was related to serum cholesterol levels; a relationship that was maintained after correcting for confounding factors. Associated with the deterioration in exercise capacity was a decline in measures of nitric oxide-mediated vascular function while there was no evidence of aberrations in functional or oxidative capacities or in other components of transport capacity. In conclusion, aerobic exercise dysfunction is observed in murine models of genetic and diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and is associated with a reduction in vascular nitric oxide production.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1358863X08100040
View details for Web of Science ID 000268568300008
View details for PubMedID 19651675
Apelin prevents aortic aneurysm formation by inhibiting macrophage inflammation
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY
2009; 296 (5): H1329-H1335
Apelin is a potent inodilator with recently described antiatherogenic properties. We hypothesized that apelin might also attenuate abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation by limiting disease-related vascular wall inflammation. C57BL/6 mice implanted with osmotic pumps filled with apelin or saline were treated with pancreatic elastase to create infrarenal AAAs. Mice were euthanized for aortic PCR analysis or followed ultrasonographically and then euthanized for histological analysis. The cellular expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to apelin was also assessed in cultured macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. Apelin treatment resulted in diminished AAA formation, with a 47% reduction in maximal cross-sectional area (0.74 vs. 1.39 mm(2), P < 0.03) and a 57% reduction in macrophage infiltrate (113 vs. 261.3 cells/high-power field, P < 0.0001) relative to the saline-treated group. Apelin infusion was also associated with significantly reduced aortic macrophage colony-stimulating factor expression and decreased monocyte chemattractant protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mean mRNA levels. Apelin stimulation of cultured macrophages significantly reduced MCP-1 and TNF-alpha mRNA levels relative to baseline (2.03- and 1.89-fold reduction, P < 0.03, respectively) but did not affect intimal adhesion molecule expression or medial or adventitial cell cytokine production. Apelin significantly reduces aneurysm formation in the elastase model of human AAA disease. The mechanism appears to be decreased macrophage burden, perhaps related to an apelin-mediated decrease in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine activation.
View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpheart.01341.2008
View details for Web of Science ID 000265659100020
View details for PubMedID 19304942
Creation of murine experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms with elastase.
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE
Transient intraluminal infusion of porcine pancreatic elastase into the infrarenal segment of the abdominal aorta is the most widely used animal model of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) ever since it was first described in rats by Anidjar and colleagues.(1) The rationale for its development was based on the disrupted nature of elastin observed in AAAs. This rat model has been modified to produce AAAs in the infrarenal aortic region of mice.(2) The model has the ability to add broad insight into the pathobiology of AAA due to the emergence of numerous transgenic and gene knockout mice. Moreover, it is a viable platform to test potential therapeutic agents for AAA. In this video, we demonstrate the elastase infusion AAA procedure used in our laboratory. Mice are anesthetized using 2.5% isoflurane, and a laparotomy is performed under sterile conditions. The abdominal aortais isolated with the assistance of an operating stereomicroscope (Leica). After placing temporary ligatures around the proximal and distal aorta, an aortotomy is created at the bifurcation with the tip of a 30-gauge needle. A heat-tapered segment of PE-10 polyethylene tubing is introduced through the aortotomy and secured. The aortic lumen is subsequently perfused for 5-15 minutes at 100 mm Hg with saline containing type I porcine pancreatic elastase (4.5 U/mL; Sigma Chemical Co.). After removing the perfusion catheter, the aortotomy is repaired without constriction of the lumen.
View details for DOI 10.3791/1280
View details for PubMedID 19629030
Insulin resistance is associated with a modest increase in inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of moderately obese women
2008; 51 (12): 2303-2308
We have previously described differences in adipose cell size distribution and expression of genes related to adipocyte differentiation in subcutaneous abdominal fat obtained from insulin-sensitive (IS) and -resistant (IR) persons, matched for degree of moderate obesity. To determine whether other biological properties also differ between IR and IS obese individuals, we quantified markers of inflammatory activity in adipose tissue from overweight IR and IS individuals.Subcutaneous abdominal tissue was obtained from moderately obese women, divided into IR (n = 14) and IS (n = 19) subgroups by determining their steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the insulin suppression test. Inflammatory activity was assessed by comparing expression of nine relevant genes and by immunohistochemical quantification of CD45- and CD68-containing cells.SSPG concentrations were approximately threefold higher in IR than in IS individuals. Expression levels of CD68, EMR1, IL8, IL6 and MCP/CCL2 mRNAs were modestly but significantly increased (p < 0.05) in IR compared with IS participants. Results of immunohistochemical staining were consistent with gene expression data, demonstrating modest differences between IR and IS individuals. Crown-like structures, in which macrophages surround single adipocytes, were rarely seen in tissue from either subgroup.A modest increase in inflammatory activity was seen in subcutaneous adipose tissue from IR compared with equally obese IS individuals. Together with previous evidence of impaired adipose cell differentiation in IR vs equally obese individuals, it appears that at least two biological processes in subcutaneous adipose tissue characterize the insulin-resistant state independent of obesity per se.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00125-008-1148-z
View details for Web of Science ID 000260686000019
View details for PubMedID 18825363
A Human Ferritin Iron Oxide Nano-composite Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE
2008; 60 (5): 1073-1081
Macrophages play important roles in the immunological defense system, but at the same time they are involved in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Therefore, imaging macrophages is critical to assessing the status of these diseases. Toward this goal, a recombinant human H chain ferritin (rHFn)-iron oxide nano composite has been investigated as an MRI contrast agent for labeling macrophages. Iron oxide nanoparticles in the form of magnetite (or maghemite) with narrow size distribution were synthesized in the interior cavity of rHFn. The composite material exhibited the R(2) relaxivity comparable to known iron oxide MRI contrast agents. Furthermore, the mineralized protein cages are readily taken up by macrophages in vitro and provide significant T2* signal loss of the labeled cells. These results encourage further investigation into the development of the rHFn-iron oxide contrast agent to assess inflammatory disease status such as macrophage-rich atherosclerotic plaques in vivo.
View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.21761
View details for Web of Science ID 000260341700008
View details for PubMedID 18956458
Apelin signaling antagonizes Ang II effects in mouse models of atherosclerosis
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
2008; 118 (10): 3343-3354
Apelin and its cognate G protein-coupled receptor APJ constitute a signaling pathway with a positive inotropic effect on cardiac function and a vasodepressor function in the systemic circulation. The apelin-APJ pathway appears to have opposing physiological roles to the renin-angiotensin system. Here we investigated whether the apelin-APJ pathway can directly antagonize vascular disease-related Ang II actions. In ApoE-KO mice, exogenous Ang II induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm formation; we found that coinfusion of apelin abrogated these effects. Similarly, apelin treatment rescued Ang II-mediated increases in neointimal formation and vascular remodeling in a vein graft model. NO has previously been implicated in the vasodepressor function of apelin; we found that apelin treatment increased NO bioavailability in ApoE-KO mice. Furthermore, infusion of an NO synthase inhibitor blocked the apelin-mediated decrease in atherosclerosis and aneurysm formation. In rat primary aortic smooth muscle cells, apelin inhibited Ang II-mediated transcriptional regulation of multiple targets as measured by reporter assays. In addition, we demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis that the Ang II and apelin receptors interacted physically. Taken together, these findings indicate that apelin signaling can block Ang II actions in vascular disease by increasing NO production and inhibiting Ang II cellular signaling.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI34871
View details for Web of Science ID 000259828600016
View details for PubMedID 18769630
Transcriptome Alteration in the Diabetic Heart by Rosiglitazone: Implications for Cardiovascular Mortality
2008; 3 (7)
Recently, the type 2 diabetes medication, rosiglitazone, has come under scrutiny for possibly increasing the risk of cardiac disease and death. To investigate the effects of rosiglitazone on the diabetic heart, we performed cardiac transcriptional profiling and imaging studies of a murine model of type 2 diabetes, the C57BL/KLS-lepr(db)/lepr(db) (db/db) mouse.We compared cardiac gene expression profiles from three groups: untreated db/db mice, db/db mice after rosiglitazone treatment, and non-diabetic db/+ mice. Prior to sacrifice, we also performed cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and echocardiography. As expected, overall the db/db gene expression signature was markedly different from control, but to our surprise was not significantly reversed with rosiglitazone. In particular, we have uncovered a number of rosiglitazone modulated genes and pathways that may play a role in the pathophysiology of the increase in cardiac mortality as seen in several recent meta-analyses. Specifically, the cumulative upregulation of (1) a matrix metalloproteinase gene that has previously been implicated in plaque rupture, (2) potassium channel genes involved in membrane potential maintenance and action potential generation, and (3) sphingolipid and ceramide metabolism-related genes, together give cause for concern over rosiglitazone's safety. Lastly, in vivo imaging studies revealed minimal differences between rosiglitazone-treated and untreated db/db mouse hearts, indicating that rosiglitazone's effects on gene expression in the heart do not immediately turn into detectable gross functional changes.This study maps the genomic expression patterns in the hearts of the db/db murine model of diabetes and illustrates the impact of rosiglitazone on these patterns. The db/db gene expression signature was markedly different from control, and was not reversed with rosiglitazone. A smaller number of unique and interesting changes in gene expression were noted with rosiglitazone treatment. Further study of these genes and molecular pathways will provide important insights into the cardiac decompensation associated with both diabetes and rosiglitazone treatment.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0002609
View details for Web of Science ID 000264065800015
View details for PubMedID 18648539
Asymmetrical dimethylarginine in renal disease: Limits of variation or variation limits?
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NEPHROLOGY
2008; 28 (2): 224-237
Asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is increasingly recognized as a putative biomarker in cardiovascular and renal disease. Elevated plasma levels of ADMA are the consequence of increased synthesis, reduced renal clearance or reduced enzymatic degradation. Based upon the metabolic fate the highest plasma concentrations of ADMA have been reported in patients with renal failure in whom this molecule accumulates. However, the range of published ADMA levels in patients with chronic renal failure as well as in patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or kidney transplant recipients is widely scattered and overlaps with the levels reported in healthy individuals. This wide distribution can in part be explained by different bioanalytical techniques and the lack of standardization of such assays. This review summarizes available literature on ADMA in patients with kidney disease and stresses the urgent need for a consensus regarding reference values for different analytical methods in order to appreciate the prognostic significance of elevated ADMA levels. At present, one cannot advocate this molecule for risk assessment or individual patient prognosis in the clinical work-up of patients with renal impairment.
View details for DOI 10.1159/000110092
View details for Web of Science ID 000251436000007
View details for PubMedID 17960061
In vivo genetic profiling and cellular localization of apelin reveals a hypoxia-sensitive, endothelial-centered pathway activated in ischemic heart failure
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY
2008; 294 (1): H88-H98
Signaling by the peptide ligand apelin and its cognate G protein-coupled receptor APJ has a potent inotropic effect on cardiac contractility and modulates systemic vascular resistance through nitric oxide-dependent signaling. In addition, there is evidence for counterregulation of the angiotensin and vasopressin pathways. Regulatory stimuli of the apelin-APJ pathway are of obvious importance but remain to be elucidated. To better understand the physiological response of apelin-APJ to disease states such as heart failure and to elucidate the mechanism by which such a response might occur, we have used the murine model of left anterior descending coronary artery ligation-induced ischemic cardiac failure. To identify the key cells responsible for modulation and production of apelin in vivo, we have created a novel apelin-lacZ reporter mouse. Data from these studies demonstrate that apelin and APJ are upregulated in the heart and skeletal muscle following myocardial injury and suggest that apelin expression remains restricted to the endothelium. In cardiac failure, endothelial apelin expression correlates with other hypoxia-responsive genes, and in healthy animals both apelin and APJ are markedly upregulated in various tissues following systemic hypoxic exposure. Experiments with cultured endothelial cells in vitro show apelin mRNA and protein levels to be increased by hypoxia, through a hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated pathway. These studies suggest that apelin-expressing endothelial cells respond to conditions associated with heart failure, possibly including local tissue hypoxia, and modulate apelin-APJ expression to regulate cardiovascular homeostasis. The apelin-APJ pathway may thus provide a mechanism for systemic endothelial monitoring of tissue perfusion and adaptive regulation of cardiovascular function.
View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpheart.00935.2007
View details for Web of Science ID 000252261200013
View details for PubMedID 17906101
HIF-1 regulates hypoxia- and insulin-induced expression of apelin in adipocytes
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM
2007; 293 (6): E1590-E1596
Apelin, a novel peptide with significant cardioactive properties, is upregulated by insulin in adipocytes. However, the mechanism by which insulin promotes apelin production is unknown. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimeric transcription factor involved in the angiogenic and metabolic responses to tissue hypoxia, has been shown to be activated by insulin in various settings. We therefore hypothesized that HIF-1 regulates insulin-mediated apelin expression in adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated into adipocytes in culture. For experiments, serum-starved 3T3-L1 cells were exposed to insulin and/or a 1% O(2) environment. Apelin expression was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. To directly assess the role of HIF-1 in apelin production, we differentiated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) containing a targeted deletion of the HIF-1alpha gene into adipocytes and measured their response to insulin and hypoxia. Apelin expression in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased significantly by insulin and was attenuated by pharmacological inhibition of insulin signaling. Exposure of cells to either hypoxia or the chemical HIF activators cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) and dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) resulted in significant upregulation of apelin, consistent with a role for HIF in apelin induction. Moreover, hypoxia-, CoCl(2)-, DMOG-, and insulin-induced apelin expression were all attenuated in differentiated HIF-1alpha-deficient MEFs. In summary, in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes and differentiated MEFs, HIF-1 appears to be involved in hypoxia- and insulin-induced apelin expression.
View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpendo.00490.2007
View details for Web of Science ID 000251510200014
View details for PubMedID 17878221
Circulating chemokines accurately identify individuals with clinically significant atherosclerotic heart disease
2007; 31 (3): 402-409
Serum inflammatory markers correlate with outcome and response to therapy in subjects with cardiovascular disease. However, current individual markers lack specificity for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesize that a multimarker proteomic approach measuring serum levels of vascular derived inflammatory biomarkers could reveal a "signature of disease" that can serve as a highly accurate method to assess for the presence of coronary atherosclerosis. We simultaneously measured serum levels of seven chemokines [CXCL10 (IP-10), CCL11 (eotaxin), CCL3 (MIP1 alpha), CCL2 (MCP1), CCL8 (MCP2), CCL7 (MCP3), and CCL13 (MCP4)] in 48 subjects with clinically significant CAD ("cases") and 44 controls from the ADVANCE Study. We applied three classification algorithms to identify the combination of variables that would best predict case-control status and assessed the diagnostic performance of these models with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The serum levels of six chemokines were significantly higher in cases compared with controls (P < 0.05). All three classification algorithms entered three chemokines in their final model, and only logistic regression selected clinical variables. Logistic regression produced the highest ROC of the three algorithms (AUC = 0.95; SE = 0.03), which was markedly better than the AUC for the logistic regression model of traditional risk factors of CAD without (AUC = 0.67; SE = 0.06) or with CRP (AUC = 0.68; SE = 0.06). A combination of serum levels of multiple chemokines identifies subjects with clinically significant atherosclerotic heart disease with a very high degree of accuracy. These results need to be replicated in larger cross-sectional studies and their prognostic value explored.
View details for DOI 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00104.2007
View details for Web of Science ID 000251780600005
View details for PubMedID 17698927
Enhanced proportion of small adipose cells in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive obese individuals implicates impaired adipogenesis
2007; 50 (8): 1707-1715
The biological mechanism by which obesity predisposes to insulin resistance is unclear. One hypothesis is that larger adipose cells disturb metabolism via increased lipolysis. While studies have demonstrated that cell size increases in proportion to BMI, it has not been clearly shown that adipose cell size, independent of BMI, is associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to test this widely held assumption by comparing adipose cell size distribution in 28 equally obese, otherwise healthy individuals who represented extreme ends of the spectrum of insulin sensitivity, as defined by the modified insulin suppression test.Subcutaneous periumbilical adipose tissue biopsy samples were fixed in osmium tetroxide and passed through the Beckman Coulter Multisizer to obtain cell size distributions. Insulin sensitivity was quantified by the modified insulin suppression test. Quantitative real-time PCR for adipose cell differentiation genes was performed for 11 subjects.All individuals exhibited a bimodal cell size distribution. Contrary to expectations, the mean diameter of the larger cells was not significantly different between the insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant individuals. Moreover, insulin resistance was associated with a higher ratio of small to large cells (1.66 +/- 1.03 vs 0.94 +/- 0.50, p = 0.01). Similar cell size distributions were observed for isolated adipose cells. The real-time PCR results showed two- to threefold lower expression of genes encoding markers of adipose cell differentiation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma1 [PPARgamma1], PPARgamma2, GLUT4, adiponectin, sterol receptor element binding protein 1c) in insulin-resistant compared with insulin-sensitive individuals.These results suggest that after controlling for obesity, insulin resistance is associated with an expanded population of small adipose cells and decreased expression of differentiation markers, suggesting that impairment in adipose cell differentiation may contribute to obesity-associated insulin resistance.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00125-007-0708-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000248225100017
View details for PubMedID 17549449
Asymmetric Dimethyl L-Arginine (ADMA) is a critical regulator of myocardial reperfusion injury
2007; 75 (2): 417-425
Endothelial dysfunction by the loss of nitric oxide (NO) is a critical event during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium. Reduced NO availability signals important pathophysiological changes leading to myocardial reperfusion injury. We have recently shown that NO biosynthesis can be disturbed by the endogenous NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor ADMA and that these changes are mediated by an impairment of its metabolism by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). We therefore analyzed the role of ADMA and its metabolism in the setting of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.C57-bl6 mice underwent myocardial ischemia for exactly 30 min followed by 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 72 h of reperfusion achieved by occlusion and re-opening of the left coronary artery. The reperfused left ventricle was subsequently homogenized for measurements of determinants of the NO synthase pathway. Furthermore, the effects and its mechanisms of ADMA on reperfusion injury were analyzed in a genetic mouse model.A significant accumulation of ADMA was found in myocardial tissue when mice were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion in our in vivo model. The maximum increase of tissue ADMA at 4 h of reperfusion coincided with reductions of NO tissue concentrations and DDAH activity; protein expression of NOS isoforms, however, was not changed. Furthermore, DDAH overexpression in a genetic mouse model as well as treatment with oral L-arginine markedly reduced reperfusion injury by 40-50% at 4 h of reperfusion. The effects of ADMA on reperfusion injury were shown to be mediated by reduced eNOS activity and phosphorylation, expression of adhesion molecules, and leukocyte activity.Accumulation of tissue ADMA by impairment of DDAH was found to be a significant determinant of reperfusion injury. Our results indicate that ADMA could be a potential new target for the treatment of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardiores.2007.04.030
View details for Web of Science ID 000248296300022
View details for PubMedID 17559823
Magnetic resonance imaging of progressive cardiomyopathic changes in the db/db mouse
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY
2007; 292 (5): H2106-H2118
The db/db mouse is a well-established model of diabetes. Previous reports have documented contractile dysfunction (i.e., cardiomyopathy) in these animals, although the extant literature provides limited insights into cardiac structure and function as they change over time. To better elucidate the natural history of cardiomyopathy in db/db mice, we performed cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) scans on these animals. CMR imaging was conducted with a 4.7-T magnet on female db/db mice and control db/+ littermates at 5, 9, 13, 17, and 22 wk of age. Gated gradient echo sequences were used to obtain cineographic short-axis slices from apex to base. From these images left ventricular (LV) mass (LVM), wall thickness, end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), and ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined. Additionally, cardiac [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) PET scanning, pressure-volume loops, and real-time quantitative PCR on db/db myocardium were performed. Relative to control, db/db mice developed significant increases in LVM and wall thickness as early as 9 wk of age. LVEDV diverged slightly later, at 13 wk. Interestingly, compared with the baseline level, LVEF in the db/db group did not decrease significantly until 22 wk. Additionally, [(18)F]FDG metabolic imaging showed a 40% decrease in glucose uptake in db/db mice. Furthermore, contractile dysfunction was observed in 15-wk db/db mice undergoing pressure-volume loops. Finally, real-time quantitative PCR revealed an age-dependent recapitulation of the fetal gene program, consistent with a myopathic process. In summary, as assessed by CMR, db/db mice develop characteristic structural and functional changes consistent with cardiomyopathy.
View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpheart.00856.2006
View details for Web of Science ID 000247777200012
View details for PubMedID 17122193
Abdominal aortic hemodynamics in young healthy adults at rest and during lower limb exercise: quantification using image-based computer modeling
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY
2006; 291 (2): H668-H676
Localization of atherosclerotic lesions in the abdominal aorta has been previously correlated to areas of adverse hemodynamic conditions, such as flow recirculation, low mean wall shear stress, and high temporal oscillations in shear. Along with its many systemic benefits, exercise is also proposed to have local benefits in the vasculature via the alteration of these regional flow patterns. In this work, subject-specific models of the human abdominal aorta were constructed from magnetic resonance angiograms of five young, healthy subjects, and computer simulations were performed under resting and exercise (50% increase in resting heart rate) pulsatile flow conditions. Velocity fields and spatial variations in mean wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) are presented. When averaged over all subjects, WSS increased from 4.8 +/- 0.6 to 31.6 +/- 5.7 dyn/cm2 and OSI decreased from 0.22 +/- 0.03 to 0.03 +/- 0.02 in the infrarenal aorta between rest and exercise. WSS significantly increased, whereas OSI decreased between rest and exercise at the supraceliac, infrarenal, and suprabifurcation levels, and significant differences in WSS were found between anterior and posterior sections. These results support the hypothesis that exercise provides localized benefits to the cardiovascular system through acute mechanical stimuli that trigger longer-term biological processes leading to protection against the development or progression of atherosclerosis.
View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpheart.01301.2005
View details for Web of Science ID 000239020300021
View details for PubMedID 16603687
Molecular signatures determining coronary artery and saphenous vein smooth muscle cell phenotypes - Distinct responses to stimuli
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY
2006; 26 (5): 1058-1065
Phenotypic differences between vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) subtypes lead to diverse pathological processes including atherosclerosis, postangioplasty restenosis and vein graft disease. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying functional differences among distinct SMC subtypes, we compared gene expression profiles and functional responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) between cultured SMCs from human coronary artery (CASM) and saphenous vein (SVSM).OxLDL and PDGF elicited markedly different functional responses and expression profiles between the 2 SMC subtypes. In CASM, OxLDL inhibited cell proliferation and migration and modified gene expression of chemokines (CXCL10, CXCL11 and CXCL12), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and IL-18), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), and both endothelial and smooth muscle marker genes. In SVSM, OxLDL promoted proliferation partially via IGF1 signaling, activated NF-kappaB and phosphatidylinositol signaling pathways, and upregulated prostaglandin (PG) receptors and synthases. In untreated cells, alpha-chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and genes associated with apoptosis, inflammation, and lipid biosynthesis were higher in CASM, whereas some beta-chemokines, metalloproteinase inhibitors, and IGFBPs were higher in SVSM. Interestingly, the basal expression levels of these genes seemed closely related to their responses to OxLDL and PDGF. In summary, our results suggest dramatic differences in gene expression patterns and functional responses to OxLDL and PDGF between venous and arterial SMCs, with venous SMCs having stronger proliferative/migratory responses to stimuli but also higher expression of atheroprotective genes at baseline.These results reveal molecular signatures that define the distinct phenotypes characteristics of coronary artery and saphenous vein SMC subtypes.
View details for DOI 10.1161/01.ATV.0000208185.16371.97
View details for Web of Science ID 000236942400017
View details for PubMedID 16456091
Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations are elevated in obese insulin-resistant women and fall with weight loss
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
2006; 91 (5): 1896-1900
Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations are higher in apparently healthy, insulin-resistant (IR) individuals and decrease in response to thiazolidenedione treatment.The objective of the study was to determine whether ADMA concentrations would also fall when insulin sensitivity is enhanced with weight loss in obese individuals. DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENTS/INTERVENTION: Twenty obese women classified as IR or insulin sensitive (IS) on the basis of their steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test underwent 12 wk of dietary weight loss.Plasma glucose, insulin, and ADMA were measured at baseline and after weight loss; change in insulin resistance was quantified by repeating the SSPG after the dietary intervention.Although weight loss was similar in the two groups, significant improvements in SSPG, glucose, and insulin concentrations were confined to the IR group. Baseline plasma ADMA concentrations (mean +/- sd) were higher in IR subjects (1.69 +/- 0.44 vs. 1.18 +/- 0.45 micromol/liter, P = 0.02) and decreased to 1.20 +/- 0.22 micromol/liter (P < 0.001) with weight loss. In contrast, ADMA levels did not change with a similar extent of weight loss in the IS group.Plasma ADMA levels are higher in obese, IR women than in equally obese, IS women and decrease in response to weight loss when associated with enhancement of insulin sensitivity.
View details for DOI 10.1210/jc.2005-1441
View details for Web of Science ID 000237330000043
View details for PubMedID 16507636
Proteomic profiles of serum inflammatory markers accurately predict atherosclerosis in mice
2006; 25 (2): 194-202
At a population level, inflammatory markers have been shown to predict outcome and response to therapy in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, current markers are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to provide clinical utility for managing individual patients. We hypothesize that measurement of multiple circulating disease-related inflammatory factors will be more informative, allowing the early identification of vascular wall disease activity. We have investigated whether protein microarray-based abundance measurements of circulating proteins can predict the severity of atherosclerotic disease. Using a longitudinal experimental design with apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and control C57Bl/6J and C3H/HeJ wild-type mice, we measured the time-related serum protein expression of 30 inflammatory markers using a protein microarray. We were able to identify a subset of proteins that classify and predict the severity of atherosclerotic disease with a high level of accuracy. The time-specific vascular expression of these markers was verified by showing that their gene expression in the mouse aorta correlated closely to the temporal pattern of serum protein levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that quantification of multiple disease-related inflammatory proteins can provide a more sensitive and specific methodology for assessing atherosclerotic disease activity in humans, and identify candidate biomarkers for such studies.
View details for DOI 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00240.2005
View details for Web of Science ID 000236791300002
View details for PubMedID 16418319
THR0921, a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, reduces the severity of collagen-induced arthritis
ARTHRITIS RESEARCH & THERAPY
2006; 8 (1)
THR0921 is a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist with potent anti-diabetic properties. Because of the proposed role of PPARgamma in inflammation, we investigated the potential of orally active THR0921 to inhibit the pathogenesis of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in DBA/1J mice by the injection of bovine type II collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant on days 0 and 21. Mice were treated with THR0921 (50 mg/kg/day) starting on the day of the booster injection and throughout the remaining study period. Both clinical disease activity scores as well as histological scores of joint destruction were significantly reduced in mice treated with THR0921 compared to untreated mice. Proliferation of isolated spleen cells, as well as circulating levels of IgG antibody to type II collagen, was decreased by THR0921. Moreover, spleen cell production of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-1beta in response to exposure to lipopolysaccharide or type II collagen was reduced by in vivo treatment with THR0921. Steady state mRNA levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) in isolated joints were all decreased in mice treated with THR0921. Finally, THR0921 inhibited osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells stimulated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor and RANKL. In conclusion, THR0921 attenuates collagen-induced arthritis in part by reducing the immune response. As such, PPARgamma may be an important therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis.
View details for DOI 10.1186/ar1856
View details for Web of Science ID 000235803900016
View details for PubMedID 16356194
Prolonged cold ischemia in rat cardiac allografts promotes ischemia-reperfusion injury and the development of graft coronary artery disease in a linear fashion
JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION
2005; 24 (11): 1906-1914
Prolonged cold ischemia is thought to exacerbate ischemia-reperfusion injury and graft coronary artery disease (GCAD). We investigated the effect of varying lengths of cold ischemia on inflammation and apoptosis during ischemia-reperfusion injury and correlated this with the degree of GCAD in rat cardiac allografts.PVG rat (RT1c) hearts subjected to 30, 60, 90, 120, or 150 minutes of cold ischemia were heterotopically transplanted into ACI rats (RT1a). Grafts were procured after 4 hours of reperfusion and analyzed for superoxide generation, myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2) production, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and caspase-2, -3, -8, -9 activities. Additional transplanted animals received cyclosporine A (7.5 mg/kg/day) for 10 days as chronic rejection models. Indices of GCAD were determined at 90 days.A direct linear correlation was found between cold ischemic time, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and GCAD. Superoxide generation, myeloperoxidase activity, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, MCP-1/CCL2 production, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and caspase-2, -3, -8, and -9 activities increased with ischemic time, peaking at 120 minutes and plateauing at 150 minutes. GCAD, assessed by the percentage of luminal narrowing, the intima/media ratio, and the percentage of diseased vessels, worsened with increased ischemic time, peaking at 120 minutes and plateauing at 150 minutes. All tested variables in both the acute and chronic phases were significantly increased with 120-minute ischemia compared with 30-minute ischemia.These data indicate that the degree of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and inflammatory response in cardiac allografts during ischemia-reperfusion injury depends on the duration of cold ischemia. More important, that prolonged cold ischemia correlates with increased GCAD.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2004.06.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000233412300031
View details for PubMedID 16297799
Pathway analysis of coronary atherosclerosis
2005; 23 (1): 103-118
Large-scale gene expression studies provide significant insight into genes differentially regulated in disease processes such as cancer. However, these investigations offer limited understanding of multisystem, multicellular diseases such as atherosclerosis. A systems biology approach that accounts for gene interactions, incorporates nontranscriptionally regulated genes, and integrates prior knowledge offers many advantages. We performed a comprehensive gene level assessment of coronary atherosclerosis using 51 coronary artery segments isolated from the explanted hearts of 22 cardiac transplant patients. After histological grading of vascular segments according to American Heart Association guidelines, isolated RNA was hybridized onto a customized 22-K oligonucleotide microarray, and significance analysis of microarrays and gene ontology analyses were performed to identify significant gene expression profiles. Our studies revealed that loss of differentiated smooth muscle cell gene expression is the primary expression signature of disease progression in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we provide insight into the severe form of coronary artery disease associated with diabetes, reporting an overabundance of immune and inflammatory signals in diabetics. We present a novel approach to pathway development based on connectivity, determined by language parsing of the published literature, and ranking, determined by the significance of differentially regulated genes in the network. In doing this, we identify highly connected "nexus" genes that are attractive candidates for therapeutic targeting and followup studies. Our use of pathway techniques to study atherosclerosis as an integrated network of gene interactions expands on traditional microarray analysis methods and emphasizes the significant advantages of a systems-based approach to analyzing complex disease.
View details for DOI 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00101.2005
View details for Web of Science ID 000232065200012
View details for PubMedID 15942018
Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase overexpression suppresses graft coronary artery disease
2005; 112 (11): 1549-1556
Graft coronary artery disease (GCAD) is the leading cause of death after the first year of heart transplantation. The reduced bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) may play a role in endothelial vasodilator dysfunction and the structural changes that are characteristic of GCAD. A potential contributor to endothelial pathobiology is asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous NO synthase inhibitor. We hypothesized that lowering ADMA concentrations by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) overexpression in the recipient might suppress GCAD and long-term immune responses in murine cardiac allografts.In one series, donor hearts of C-H-2(bm12)KhEg (H-2(bm12)) wild-type (WT) mice were heterotopically transplanted into C57BL/6 (H-2b) transgenic mice overexpressing human DDAH-I or WT littermates and procured after 4 hours of reperfusion (WT and DDAH-I recipients, n=6 each). In a second series, donor hearts were transplanted into DDAH-I-transgenic or WT mice and procured 30 days after transplantation (n=7 each). In DDAH-I recipients, plasma ADMA concentrations were lower, in association with reduced myocardial generation of superoxide anion (WT versus DDAH-I, 465.7+/-79.8 versus 173.4+/-32.3 micromol.L(-1).mg(-1).h(-1); P=0.02), inflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules, and chemokines. GCAD was markedly reduced in cardiac allografts of DDAH-I-transgenic recipients as assessed by luminal narrowing (WT versus DDAH, 79+/-2% versus 33+/-7%; P<0.01), intima-media ratio (WT versus DDAH, 1.1+/-0.1 versus 0.5+/-0.1; P<0.01), and the percentage of diseased vessels (WT versus DDAH, 100+/-0% versus 62+/-10%; P<0.01).Overexpression of DDAH-I attenuated oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and GCAD in murine cardiac allografts. The effect of DDAH overexpression may be mediated by its reduction of plasma and tissue ADMA concentrations.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.537670
View details for Web of Science ID 000231821200007
View details for PubMedID 16144995
Transforming growth factor-beta receptors localize to caveolae and regulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase in normal human endothelial cells
2005; 390: 199-206
Caveolae (sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich, 100 nm flask-shaped invaginations of the cell membrane) serve as a nexus of cell signalling. In the present study caveolin-rich lipid raft domains were extracted from HUVEC (human umbilical-vein endothelial cells) using both density gradient and immunoprecipitation techniques, and demonstrated localization of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) receptors TbetaRI and TbetaRII to the Cav-1 (caveolin-1)-enriched raft fractions of these normal, human endothelial cells. Immunoprecipitation demonstrated an association between TbetaRI and TbetaRII, as well as an association of the TbetaRs receptors with Cav-1 and eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase), suggesting a mutual co-localization to caveolae; after treatment of HUVEC with 5 ng/ml TGF-beta1 for 15 min, however, co-precipitation of eNOS with TbetaRI, TbetaRII and Cav-1 was diminished. The loss of immunoprecipitable eNOS from Cav-1-enriched fractions was accompanied by a decrease both in phosphorylation of eNOS and in enzymatic activity (conversion of arginine into citrulline). No change in the localization of eNOS to morphologically distinct caveolae could be detected by electron microscopy after treatment of HUVEC with TGF-beta1 for 20 min. The results of these investigations provide evidence that TbetaRI interacts with eNOS in the caveolae of normal, human endothelial cells and has a regulatory function on basal eNOS enzymatic activity.
View details for DOI 10.1042/BJ20041182
View details for Web of Science ID 000231492800021
View details for PubMedID 15819614
Increased aortic stiffness in the insulin-resistant Zucker fa/fa rat
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY
2005; 289 (2): H845-H851
Accumulating clinical evidence indicates increased aortic stiffness, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, in type 2 diabetic and glucose-intolerant individuals. The present study sought to determine whether increased mechanical stiffness, an altered extracellular matrix, and a profibrotic gene expression profile could be observed in the aorta of the insulin-resistant Zucker fa/fa rat. Mechanical testing of Zucker fa/fa aortas showed increased vascular stiffness in longitudinal and circumferential directions compared with Zucker lean controls. Unequal elevations in developed strain favoring the longitudinal direction resulted in a loss of anisotropy. Real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of fibronectin and collagen IV alpha 3 in the Zucker fa/fa aorta. In addition, expression of transforming growth factor-beta and several Smad proteins was increased in vessels from insulin-resistant animals. In rat vascular smooth muscle cells, 12-18 h of exposure to insulin (100 nmol/l) enhanced transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA expression, implicating a role for hyperinsulinemia in vascular stiffness. Thus there is mechanical, structural, and molecular evidence of arteriosclerosis in the Zucker fa/fa rat at the glucose-intolerant, hyperinsulinemic stage.
View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpheart.00134.2005
View details for Web of Science ID 000230458800045
View details for PubMedID 15833807
Signature patterns of gene expression in mouse atherosclerosis and their correlation to human coronary disease
2005; 22 (2): 213-226
The propensity for developing atherosclerosis is dependent on underlying genetic risk and varies as a function of age and exposure to environmental risk factors. Employing three mouse models with different disease susceptibility, two diets, and a longitudinal experimental design, it was possible to manipulate each of these factors to focus analysis on genes most likely to have a specific disease-related function. To identify differences in longitudinal gene expression patterns of atherosclerosis, we have developed and employed a statistical algorithm that relies on generalized regression and permutation analysis. Comprehensive annotation of the array with ontology and pathway terms has allowed rigorous identification of molecular and biological processes that underlie disease pathophysiology. The repertoire of atherosclerosis-related immunomodulatory genes has been extended, and additional fundamental pathways have been identified. This highly disease-specific group of mouse genes was combined with an extensive human coronary artery data set to identify a shared group of genes differentially regulated among atherosclerotic tissues from different species and different vascular beds. A small core subset of these differentially regulated genes was sufficient to accurately classify various stages of the disease in mouse. The same gene subset was also found to accurately classify human coronary lesion severity. In addition, this classifier gene set was able to distinguish with high accuracy atherectomy specimens from native coronary artery disease vs. those collected from in-stent restenosis lesions, thus identifying molecular differences between these two processes. These studies significantly focus efforts aimed at identifying central gene regulatory pathways that mediate atherosclerotic disease, and the identification of classification gene sets offers unique insights into potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in atherosclerotic disease.
View details for DOI 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00001.2005
View details for Web of Science ID 000230987900011
View details for PubMedID 15870398
Inhibition of heart transplant injury and graft coronary artery disease after prolonged organ ischemia by selective protein kinase C regulators
JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY
2005; 129 (5): 1160-1167
Transplanted hearts subjected to prolonged ischemia develop ischemia-reperfusion injury and graft coronary artery disease. To determine the effect of delta-protein kinase C and -protein kinase C on ischemia-reperfusion injury and the resulting graft coronary artery disease induced by prolonged ischemia, we used a delta-protein kinase C-selective inhibitor peptide and an -protein kinase C-selective activator peptide after 30 or 120 minutes of ischemia.Hearts of piebald viral glaxo (PVG) rats were heterotopically transplanted into allogeneic August Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats. After cardioplegic arrest of the donor heart, -protein kinase C activator was injected antegrade into the coronary arteries. Hearts were procured and bathed in -protein kinase C activator, and before reperfusion, delta-protein kinase C inhibitor was injected into the recipient inferior vena cava. Controls were treated with saline. To analyze ischemia-reperfusion injury, grafts were procured at 4 hours after transplantation and analyzed for superoxide generation; myeloperoxidase activity; tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1beta, and monocyte/macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 production; and cardiomyocyte apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and caspase 2, 3, 8, and 9 activity. To analyze graft coronary artery disease, another set of animals underwent equal ischemic times and treatment strategies and then after 90 days were analyzed for graft coronary artery disease indexes.All measures of ischemia-reperfusion injury and graft coronary artery disease after 120 minutes of ischemia in the saline-treated group were significantly increased relative to those observed after 30 minutes of ischemia. It is important to note that all ischemia-reperfusion injury parameters and graft coronary artery disease indexes decreased significantly in the protein kinase C regulator-treated group in comparison to saline-treated controls; additionally, these values were equivalent to those in saline-treated controls with 30 minutes of ischemia.Combined treatment with -protein kinase C activator and delta-protein kinase C inhibitor reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury and decreases the resulting graft coronary artery disease induced by prolonged ischemia.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2004.09.015
View details for Web of Science ID 000228947200029
View details for PubMedID 15867794
Rosuvastatin attenuates monocyte-endothelial cell interactions and vascular free radical production in hypercholesterolemic mice
JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS
2005; 313 (2): 557-562
One of the earliest observable events in atherogenesis is enhanced monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. In addition to reducing circulating levels of cholesterol, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are thought to have direct salutary effects upon vascular cells. We hypothesized that the new statin, rosuvastatin, would have anti-inflammatory effects on the vessel wall. Eight-week-old apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a normal chow diet for a period of 12 weeks. During this time mice were administered vehicle or rosuvastatin at a dose of 0, 1, 5, or 20 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection at the same time daily for a period of 2 or 6 weeks prior to sacrifice. At the end of the study, rosuvastatin-treated animals displayed lower plasma total cholesterol levels, whereas showing little change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides. Using a functional binding assay, we also demonstrated that endothelial adhesiveness for monocytes was significantly attenuated after 2 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction determined that rosuvastatin reduced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and metalloproteinase-9 in the vessel wall. In addition, rosuvastatin inhibited vascular expression of p22(phox) and superoxide production, as well as diminishing plasma 8-isoprostanes concentrations. Thus, treatment with rosuvastatin has acute anti-inflammatory actions that likely participate in its beneficial actions during atherogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.1124/jpet.104.080002
View details for Web of Science ID 000228357900009
View details for PubMedID 15665143
Mouse strain-specific differences in vascular wall gene expression and their relationship to vascular disease
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY
2005; 25 (2): 302-308
Different strains of inbred mice exhibit different susceptibility to the development of atherosclerosis. The C3H/HeJ and C57Bl/6 mice have been used in several studies aimed at understanding the genetic basis of atherosclerosis. Under controlled environmental conditions, variations in susceptibility to atherosclerosis reflect differences in genetic makeup, and these differences must be reflected in gene expression patterns that are temporally related to the development of disease. In this study, we sought to identify the genetic pathways that are differentially activated in the aortas of these mice.We performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of aortas from C3H/HeJ and C57Bl/6 mice. Differences in gene expression were identified at baseline as well as during normal aging and longitudinal exposure to high-fat diet. The significance of these genes to the development of atherosclerosis was evaluated by observing their temporal pattern of expression in the well-studied apolipoprotein E model of atherosclerosis.Gene expression differences between the 2 strains suggest that aortas of C57Bl/6 mice have a higher genetic propensity to develop inflammation in response to appropriate atherogenic stimuli. This study expands the repertoire of factors in known disease-related signaling pathways and identifies novel candidate genes for future study. To gain insights into the molecular pathways that are differentially activated in strains of mice with varied susceptibility to atherosclerosis, we performed comprehensive transcriptional profiling of their vascular wall. Genes identified through these studies expand the repertoire of factors in disease-related signaling pathways and identify novel candidate genes in atherosclerosis.
View details for DOI 10.1161/011.ATV.0000151372.86863.a5
View details for Web of Science ID 000226594000009
View details for PubMedID 15550693
Effect of rosiglitazone treatment on circulating vascular and inflammatory markers in insulin-resistant subjects.
Diabetes & vascular disease research
2005; 2 (1): 37-41
Thiazolidinedione (TZD) compounds enhance insulin sensitivity and attenuate inflammation. The effect of the TZD compound, rosiglitazone (RSG) on both actions was evaluated in two groups of insulin-resistant subjects with minimal elevations of fasting plasma glucose (PG) concentration: group A (n=15, PG < 7.0 mmol/L) and group B (n=14, PG 7.0-8.3 mmol/L). Insulin action, quantified by the insulin suppression test, improved after three months of treatment in both groups, and concentrations of C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and Eselectin all fell. Significant decreases in L-selectin and P-selectin were confined to group B, and concentrations of interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 did not fall in either group. Significant relationships were not discerned between enhanced insulin sensitivity and related variables and decreases in inflammatory/vascular markers, suggesting that RSG-induced changes in the latter variables in insulin-resistant individuals might be at least partly independent of the effects of the drug on insulin action.
View details for PubMedID 16305071
Cardiomyocyte-specific Bcl-2 overexpression attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury, immune response during acute rejection, and graft coronary artery disease
2004; 104 (12): 3789-3796
After cardiac transplantation, graft damage occurs secondary to ischemia-reperfusion injury and acute rejection. This damage ultimately leads to the development of graft coronary artery disease (GCAD), which limits long-term graft survival. Apoptosis is directly involved in graft injury, contributing to the development of GCAD. To assess the role of the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 in the process of GCAD, we transplanted hearts from FVB transgenic mice overexpressing human Bcl-2 under the control of alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter into allogenic C57BL/6 mice. Bcl-2 overexpression led to reduced cytochrome c-mediated caspase-9-dependent cardiomyocyte apoptosis and local inflammation (neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine production) in cardiac allografts during ischemia-reperfusion injury and also led to reduced immune responses (inflammatory cell infiltration, production of T(H)1 cytokines and chemokines, and expression of adhesion molecules) during acute and chronic rejection without affecting host CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell responses in the spleen. Thus, local Bcl-2 expression directly contributes to the modulation of local immune responses in allograft rejection, resulting in attenuated GCAD. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the modulation of Bcl-2 expression by pharmacologic up-regulation or gene transfer may be of clinical benefit in the short- and long-term function of cardiac allografts.
View details for Web of Science ID 000225351600061
View details for PubMedID 15280201
Transcriptional profiling of in vitro smooth muscle cell differentiation identifies specific patterns of gene and pathway activation
2004; 19 (3): 292-302
Mesodermal and epidermal precursor cells undergo phenotypic changes during differentiation to the smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage that are relevant to pathophysiological processes in the adult. Molecular mechanisms that underlie lineage determination and terminal differentiation of this cell type have received much attention, but the genetic program that regulates these processes has not been fully defined. Study of SMC differentiation has been facilitated by development of the P19-derived A404 embryonal cell line, which differentiates toward this lineage in the presence of retinoic acid and allows selection for cells adopting a SMC fate through a differentiation-specific drug marker. We sought to define global alterations in gene expression by studying A404 cells during SMC differentiation with oligonucleotide microarray transcriptional profiling. Using an in situ 60-mer array platform with more than 20,000 mouse genes derived from the National Institute on Aging clone set, we identified 2,739 genes that were significantly upregulated after differentiation was completed (false-detection ratio <1). These genes encode numerous markers known to characterize differentiated SMC, as well as many unknown factors. We further characterized the sequential patterns of gene expression during the differentiation time course, particularly for known transcription factor families, providing new insights into the regulation of the differentiation process. Changes in genes associated with specific biological ontology-based pathways were evaluated, and temporal trends were identified for functional pathways. In addition to confirming the utility of the A404 model, our data provide a large-scale perspective of gene regulation during SMC differentiation.
View details for DOI 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00148.2004
View details for Web of Science ID 000225840800007
View details for PubMedID 15340120
Overexpression of human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) suppresses ischemia-reperfusion injury and subsequent development of graft coronary artery disease in murine cardiac grafts
2004; 110 (11): II200-II206
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is an important risk factor for graft coronary artery disease (GCAD). We hypothesized that overexpression of SOD1 in donor hearts would suppress ischemia-reperfusion injury and thereby reduce GCAD.In one series, donor hearts of C57BL/6 (H-2b) transgenic mice overexpressing human SOD1 or C57BL/6 wild-type mice were heterotopically transplanted into C57BL/6 recipients and procured after 4 hours of reperfusion (n=6 each). Superoxide, TNF-alpha, and MCP-1/CCL2 production were significantly reduced in the SOD1 transgenic donor heart recipients, and graft injury determined by serum CPK-MB levels was significantly decreased. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities were significantly decreased in these recipients; caspase-8 activity was unchanged. Fas ligand but not Fas expression was also reduced. In a second series, transgenic and wild-type hearts were transplanted into C-H-2bm12KhEg (H-2bm12) recipients, and then procured on day 56 (n=7 each). Cardiac graft beating was significantly better in the SOD1 transgenic donor heart recipients on days 28, 42, and 56 (but not day 14). Significant reduction in luminal narrowing, the intima/media ratio, and the percentage of diseased vessels was seen in the SOD1 transgenic donor heart recipients, and MCP-1/CCL2, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 production were significantly reduced.Overexpression of SOD1 attenuates both apoptosis and the inflammatory response during ischemia-reperfusion injury and therefore mitigates against the subsequent development of GCAD.
View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000138390.81640.54
View details for Web of Science ID 000224023600035
View details for PubMedID 15364863
Long-term effects of polymer-based, slow-release, sirolimus-eluting stents in a porcine coronary model
2004; 63 (4): 617-624
Stent-based delivery of sirolimus (SRL) has shown reduction in neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chronic vascular response and the expression of cell cycle regulators after SRL-eluting stent implantation in a porcine coronary model.Forty-nine pigs underwent placement of 109 oversized stents (control, n=54, SRL (140 microg/cm(2)), n=55) in the coronary arteries with histologic analysis and Western blot (PCNA, p27(kip1), CD45, MCP-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-beta) at 3, 30, 90 or 180 days.At 3 days, the mean thrombus area was similar for control (0.38+/-0.19 mm(2)) and SRL (0.29+/-0.09 mm(2)) stents. After 30 days, the mean neointimal area was significantly less for the SRL (1.40+/-0.35 mm(2)) versus the control stents (2.94+/-1.28 mm(2), p<0.001). At 90 and 180 days, the mean neointimal area was similar for the SRL (3.03+/-0.92 and 3.34+/-0.99 mm(2)) as compared with control stents (3.45+/-1.09 and 3.65+/-1.23 mm(2)). Western blot analysis demonstrated an increased expression of p27(kip1) in the vessel wall at 90 days for the SRL versus control stents (p=0.05) but with increased levels of PCNA in the SRL as compared with control stents (p=0.003).SRL-eluting stents favorably modulate neointimal formation for 30 days in the porcine coronary model. Long-term inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia is not sustained presumably due to delayed cellular proliferation despite increased levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase p27(kip1) in the vessel wall.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardiores.2004.04.029
View details for Web of Science ID 000223591400008
View details for PubMedID 15306217
Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase regulates nitric oxide synthesis - Genetic and physiological evidence
2003; 108 (24): 3042-3047
NO is a major regulator of cardiovascular physiology that reduces vascular and cardiac contractility. Accumulating evidence indicates that endogenous inhibitors may regulate NOS. The NOS inhibitors asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and N-monomethylarginine are metabolized by the enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). This study was designed to determine if increased expression of DDAH could reduce tissue and plasma levels of the NOS inhibitors and thereby increase NO synthesis.We used gene transfer and transgenic approaches to overexpress human DDAH I in vitro and in vivo. The overexpression of DDAH in cultured endothelial cells in vitro induced a 2-fold increase in NOS activity and NO production. In the hDDAH-1 transgenic mice, we observed approximately 2-fold increases in tissue NOS activity and urinary nitrogen oxides, associated with a 2-fold reduction in plasma ADMA. The systolic blood pressure of transgenic mice was 13 mm Hg lower than that of wild-type controls (P<0.05). The systemic vascular resistance and cardiac contractility were decreased in response to the increase in NO production.DDAH I overexpression increases NOS activity in vitro and in vivo. The hDDAH-1 transgenic animal exhibits a reduced systolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and cardiac stroke volume. This study provides compelling evidence that the elaboration and metabolism of endogenous ADMA plays an important role in regulation of NOS activity.
View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000101924.04515.2E
View details for Web of Science ID 000187286300018
View details for PubMedID 14638548
Novel role for the potent endogenous inotrope apelin in human cardiac dysfunction
2003; 108 (12): 1432-1439
Apelin is among the most potent stimulators of cardiac contractility known. However, no physiological or pathological role for apelin-angiotensin receptor-like 1 (APJ) signaling has ever been described.We performed transcriptional profiling using a spotted cDNA microarray with 12 814 unique clones on paired samples of left ventricle obtained before and after placement of a left ventricular assist device in 11 patients. The significance analysis of microarrays and a novel rank consistency score designed to exploit the paired structure of the data confirmed that natriuretic peptides were among the most significantly downregulated genes after offloading. The most significantly upregulated gene was the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, the specific receptor for apelin. We demonstrate here using immunoassay and immunohistochemical techniques that apelin is localized primarily in the endothelium of the coronary arteries and is found at a higher concentration in cardiac tissue after mechanical offloading. These findings imply an important paracrine signaling pathway in the heart. We additionally extend the clinical significance of this work by reporting for the first time circulating human apelin levels and demonstrating increases in the plasma level of apelin in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.The apelin-APJ signaling pathway emerges as an important novel mediator of cardiovascular control.
View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000091235.94914.75
View details for Web of Science ID 000185467400005
View details for PubMedID 12963638
Endothelial dysfunction: Clinical strategies for treating oxidant stress
AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL
2003; 146 (2): 218-226
A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that oxidants play a critical role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. Pathologic processes fundamental to development and progression of endothelial dysfunction such as the oxidation of LDL, the loss of bioavailable nitric oxide, and the vascular inflammatory response are all modulated by oxidant stress. Therapeutic strategies to reverse endothelial dysfunction have begun to focus on agents with the ability to ameliorate oxidant stress.Preclinical and clinical studies evaluating the actions of antioxidants as well as traditional cardiovascular therapies in ameliorating oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction were reviewed through the use of a MEDLINE search of English language articles published between the years of 1992 and 2002.Antioxidants appear to be an attractive candidate therapy, yet despite compelling preclinical evidence supporting their benefits, efforts to validate the use of vitamins C and E in a clinical setting have been conflicting. In contrast, conventional cardiovascular therapies such as ACE inhibitors, statins, insulin-sensitizing agents, and estrogens have been shown to alleviate endothelial dysfunction, often independent of their effects on systemic disease processes.These agents restore endothelial function through their salutary effects on pathologic vascular oxidative processes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S0002-8703(03)00087-X
View details for Web of Science ID 000184708400011
View details for PubMedID 12891188
NOS inhibition accelerates atherogenesis: reversal by exercise
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY
2003; 285 (2): H535-H540
In this study, we assessed the effects of chronic exercise training (12 wk) on atherosclerotic lesion formation in hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (n = 31). At the age of 9 wk, mice were assigned to the following groups: sedentary (Sed; n = 9); exercise (Ex; n = 12); sedentary and oral NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, Sed-NA; n = 4), or exercise and oral L-NNA (Ex-NA; n = 6). Chronic exercise training was performed on a treadmill for 12 wk (6 times/wk and twice for 1 h/day) at a final speed of 22 m/min, and an 8 degrees grade. L-NNA was discontinued 5 days before final treadmill testing. The farthest distance run to exhaustion was observed in Ex-NA mice (Sed: 306 +/- 32 m; Ex: 640 +/- 87; Sed-NA: 451 +/- 109 m; Ex-NA: 820 +/- 49 m; all P < 0.05). Lesion formation was assessed in the proximal ascending aorta by dissection microscopy after oil red O staining. The aortas of Sed-NA mice manifested a threefold increase in lesion formation compared with the other groups. This L-NNA-induced lesion formation was reduced by chronic exercise training (Sed, 786 +/- 144; Ex, 780 +/- 206; Sed-NA, 2,147 +/- 522; Ex-NA, 851 +/- 253; Sed-NA vs. all other groups: P < 0.001). In conclusion, treatment with oral L-NNA (an nitric oxide synthase antagonist) leads to accelerated atherogenesis in genetically determined hypercholesterolemic mice. This adverse effect can be overcome by chronic exercise training.
View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpheart.00360.2001
View details for Web of Science ID 000184153100011
View details for PubMedID 12598230
Flow-responsive remodeling after angioplasty is enhanced by high cholesterol diet. Prevention with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate
2003; 168 (2): 333-341
We examined the effects of high cholesterol diet and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on flow-dependent remodeling after angioplasty. After right common carotid balloon-injury, the right external carotid (low flow) or left common carotid artery were ligated (high flow) in rabbits fed normal diet, 1% cholesterol diet without or with the antioxidant PDTC for 7 days pre- and 7-28 days post-injury. Angiographic lumen diameter was significantly greater at 28 days in high flow than low flow normal diet animals, attributable on perfusion-fixed vessel morphometry to altered remodeling (area within the external elastic lamina: high flow 1.85+/-0.24 vs. low flow 1.31+/-0.04 mm(2), P<0.05) rather than differences in neointima formation or vessel tone. In animals on 1% cholesterol diet high flow remodeling was significantly enhanced (area within the external elastic lamina 3.13+/-0.17 mm(2), P<0.05 vs. high flow normal diet) but low flow inward remodeling was similar (area within the external elastic lamina 1.29+/-0.07 mm(2)). Mean Doppler flow velocities (initial/post-ligation/28 day follow-up, cm/s) had almost normalized in normal diet animals (high flow 30/49/35, low flow 32/9/26) but showed overcompensation in 1% cholesterol diet animals (high flow 32/49/22, low flow 30/11/25). PDTC therapy markedly attenuated remodeling (area within the external elastic lamina: high flow 2.20+/-0.18, and low flow 2.00+/-0.11 both P<0.05 vs. 1% cholesterol diet alone) and flow velocities only partially normalized (high flow 26/42/34, low flow 27/7/16). We conclude that hypercholesterolemia enhances and PDTC attenuates flow-dependent remodeling after angioplasty.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S0021-9150(03)00103-5
View details for Web of Science ID 000183784900016
View details for PubMedID 12801617
Identification of endothelial cell genes by combined database mining and microarray analysis
2003; 13 (3): 249-262
Vascular endothelial cells maintain the interface between the systemic circulation and soft tissues and mediate critical processes such as inflammation in a vascular bed-selective fashion. To expand our understanding of the genetic pathways that underlie these specific functions, we have focused on the identification of novel genes that are differentially expressed in all endothelial cells, as well as restricted groups of this cell type. Virtual subtraction was conducted employing gene expression data deposited in public databases and 384 genes identified. These genes were spotted on custom microarrays, along with 288 genes identified through subtraction cloning from TGF-beta-stimulated endothelial cells. Arrays were evaluated with RNA samples representing endothelial cells cultured from four vascular sources and five non-endothelial cell types. These studies identified 64 pan-endothelial markers that were differentially expressed with at least a threefold difference (range 3- to 55-fold). In addition, differences in gene expression profiles among endothelial cells from different vascular beds were identified. Validation of these findings was performed by RNA blot expression studies, and a number of the novel genes were shown to be expressed under angiogenic conditions in the developing mouse embryo. The combined tools of database mining and transcriptional profiling thus provide expanded knowledge of endothelial cell gene expression and endothelial cell biology.
View details for DOI 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00186.2002
View details for Web of Science ID 000182853000008
View details for PubMedID 12644598
Stent-based immunosuppressive therapies for the prevention of restenosis.
Cardiovascular radiation medicine
2003; 4 (2): 98-107
View details for PubMedID 14581091
Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia - The key player between cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease?
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
2003; 41 (6): 1044-1047
Hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction are characteristic findings in insulin-resistant individuals, and all of these abnormalities have been identified as increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Smokers tend to be relatively insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic, and dyslipidemic, with evidence of endothelial dysfunction, as compared with nonsmokers, and recent epidemiologic data have suggested that CVD in smokers is primarily seen in those individuals who also have the characteristic findings of insulin resistance. Based on these observations, it is argued that insulin resistance and its consequences represent a major mechanistic link between cigarette smoking and CVD. It is also postulated that the enhanced CVD risk in smokers, resulting from hyperinsulinemia, abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism, and endothelial dysfunction, will primarily be present in those smokers who are insulin resistant. As a corollary, it is suggested that CVD risk in individuals who cannot, or will not, stop smoking can be reduced by therapeutic efforts aimed at attenuating the adverse effects of insulin resistance and its consequences.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S0735-1097(02)02982-0
View details for Web of Science ID 000181552800024
View details for PubMedID 12651055
Short polymers of arginine rapidly translocate into vascular cells - Effects on nitric oxide synthesis
2002; 66 (12): 1155-1160
The present study was designed to determine the efficiency of translocation of short polymers of arginine into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and to determine their effect on nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Immunostaining revealed that heptamers of L-arginine (R7) rapidly translocated into the VSMC. This rapid transport was not observed with shorter polymers of L-arginine (R5) nor heptamers of lysine (K7). Translocation of R7 was not inhibited by the addition of free L-arginine into the media. When cells were transiently pretreated with R7 or a nonamer of arginine (R9), NO(2) production from cytokine stimulated VSMC was significantly increased, whereas incubation with R5 and K7 had no effect. Short polymers of arginine not only have a unique ability of rapid VSMC translocation but once internalized enhance NO production. Heptamers (or larger polypeptides) of arginine may be useful in therapy to enhance NO production in the vascular system.
View details for Web of Science ID 000179496000015
View details for PubMedID 12499624
Flow loading induces macrophage antioxidative gene expression in experimental aneurysms
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY
2002; 22 (12): 2017-2022
Reactive oxygen species may act as proinflammatory mediators in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease. Flow loading increases antioxidative enzyme expression and limits reactive oxygen species production in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro, limits experimental AAA enlargement in rodent models, and is indirectly associated with reduced clinical AAA risk. We attempted to determine the mechanism or mechanisms by which flow loading limits AAA enlargement.Rodent AAAs were flow loaded via femoral arteriovenous fistula creation. Aortic wall shear stress and relative wall strain were significantly higher in flow-loaded rodents. Flow loading reduced AAA diameter by 26% despite evidence of flow-mediated aortic enlargement proximal to the aneurysmal segment. Messenger RNA from AAA tissue was harvested for cDNA labeling and hybridization to a 384-clone DNA microarray. Twenty-nine genes were differentially expressed (relative intensity/relative intensity of control ratio >1.5 and <0.67) in flow-loaded compared with normal flow AAA tissue, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Increased HO-1 expression was confirmed via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry localized HO-1 expression to infiltrative macrophages. alpha-Tocopherol was found to be as effective as flow loading in limiting AAA enlargement. Flow loading and alpha-tocopherol therapy reduced AAA reactive oxygen species production.Flow loading may attenuate AAA enlargement via wall shear or strain-related reductions in oxidative stress.
View details for DOI 10.1161/01.ATV.0000042082.38014.EA
View details for Web of Science ID 000180046000014
View details for PubMedID 12482828
Impaired nitric oxide synthase pathway in diabetes mellitus - Role of asymmetric dimethylarginine and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase
2002; 106 (8): 987-992
An endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This study explored the mechanisms by which ADMA becomes elevated in DM.Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal chow or high-fat diet (n=5 in each) with moderate streptozotocin injection to induce type 2 DM. Plasma ADMA was elevated in diabetic rats (1.33+/-0.31 versus 0.48+/-0.08 micromol/L; P<0.05). The activity, but not the expression, of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) was reduced in diabetic rats and negatively correlated with their plasma ADMA levels (P<0.05). DDAH activity was significantly reduced in vascular smooth muscle cells and human endothelial cells (HMEC-1) exposed to high glucose (25.5 mmol/L). The impairment of DDAH activity in vascular cells was associated with an accumulation of ADMA and a reduction in generation of cGMP. In human endothelial cells, coincubation with the antioxidant polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase (22 U/mL) reversed the effects of the high-glucose condition on DDAH activity, ADMA accumulation, and cGMP synthesis.A glucose-induced impairment of DDAH causes ADMA accumulation and may contribute to endothelial vasodilator dysfunction in DM.
View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000027109.14149.67
View details for Web of Science ID 000177634600019
View details for PubMedID 12186805
Metformin treatment lowers asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2002; 51 (7): 843-846
This study was initiated to see if plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations decreased in hyperglycemic patients with type 2 diabetes following metformin treatment, either as monotherapy or following its addition to sulfonylurea-treated patients. Fasting plasma glucose, dimethylarginine, and L-arginine concentrations were measured before and 3 months after the administration of a maximally effective dose of metformin to 31 patients with type 2 diabetes in poor glycemic control (fasting plasma concentrations > 9.7 mmol/L), while being treated with either diet (n = 16) or a maximal amount of a sulfonylurea compound (n = 15). Fasting plasma glucose concentration (mean +/- SEM) decreased to a similar degree (P <.01) in patients treated with either metformin alone (12.4 +/- 0.5 to 9.5 +/- 0.5 mmol/L) or when it was added to a sulfonylurea compound (14.1 +/- 0.5 to 10.6 +/- 0.9 mmol/L). The improvement in glycemic control was associated with similar decreases (P <.01) in ADMA concentrations in metformin (1.65 +/- 0.21 to 1.18 +/- 0.13 micromol/L) and sulfonylurea + metformin-treated patients (1.75 +/- 0.13 to 1.19 +/- 0.08 micromol/L). Plasma L-arginine concentrations were similar in the 2 groups at baseline and did not change in response to metformin. Thus, metformin treatment was associated with a favorable increase in the plasma L-arginine/ADMA ratio. These results provide the first evidence that plasma ADMA concentrations decrease in association with improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes and demonstrate that the magnitude of the change in metformin-treated patients was similar, irrespective of whether it was used as monotherapy or in combination with sulfonylurea treatment.
View details for DOI 10.1053/meta.2002.33349
View details for Web of Science ID 000176578200007
View details for PubMedID 12077728
Relationship between insulin resistance and an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor
JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
2002; 287 (11): 1420-1426
Increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several cardiovascular risk factors are associated with reduced sensitivity to insulin, but elevated ADMA concentrations have not been fully linked to the metabolic syndrome.To evaluate the relationship between insulin sensitivity and plasma ADMA concentrations, and to determine whether a pharmacological treatment that increases insulin sensitivity would also modulate ADMA concentrations.Cross-sectional study, containing a nonrandomized controlled trial component, of 64 healthy volunteers without diabetes (42 women, 22 men; 48 with normal blood pressure and 16 with hypertension), which was conducted at a university medical center between October 2000 and July 2001.Rosiglitazone (4 mg/d for 4 weeks and then 4 mg twice daily for 8 weeks), an insulin-sensitizing agent, was given to 7 insulin-resistant subjects with hypertension. These subjects were studied before and after 12-week treatment.Insulin sensitivity measured by the insulin suppression test, and fasting plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and ADMA concentrations.Plasma ADMA concentrations were positively correlated with impairment of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in nondiabetic, normotensive subjects (r = 0.73; P<.001). Consistent with the metabolic syndrome, ADMA levels were also positively correlated with fasting triglyceride levels (r = 0.52; P<.001) but not with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (r = 0.19; P =.20). Plasma ADMA concentrations increased in insulin-resistant subjects independent of hypertension. Pharmacological treatment improved insulin sensitivity and reduced mean (SD) plasma ADMA concentrations from 1.50 (0.30) to 1.05 (0.33) micromol/L (P =.001).A significant relationship exists between insulin resistance and plasma concentrations of ADMA. Pharmacological intervention with rosiglitazone enhanced insulin sensitivity and reduced ADMA levels. Increases in plasma ADMA concentrations may contribute to the endothelial dysfunction observed in insulin-resistant patients.
View details for Web of Science ID 000174465000024
View details for PubMedID 11903029
Homocysteine impairs the nitric oxide synthase pathway - Role of asymmetric dimethylarginine
2001; 104 (21): 2569-2575
Hyperhomocysteinemia is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which also impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. A number of other risk factors for cardiovascular disease may exert their adverse vascular effects in part by elevating plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. Accordingly, we determined if homocysteine could increase ADMA levels.When endothelial or nonvascular cells were exposed to DL-homocysteine or to its precursor L-methionine, ADMA concentration in the cell culture medium increased in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. This effect was associated with the reduced activity of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), the enzyme that degrades ADMA. Furthermore, homocysteine-induced accumulation of ADMA was associated with reduced nitric oxide synthesis by endothelial cells and segments of pig aorta. The antioxidant pyrrollidine dithiocarbamate preserved DDAH activity and reduced ADMA accumulation. Moreover, homocysteine dose-dependently reduced the activity of recombinant human DDAH in a cell free system, an effect that was due to a direct interaction between homocysteine and DDAH.Homocysteine post-translationally inhibits DDAH enzyme activity, causing ADMA to accumulate and inhibit nitric oxide synthesis. This may explain the known effect of homocysteine to impair endothelium-mediated nitric oxide-dependent vasodilatation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000172307200013
View details for PubMedID 11714652
- Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY 2001; 88 (10): 1201-?
eNOS activity is reduced in senescent human endothelial cells - Preservation by hTERT immortalization
2001; 89 (9): 793-798
Advanced age is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased risk for atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms for these observed effects are not clear. To clarify the association between aging and loss of endothelial function, young human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), senescent HAECs transfected with control vector, and immortalized HAECs containing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) were compared for expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and production of NO. To investigate a specific function modulated by endothelial NO, adhesion of monocytes under basal conditions as well as after exposure to TNF-alpha was assessed. A decrease in eNOS mRNA, protein, and activity was observed in endothelial cells at senescence as compared with young HAEC; this effect was blunted in hTERT cells. In all cells, shear stress induced a greater increase in the expression of eNOS protein with the final result being higher levels in hTERT compared with senescent cells. Basal monocyte binding was significantly elevated on aged endothelial cells compared with parental and hTERT cells. Exposure of TNF-alpha resulted in a 2-fold increase in monocyte adhesion in senescent cells, whereas this effect was reduced in cells transfected with hTERT. Prior exposure to fluid flow significantly reduced subsequent monocyte adhesion in all groups. These studies demonstrate that replicative aging results in decreased endothelial expression of eNOS accompanied by enhanced monocyte binding. Stable expression of hTERT results in endothelial cells with a younger phenotype with greater amount of eNOS and NO activity. Thus, telomerase transfection may have important functional consequences on endothelial cells.
View details for Web of Science ID 000171974800010
View details for PubMedID 11679409
Stent-based delivery of sirolimus reduces neointimal formation in a porcine coronary model
2001; 104 (10): 1188-1193
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of stent-based delivery of sirolimus (SRL) alone or in combination with dexamethasone (DEX) to reduce in-stent neointimal hyperplasia. SRL is a potent immunosuppressive agent that inhibits SMC proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression.Stents were coated with a nonerodable polymer containing 185 microgram SRL, 350 microgram DEX, or 185 microgram SRL and 350 microgram DEX. Polymer biocompatibility studies in the porcine and canine models showed acceptable tissue response at 60 days. Forty-seven stents (metal, n=13; SRL, n=13; DEX, n=13; SRL and DEX, n=8) were implanted in the coronary arteries of 16 pigs. The tissue level of SRL was 97+/-13 ng/artery, with a stent content of 71+/-10 microgram at 3 days. At 7 days, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and retinoblastoma protein expression were reduced 60% and 50%, respectively, by the SRL stents. After 28 days, the mean neointimal area was 2.47+/-1.04 mm(2) for the SRL alone and 2.42+/-1.04 mm(2) for the combination of SRL and DEX compared with the metal (5.06+/-1.88 mm(2), P<0.0001) or DEX-coated stents (4.31+/-3.21 mm(2), P<0.001), resulting in a 50% reduction of percent in-stent stenosis.Stent-based delivery of SRL via a nonerodable polymer matrix is feasible and effectively reduces in-stent neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting cellular proliferation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000170922100022
View details for PubMedID 11535578
Cholesterol-induced upregulation of angiotensin II and its effects on monocyte-endothelial interaction and superoxide production
2001; 6 (3): 133-138
Atherogenesis involves an early endothelial dysfunction hallmarked by elevated free radical production and increased adhesiveness for monocytes. It was hypothesized that activation of the tissue renin angiotensin system may contribute to the endothelial alteration. To test this hypothesis, thoracic aortae were isolated from normocholesterolemic (NC; n = 6) and hypercholesterolemic (HC; n = 6; diet: 0.5% cholesterol; 6 weeks) New Zealand white rabbits, and incubated for 2 h with the angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor antagonist Sar-1,Ile-8-Ang II, the antioxidant pyrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and the protein kinase C (PKC) antagonist staurosporin. Superoxide production from aortic segments was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. In comparison to the normocholesterolemic state, hypercholesterolemia led to a significant increase in superoxide production (221 +/- 44%, p < 0.02); this was reduced by ex vivo treatment of the vessel segment with Ang II-antagonist (to 130 +/- 29%; p < 0.04 vs HC), or PKC-antagonist (to 86 +/- 26%; p < 0.001 vs HC), or PDTC (to 103 +/- 27%; p < 0.02 vs HC). Monocyte-endothelial interaction was assessed by functional binding assay. When compared to normocholesterolemic rabbits, hypercholesterolemia led to a twofold increase in monocyte binding (74 +/- 13 vs 37 +/- 4 monocytoid cells per high power field (m/hpf); p < 0.03). The Ang II-antagonist and the PKC-antagonist led to a normalization of monocyte-endothelial binding (Ang II-antagonist: 37 +/- 9 m/hpf; PKC-antagonist: 41 +/- 17 m/hpf; p < 0.05). In conclusion, these results indicate that hypercholesterolemia activates the tissue renin angiotensin system, which results in an increased endothelial production of superoxide and monocyte adhesiveness. Ang II-antagonist inhibits free radical production and monocyte adhesion through a mechanism which may include PKC.
View details for Web of Science ID 000172694700002
View details for PubMedID 11789966
Effects of stenting on adjacent vascular distensibility and neointima formation: role of nitric oxide
2001; 6 (3): 139-144
Intravascular stents increase long-term patency but their effects on the vascular mechanics of adjacent segments have not been studied. In this study, stents were deployed in the rabbit abdominal aorta after 1 week of normal diet, 1% cholesterol diet or 1% cholesterol diet with L-nitro arginine (L-NA 60 mg/l water). Intravascular ultrasound showed a small distal decrease in vessel distensibility (area/pressure * 100) before stenting. Distensibility was almost abolished by stenting (0.12 +/- 0.01, p < 0.001), but was increased proximal to the stent and decreased distal to the stent both acutely (proximal: 1.18 +/- 0.10 vs distal: 0.65 +/- 0.06, p < 0.001), and at 4 weeks (proximal: 1.05 +/- 0.08 vs distal: 0.37 +/- 0.07, p < 0.001). Nitric oxide (NO) activity was enhanced proximal to and within the stent, and remained constant distal to the stent, (versus control, proximal: 57 +/- 23%, stent: 136 +/- 35%, distal: 2 +/- 12%, p < 0.01). The I/M ratio was significantly higher proximal to and within the stent than in the distal segment (proximal: 0.40 +/- 0.10, stent: 0.37 +/- 0.12, distal: 0.12 +/- 0.11, p < 0.01). NO blockade with L-NA prevented hyperdistensibility proximally, and significantly increased the I/M ratio within the stent and distally (stent: 0.81 +/- 0.19, distal: 0.30 +/- 0.10, p < 0.05) but not proximally (0.38 +/- 0.09). In conclusion, aortic stenting increases proximal vascular distensibility and intimal lesion formation. Nitric oxide blockade augments intimal growth within but not proximal to the stent.
View details for Web of Science ID 000172694700003
View details for PubMedID 11789967
Nicotine stimulates angiogenesis and promotes tumor growth and atherosclerosis
2001; 7 (7): 833-839
We provide anatomic and functional evidence that nicotine induces angiogenesis. We also show that nicotine accelerates the growth of tumor and atheroma in association with increased neovascularization. Nicotine increased endothelial-cell growth and tube formation in vitro, and accelerated fibrovascular growth in vivo. In a mouse model of hind-limb ischemia, nicotine increased capillary and collateral growth, and enhanced tissue perfusion. In mouse models of lung cancer and atherosclerosis, we found that nicotine enhanced lesion growth in association with an increase in lesion vascularity. These effects of nicotine were mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at nicotine concentrations that are pathophysiologically relevant. The endothelial production of nitric oxide, prostacyclin and vascular endothelial growth factor might have a role in these effects.
View details for Web of Science ID 000169808600036
View details for PubMedID 11433349
Diabetes mellitus enhances vascular matrix metalloproteinase activity - Role of oxidative stress
2001; 88 (12): 1291-1298
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although recent studies have demonstrated an important role for extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in atherosclerosis, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia on MMP regulation in vascular cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blot analysis revealed that the activity and expression of 92-kDa (MMP-9) gelatinase, but not of 72 kDa (MMP-2) gelatinase, were significantly increased in vascular tissue and plasma of two distinct rodent models of DM. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) grown in culture did not express MMP-9 constitutively; however, chronic (2-week) incubation with high glucose medium induced MMP-9 promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression, and gelatinase activity in BAECs. On the other hand, high glucose culture did not change MMP-9 activity from vascular smooth muscle cells or macrophages. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies indicate that BAECs chronically grown in high glucose conditions produce 70% more ROS than do control cells. Enhanced MMP-9 activity was significantly reduced by treatment with the antioxidants polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine but not by inhibitors of protein kinase C. In conclusion, vascular MMP-9 activity is increased in DM, in part because of enhanced elaboration from vascular endothelial cells, and oxidative stress plays an important role. This novel mechanism of redox-sensitive MMP-9 expression by hyperglycemia may provide a rationale for antioxidant therapy to modulate diabetic vascular complications.
View details for Web of Science ID 000169541600013
View details for PubMedID 11420306
Cyclic strain induces reactive oxygen species production via an endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase
JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY
Vascular endothelial cells are constantly subjected to pressure-induced cyclic strain. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. Recent evidence indicates that a vascular NAD(P)H oxidase may be an important source of ROS in both physiologic and pathophysiologic situations. The aim of this study was to investigate cyclic strain-induced NAD(P)H oxidase activity in endothelial cells. ROS production was examined by electron paramagnetic resonance and lucigenin chemiluminescence. Cyclic strain-induced NAD(P)H oxidase activity was quantified by activity assay while the expression of p22phox was monitored by Northern blotting. Endothelial cells produce basal amounts of ROS that were enhanced by cyclic strain. Moreover subsequent stimulation with TNF-alpha resulted in significantly greater ROS production in cells previously exposed to cyclic strain as compared to static conditions. Cyclic strain resulted in a significant increase in message for the p22phox subunit as well as activity of the NAD(P)H oxidase. The induced oxidative stress was accompanied by increased mobilization of the transcription factor NFkappaB, an effect that was blocked by a pharmacological inhibitor of NAD(P)H. These results demonstrate a pivotal role for NAD(P)H oxidase in cyclic strain-induced endothelial ROS production and may provide insight into the modulation of vascular disease by biomechanical forces. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl. 36: 99-106, 2001.
View details for Web of Science ID 000168543400011
View details for PubMedID 11455575
Mechanotransduction of endothelial oxidative stress induced by cyclic strain
ENDOTHELIUM-JOURNAL OF ENDOTHELIAL CELL RESEARCH
2001; 8 (4): 283-291
Atherosclerotic lesions display a nonuniform distribution throughout the vascular tree. Mechanical forces produced by local alterations in blood flow may play an important role in the localization of atherosclerosis. One such force, cyclic strain, has been hypothesized to promote atherogenesis by inducing oxidative stress in endothelial cells, resulting in enhanced endothelial adhesiveness for monocytes. To investigate the signal transduction systems involved, human aortic endothelial cells were plated on flexible silicone strips that were either non-coated or adsorbed with poly-L-lysine, vitronectin, fibronectin, or collagen I. Cells were then subjected to uniform sinusoidal stretch (10%) for 6 h. Endothelial superoxide anion production was increased in cells exposed to cyclic strain compared to static conditions. Furthermore, endothelial oxidative response to stretch was matrix protein-dependent, whereas cells grown on fibronectin and collagen I produced significantly more superoxide. The oxidative response to cyclic strain was reduced by coincubation with RGD peptides, blocking antibodies to alpha2- and beta-integrins antibodies, as well as inhibitors of protein kinase C. To investigate the effect of oxidative stress on gene transcription, endothelial cells grown on collagen I were transfected with an NFkappaB-sensitive luciferase construct. Cells that underwent cyclic strain displayed a tenfold induction of NFkappaB activation compared to static controls. Strain-induced luciferase activity was blunted by coincubation with RGD peptides or calphostin C. Thus, exposure of endothelial cells to cyclic strain led to integrin activation of a PKC-sensitive pathway that results in increased superoxide anion production and mobilization of NFkappaB.
View details for Web of Science ID 000173063400007
View details for PubMedID 11824481
An endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase regulates endothelial adhesiveness for monocytes
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
2000; 36 (7): 2287-2295
We sought to determine whether asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) inhibits nitric oxide (NO) elaboration in cultured human endothelial cells and whether this is associated with the activation of oxidant-sensitive signaling mediating endothelial adhesiveness for monocytes.Endothelial NO elaboration is impaired in hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, which may be due to elevated concentrations of ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase.Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV 304) and human monocytoid cells (THP-1) were studied in a functional binding assay. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion (O2-) were measured by chemiluminescence; ADMA by high pressure liquid chromatography; monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) by ELISA and NF-KB by electromobility gel shift assay.Incubation of endothelial cells with ADMA (0.1 microM to 100 microM) inhibited NO formation, which was reversed by coincubation with L-arginine (1 mM). The biologically inactive stereoisomer symmetric dimethylarginine did not inhibit NO release. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (10 microM) or native low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (100 mg/dL) increased endothelial O2- to the same degree. Asymmetric dimethylarginine also stimulated MCP-1 formation by endothelial cells. This effect was paralleled by activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-KB. Preincubation of endothelial cells with ADMA increased the adhesiveness of endothelial cells for THP-1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Asymmetric dimethylarginine-induced monocyte binding was diminished by L-arginine or by a neutralizing anti-MCP-1 antibody.We concluded that the endogenous NO synthase inhibitor ADMA is synthesized in human endothelial cells. Asymmetric dimethylarginine increases endothelial oxidative stress and potentiates monocyte binding. Asymmetric dimethylarginine may be an endogenous proatherogenic molecule.
View details for Web of Science ID 000165600400041
View details for PubMedID 11127475
Regulated expression of endothelial cell-derived lipase
BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS
2000; 272 (1): 90-93
A lipoprotein lipase-like gene was recently cloned from endothelial cells. In vitro functional experiments have suggested that this endothelial-derived lipase (EDL) has phospholipase activity, and preliminary in vivo studies have suggested a role in the regulation of high-density lipoprotein metabolism. To investigate local control of lipase activity and lipid metabolism in the blood vessel wall, we have examined the regulation of EDL expression in cultured human umbilical vein and coronary artery endothelial cells. EDL mRNA levels were upregulated in both cell types by inflammatory cytokines implicated in vascular disease etiology, including TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. In addition, both fluid shear stress and cyclic stretch were found to increase the EDL mRNA levels in these cultured cells. This highly regulated expression of EDL in vascular endothelial cells suggests that this recently identified lipase is intricately involved in modulating vessel wall lipid metabolism and may play a role in vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis.
View details for Web of Science ID 000087378900015
View details for PubMedID 10872808
Asymmetric dimethylarginine increases mononuclear cell adhesiveness in hypercholesterolemic humans
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY
2000; 20 (4): 1040-1046
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is elevated in hypercholesterolemia. This study was designed to determine the role of ADMA in the increased mononuclear cell adhesiveness observed in human hypercholesterolemia. In patient studies, plasma ADMA levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Functional mononuclear leukocyte adhesion assays were performed in parallel, and flow cytometry was used to characterize bound monocytes and T lymphocytes. Hypercholesterolemic patients were then placed on an oral L-arginine regimen of 14 or 21 g/d and studied over 12 weeks. In cell culture studies, bovine aortic endothelial cells were incubated with varied concentrations of ADMA. Monocytoid cells were cocultured with these bovine aortic endothelial cells, and their adhesiveness was assessed by use of a binding assay. Flow cytometry was used to quantify adhesion molecule expression. Plasma ADMA levels and adhesiveness of mononuclear cells (specifically, monocytes and T lymphocytes) were elevated in hypercholesterolemic patients. Adhesiveness was inversely correlated with the plasma L-arginine/ADMA ratio. Oral administration of L-arginine normalized plasma L-arginine/ADMA ratios and attenuated monocyte and T-lymphocyte adhesiveness. ADMA had no direct effect on the adhesiveness of mononuclear cells. However, monocytes became hyperadhesive when cocultured with ADMA-exposed endothelial cells. In human hypercholesterolemia, the plasma L-arginine/ADMA ratio is inversely correlated with mononuclear cell adhesiveness. Restoration of the L-arginine/ADMA ratio to control levels normalizes mononuclear cell adhesiveness. Our studies suggest that the elaboration of endothelium-derived nitric oxide affects the behavior of circulating T lymphocytes and monocytes.
View details for Web of Science ID 000086468300020
View details for PubMedID 10764670
Gene transfer of nitric oxide synthase - Effects on endothelial biology
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
1999; 34 (4): 1201-1207
The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in monocyte-endothelial interaction by augmenting NO release via transfection of human endothelial cells (ECs) with EC NO synthase (eNOS) DNA.Enhancement of NO synthesis by L-arginine or shear stress reduces endothelial adhesiveness for monocytes and inhibits atherogenesis. To elucidate further the underlying mechanism, we augmented NO synthase expression by transfection of human EC.Liposome-mediated transfection of EC was performed with a plasmid construct containing the gene encoding eNOS. Expression of eNOS was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Endothelial cells were exposed to human monocytoid cells, and adherent cells were quantitated using a computer-assisted program. Nitric oxide was measured by chemiluminescence.The NO levels were not different in EC that were either not transfected, transfected with beta-gal or liposomes only. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) transfection increased NO release by +60% (n = 6), which increased further when EC were stimulated by shear stress (24 h) by +137% (n = 5) as compared with untransfected, unstimulated EC (both p < 0.05). The RT-PCR revealed diminished monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in eNOS transfected EC. There was an inverse relation between NO levels and monocyte binding (r = -0.5669, p < 0.002). Stimulation of EC with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; 250 U/ml) led to a decrease in NO synthesis, and an increase in monocyte binding. Cells transfected with NOS were resistant to both effects of TNF-alpha.Endothelial cells transfected with eNOS synthesize an increased amount of NO; this is associated with diminished MCP-1 expression and monocyte-endothelial binding. The reduction in monocyte-endothelial binding persists even after cytokine stimulation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000082936900039
View details for PubMedID 10520813
Enhanced monocyte adherence to thoracic aortae from rats with two forms of experimental hypertension
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION
1999; 12 (9): 890-893
To extend our previous observation that thoracic aortae from rats with spontaneous hypertension (SHR) bind monocytoid cells with enhanced avidity, we isolated thoracic aortae from two different forms of rodent hypertension: Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S) rats fed a high salt diet and Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats fed a fructose-enriched diet. Blood pressure was determined 14 days after feeding normal chow or chow containing 8% NaCl to Dahl-S and Dahl salt-resistant (Dahl-R) rats, and either chow or a fructose-enriched diet to S-D and Fischer 344 (F-344) rats. Blood pressure was similar in Dahl-S and Dahl-R rats on the chow diet, but higher in Dahl-S rats in response to the 8% NaCl diet (188 +/- 7 v 137 +/- 3 mm Hg, P < .001). Blood pressure also increased when S-D rats consumed fructose as compared with chow (149 +/- 4 v 128 +/-2, P < .05), whereas blood pressure did not change with diet in F-344. Thoracic aortae were removed from rats in each experimental group, and their ability to bind murine monocytoid cells quantified. Measurements of monocyte binding were performed on one experimental and one control rat simultaneously, and results presented as the ratio of cells bound by thoracic aortae from the experimental compared with the control rat. With this approach, the ratio of monocyte binding (8% NaCl/chow) was increased in Dahl-S versus Dahl-R rats (1.7 +/- 0.1 v 1.3 +/- 0.1, P < .05), as well as in S-D as compared with F-344 rats (1.7 +/- 0.2 v 1.1 +/-0.1, P < .05). These results provide evidence that hypertension in Dahl-S and fructose-fed S-D rats was associated with changes in the endothelium that favor atherogenesis.
View details for Web of Science ID 000082738300006
View details for PubMedID 10509546
Mononuclear cell adherence to cultured endothelium is enhanced by hypertension and insulin resistance in healthy nondiabetic volunteers
1999; 100 (9): 940-943
This study was initiated to compare the adherence to cultured endothelial cells of mononuclear cells isolated from normotensive and hypertensive individuals.Mononuclear cell binding to endothelium was greater in patients with hypertension (32+/-1 versus 25+/-2; P<0.001) than in normal volunteers. There was a significant relationship (r=0.42, P<0. 01) between mononuclear cell binding and mean arterial pressure, independent of differences in age, sex, and body mass index. A significant relationship also existed between insulin resistance (estimated by the steady-state plasma glucose concentration during the insulin suppression test) and mononuclear cell binding in both the normotensive (r=0.86, P<0.001) and hypertensive (r=0.74, P<0. 001) groups. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis demonstrated an independent relationship (P<0.001) between mononuclear cell binding and both steady-state plasma glucose and hypertensive status.These results indicate that both hypertension and insulin resistance lead to changes in mononuclear cells that increase their adherence to cultured endothelial cells.
View details for Web of Science ID 000082353000009
View details for PubMedID 10468524
Novel mechanism for endothelial dysfunction - Dysregulation of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase
1999; 99 (24): 3092-3095
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Plasma levels of ADMA are elevated in individuals with hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerosis. We postulated that reduced degradation of ADMA may play a role in the accumulation of ADMA in these individuals. Accordingly, we studied the effects of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on the accumulation of ADMA by transformed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV304) and on the enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), which degrades ADMA.ECV304 were incubated with or without native LDL (100 micrograms/mL), oxLDL (100 micrograms/mL), or TNF-alpha (250 U/mL) for 48 hours. The concentration of ADMA in the conditioned medium was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Western blotting was performed to evaluate DDAH expression. We assayed DDAH activity by determining L-citrulline formation from ADMA. The addition of oxLDL or TNF-alpha to ECV304 significantly increased the level of ADMA in the conditioned medium. The effect of oxLDL or TNF-alpha was not due to a change in DDAH expression but rather to the reduction of DDAH activity. To determine whether dysregulation of DDAH also occurred in vivo, New Zealand White rabbits were fed normal chow or a high-cholesterol diet. Hypercholesterolemia significantly reduced aortic, renal, and hepatic DDAH activity.These results suggest that the endothelial vasodilator dysfunction observed in hypercholesterolemia may be due to reduced degradation of ADMA, the endogenous inhibitor of NOS.
View details for Web of Science ID 000080943900003
View details for PubMedID 10377069
Impaired aerobic capacity in hypercholesterolemic mice: partial reversal by exercise training
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY
1999; 276 (4): H1346-H1354
The present study assessed whether impaired aerobic capacity previously observed in hypercholesterolemic mice is reversible by exercise training. Seventy-two 8-wk-old female C57BL/6J wild-type (+, n = 42) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (-, n = 30) mice were assigned to the following eight interventions: normal chow, sedentary (E+, n = 17; E-, n = 8) or exercised (E+ex, n = 13; E-ex, n = 7) and high-fat chow, sedentary (E+chol, n = 6; E-chol, n = 8) or exercised (E+chol-ex, n = 6; E-chol-ex, n = 7). Mice were trained on a treadmill 2 x 1 h/day, 6 days/wk, for 4 wk. Cholesterol levels correlated inversely with maximum oxygen uptake (r = -0.35; P < 0. 02), which was blunted in all hypercholesterolemic sedentary groups (all P < 0.05). Maximum oxygen uptake improved in all training groups but failed to match E+ex (all P < 0.05). Vascular reactivity and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis correlated with anaerobic threshold (r = 0.36; P < 0.025) and maximal distance run (r = 0.59; P < 0.007). We conclude that genetically induced hypercholesterolemia impairs aerobic capacity. This adverse impact of hypercholesterolemia on aerobic capacity may be related to its impairment of vascular NO synthesis and/or vascular smooth muscle sensitivity to nitrovasodilators. Aerobic capacity is improved to the same degree by exercise training in normal and genetically hypercholesterolemic mice, although there remains a persistent difference between these groups after training.
View details for Web of Science ID 000079554200030
View details for PubMedID 10199861
Regression of atherosclerosis - Role of nitric oxide and apoptosis
1999; 99 (9): 1236-1241
We have recently found that administration of L-arginine to hypercholesterolemic rabbits induces regression of preexisting lesions. Others have previously shown that activation of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) synthase pathway can induce apoptosis of vascular cells in vitro. Accordingly, the current study was designed to determine if dietary supplementation of L-arginine induces apoptosis of intimal lesions and if this effect is mediated through the NO synthase pathway.Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet for 10 weeks and subsequently placed on 2.5% L-arginine HCl in the drinking water, and the cholesterol diet was continued for 2 weeks, at which time the aortas were harvested for histological studies. L-Arginine treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells (largely macrophages) in the intimal lesions by 3-fold (11.9+/-3.9 vs 3.9+/-1. 4 apoptotic cells/mm2, P<0.01). In subsequent studies, aortas were harvested for ex vivo studies. Aortic segments were incubated in cell culture medium for 4 to 24 hours with modulators of the NO synthase pathway. The tissues were then collected for histological studies and the conditioned medium collected for measurement of nitrogen oxides by chemiluminescence. Addition of sodium nitroprusside (10(-5) mol/L) to the medium caused a time-dependent increase in apoptosis of vascular cells (largely macrophages) in the intimal lesion. L-Arginine (10(-3) mol/L) had an identical effect on apoptosis, which was associated with an increase in nitrogen oxides released into the medium. These effects were not mimicked by D-arginine, and they were antagonized by the NO synthase inhibitor L-nitro-arginine (10(-4) mol/L). The effect of L-arginine was not influenced by an antagonist of cGMP-dependent protein kinase, nor was the effect mimicked by the agonist of protein kinase G or 8-BR cGMP.These results indicate that supplemental L-arginine induces apoptosis of macrophages in intimal lesions by its metabolism to NO, which acts through a cGMP-independent pathway. These studies are consistent with our previous observation that supplementation of dietary arginine induces regression of atheroma in this animal model. These studies provide a rationale for further investigation of the therapeutic potential of manipulating the NO synthase pathway in atherosclerosis.
View details for Web of Science ID 000078978500016
View details for PubMedID 10069793
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA): A novel risk factor for endothelial dysfunction - Its role in hypercholesterolemia
1998; 98 (18): 1842-1847
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Because endothelial NO elaboration is impaired in hypercholesterolemia, we investigated whether plasma concentrations of ADMA are elevated in young, clinically asymptomatic hypercholesterolemic adults. We further studied whether such elevation of ADMA levels was correlated with impaired endothelium-dependent, NO-mediated vasodilation and urinary nitrate excretion. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigated whether these changes could be reversed with exogenous L-arginine.We measured plasma levels of L-arginine, ADMA, and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA) by high-performance liquid chromatography in 49 hypercholesterolemic (HC) and 31 normocholesterolemic (NC) humans. In 8 HC subjects, endothelium-dependent forearm vasodilation was assessed before and after an intravenous infusion of L-arginine or placebo and compared with 8 NC control subjects. ADMA levels were significantly elevated by >100% (2.17+/-0.15 versus 1.03+/-0.09 micromol/L; P<0.05) in HC subjects compared with NC adults. L-Arginine levels were similar, resulting in a significantly decreased L-arginine/ADMA ratio in HC subjects (27.7+/-2.4 versus 55. 7+/-5.4; P<0.05). In 8 HC subjects, intravenous infusion of L-arginine significantly increased the L-arginine/ADMA ratio and normalized endothelium-dependent vasodilation and urinary nitrate excretion. ADMA levels were inversely correlated with endothelium-mediated vasodilation (R=0.762, P<0.01) and urinary nitrate excretion rates (R=0.534, P<0.01).We find that ADMA is elevated in young HC individuals. Elevation of ADMA is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and reduced urinary nitrate excretion. This abnormality is reversed by administration of L-arginine. ADMA may be a novel risk factor for endothelial dysfunction in humans.
View details for Web of Science ID 000076718900005
View details for PubMedID 9799202
- Modulation of the nitric oxide synthase pathway in atherosclerosis EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY 1998; 83 (5): 573-584
Interaction of diabetes and hypertension on determinants of endothelial adhesiveness
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY
1998; 18 (6): 947-953
Epidemiological studies have established that diabetes mellitus and hypertension are independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. One of the earliest abnormalities seen in atherogenesis is enhanced monocyte adherence to the endothelium. The mechanisms by which diabetes mellitus or hypertension enhances monocyte-endothelial cell interactions are incompletely characterized. It is not known whether there are additive interactions between these risk factors on endothelial adhesiveness for monocytes. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats were fed a normal or fructose-enriched diet. In some cases, animals were injected with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg body weight) to induce diabetes. After 2 weeks, plasma was drawn for biochemical measurements, and thoracic aortas were harvested, opened longitudinally, and exposed to fluorescently labeled mouse monocytoid cells (WEHI 78/24, 2 x 10(6)/mL) for 30 minutes on a rocking platform. Adherent cells were counted by epifluorescence microscopy. WEHI 78/24 binding to aortic segments from SHR animals was elevated compared with segments from WKYs. Fructose feeding alone had no effect on endothelial adhesiveness. When WKYs were made hyperglycemic by STZ injection, monocyte binding was 160% of the control value. Elevated monocyte binding was also observed in aortas derived from SHR animals injected with STZ, indicating an additive effect of hypertension and hyperglycemia. To determine whether alterations in oxidative state played a role in the endothelial adhesiveness, aortic segments were exposed to lucigenin (250 micromol/L) for measurement of superoxide anion. Aortic segments from SHR elaborated 120% more superoxide anion than did controls. Elevated free-radical production was also observed in aortas from diabetic WKYs. Furthermore, thoracic aortas derived from diabetic SHR animals elaborated more superoxide anion than did any of the other groups (374%, P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 demonstrated increased expression in aortas isolated from diabetic WKY and SHR compared with control vessels. These studies demonstrate that both diabetes and hypertension lead to increased monocyte adherence to the endothelium. This abnormality is associated with increased vascular superoxide production and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression. Furthermore, there appears to be an additive interaction between hyperglycemia and hypertension in their effects on endothelial adhesiveness and its determinants.
View details for Web of Science ID 000074175500014
View details for PubMedID 9633936
Endothelial alterations in hypercholesterolemia: More than simply vasodilator dysfunction
JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR PHARMACOLOGY
1998; 32: S48-S53
Occlusive vascular disease begins with an alteration of the endothelium, which is characterized by a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) activity. Endogenous NO inhibits many key processes in atherogenesis, including monocyte adherence, platelet activation, and smooth muscle proliferation. The mechanism by which NO activity is reduced in hypercholesterolemia and in other metabolic disorders associated with atherogenesis appears to be multifactorial. It includes increased production of oxygen-derived free radicals, alterations in NO synthase, and the accumulation of endogenous inhibitors (ADMA) of NO synthase. Plasma concentrations of ADMA are elevated in hypercholesterolemic humans. Elevated ADMA concentrations are associated with impaired endothelium-dependent, NO-mediated vasodilatation and reduced urinary nitrate exertion. These effects of ADMA are counteracted by administration of the NO precursor L-arginine. It is likely that basic insights regarding the mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction will lead to new therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis.
View details for Web of Science ID 000077892100009
View details for PubMedID 9883748
Adhesiveness of mononuclear cells in hypercholesterolemic humans is normalized by dietary L-arginine
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY
1997; 17 (12): 3557-3564
Hypercholesterolemia reduces vascular nitric oxide (NO) activity. This dysfunction may promote endothelial monocyte interaction, as NO is a potent inhibitor of cell adhesion. We have previously shown that in hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits, chronic oral supplementation of L-arginine (Arg) restores NO activity and inhibits monocyte-endothelial cell interaction, in association with a reduction in atherogenesis. We hypothesized that enhancement of endothelial NO activity in HC humans would reduce monocyte adhesiveness. We used a functional binding assay to assess the adhesiveness of human mononuclear cells (MNCs) ex vivo to determine the effects of hypercholesterolemia and L-arginine administration. MNCs from HC subjects adhered in greater numbers (50% more cells per high-power field; P < .0001) than cells derived from normocholesterolemic (NC) subjects. To determine whether enhancement of endogenous NO activity could inhibit mononuclear cell adhesiveness, in a double-blinded placebo-controlled study, oral arginine HCl (8.4 g/d) was administered to HC subjects. Over a course of 2 weeks, this treatment abolished the increased adhesiveness of HC MNCs (160 +/- 11% versus 104 +/- 5%; before and after 2 weeks of Arg treatment; results expressed as a percentage of the binding values obtained using cells derived from paired NC individuals). By contrast, MNC adhesion remained significantly elevated in placebo-treated HC subjects. To examine whether endothelium-derived NO could act as a paracrine modulator of monocyte behavior, monocytes were exposed to NO donors or cocultered in the presence of endothelial cells exposed to antagonists of NO synthase in the presence or absence of L-arginine. NO donors inhibited monocyte adhesiveness. Furthermore, the adhesiveness of monocytes cocultured with endothelial cells was increased by antagonists of NO synthase; this effect was reversed by L-arginine. This study shows that the adhesiveness of human MNCs is increased by hypercholesterolemia. The increase in adhesiveness was reversed in vivo by administration of the NO precursor L-arginine. NO donors or endothelium-derived NO inhibits the adhesiveness of monocytes in vitro, supporting the hypothesis that the effects of L-arginine are mediated by NO.
View details for Web of Science ID 000072212600025
View details for PubMedID 9437205
Anti-CD43 inhibits monocyte-endothelial adhesion in inflammation and atherogenesis
1997; 90 (9): 3587-3594
Recruitment of blood monocytes into tissues is a central event in the inflammatory response and in atherogenesis. The mechanisms leading to monocyte adhesion and migration through endothelium are not completely defined. We recently reported that MAb L11, against the leukocyte sialomucin CD43, blocks T-lymphocyte binding to lymph node and Peyer's patch high endothelial venules (HEV) and inhibits T-cell extravasation from the blood into organized secondary lymphoid tissues. We have now assessed the ability of L11 to inhibit monocyte-endothelial (EC) interactions and trafficking. L11 blocks binding of WEHI78/24 cells, a murine monocytoid cell line, to inflamed lymph node HEV and inhibits recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils to thioglycollate-inflamed peritoneum. Because monocyte adhesion to the endothelium and diapedesis in lesion-prone regions of the vasculature is among the earliest events in atherogenesis, leading to formation of lipid-laden foam cells, the ability of L11 to block monocyte recognition of aortic endothelial cells was assessed in a novel ex vivo assay of monocyte binding to intact rabbit aortic endothelium. Cholesterol feeding of rabbits induces enhanced aortic adhesiveness for monocytes and WEHI78/24 monocytoid cells, and this adhesion is inhibited by L11. The inhibitory effect of L11 is additive with that of a cocktail of anti-L-selectin and anti-alpha4 and beta2 integrin monoclonal antibodies. Thus, CD43 represents a novel target for manipulation of monocyte recruitment in inflammation and atherogenesis.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997YD10800034
View details for PubMedID 9345042
Adherence of mononuclear cells to endothelium in vitro is increased in patients with NIDDM
1997; 20 (9): 1462-1465
To compare the binding to cultured endothelial cells of mononuclear cells isolated from healthy volunteers and patients with NIDDM.Mononuclear cells were isolated from healthy volunteers (n = 11) and patients with NIDDM (n = 14) and incubated with ECV 304 cells, a human umbilical endothelial cell-derived transformed cell line. Following a period of incubation, the adherence of mononuclear cells to endothelial cells was determined.Adherence of mononuclear cells from patients with NIDDM was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that of cells isolated from the healthy volunteers, and this difference persisted when adjusted for age, sex, and degree of obesity. Mononuclear cell binding to ECV 304 cells correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.52, P < 0.01), insulin (r = 0.51, P < 0.01), triglyceride (r = 0.54, P < 0.01), and VLDL (r = 0.54, P < 0.01) and HDL cholesterol (r = -0.45, P < 0.05) levels, but not with either total or LDL cholesterol levels or blood pressure.Since the adherence of mononuclear cells to the endothelium represents the earliest step in atherogenesis, the observation that mononuclear cells from patients with NIDDM bind more avidly to cultured endothelial cells may help explain why accelerated atherosclerosis occurs in patients with NIDDM. The metabolic abnormality, or abnormalities, present in patients with NIDDM that is responsible for the enhanced adhesiveness of mononuclear cells requires further examination.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XT09100023
View details for PubMedID 9283798
Nitric oxide regulates monocyte chemotactic protein-1
1997; 96 (3): 934-940
Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is a 76-amino-acid chemokine thought to be the major chemotactic factor for monocytes. We and others have demonstrated that NO inhibits monocyte-endothelial cell interactions and atherogenesis. We hypothesize that the antiatherogenic effect of NO may be due in part to its inhibition of MCP-1 expression.Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were isolated from normal rabbit aortas by the explant method. Cells were then exposed to LPS (10 microg/mL), native LDL, or oxidized LDL (30 microg/mL) for 6 hours. The expression of MCP-1 in SMCs and chemotactic activity in the conditioned medium were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or by oxidized LDL but not native LDL. The induction of MCP-1 by cytokines or oxidized lipoproteins was associated with an increased generation of superoxide anion by the SMCs and increased activity of the transcriptional protein nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB). The induced expression of MCP-1 and activation of NFkappaB were reduced by previous exposure of the SMCs to the NO donor DETA-NONOate (100 micromol/L) (P<.05). To determine whether NO exerted its effect at a transcriptional level, SMCs and COS cells were transfected with a 400-bp fragment of the MCP-1 promoter. Promoter activity was enhanced by oxidized LDL, and LPS was inhibited by DETA-NO. Nuclear run-on assays confirmed that the effect of NO occurred at a transcriptional level. To investigate the role of endogenous NO in the regulation of MCP-1 in vivo, New Zealand White rabbits were fed normal chow, normal chow plus nitro-L-arginine (LNA), high-cholesterol diet (Chol), or high-cholesterol diet supplemented with L-arginine (Arg). After 2 weeks, thoracic aortas were harvested and total RNA was isolated. Northern analysis using full-length MCP-1 cDNA demonstrated increased expression in Chol and LNA aortas; this expression was decreased in aortas from Arg animals.These studies indicate that the antiatherogenic effect of NO may be mediated in part by its inhibition of MCP-1 expression.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XP13000035
View details for PubMedID 9264504
Novel vascular molecule involved in monocyte adhesion to aortic endothelium in models of atherogenesis
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE
1997; 185 (12): 2069-2077
Adhesion of monocytes to the endothelium in lesion-prone areas is one of the earliest events in fatty streak formation leading to atherogenesis. The molecular basis of increased monocyte adhesion is not fully characterized. We have identified a novel vascular monocyte adhesion-associated protein, VMAP-1, that plays a role in adhesion of monocytes to activated endothelium. Originally selected for its ability to block binding of a mouse monocyte-like cell line (WEHI78/24) to cytokine- or LPS-stimulated cultured mouse endothelial cells in vitro, antiVMAP-1 mAb LM151 cross-reacts with rabbit endothelium and blocks binding of human monocytes to cultured rabbit aortic endothelial cells stimulated with minimally modified low density lipoprotein, thought to be a physiologically relevant atherogenic stimulus. Most importantly, LM151 prevents adhesion of normal monocytes and monocytoid cells to intact aortic endothelium from cholesterol-fed rabbits in an ex vivo assay. VMAP-1 is a 50-kD protein. Immunohistology of vessels reveals focal constitutive expression in aorta and other large vessels. VMAP-1 is thus a novel vascular adhesion-associated protein that appears to play a critical role in monocyte adhesion to aortic endothelial cells in atherogenesis in vivo.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XF79100005
View details for PubMedID 9182678
Cell cycle inhibition preserves endothelial function in genetically engineered rabbit vein grafts
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
1997; 99 (6): 1295-1301
We have recently shown that ex vivo gene therapy of rabbit autologous vein grafts with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS ODN) blocking cell cycle regulatory gene expression inhibits not only neointimal hyperplasia, but also diet-induced, accelerated graft atherosclerosis. We observed that these grafts remained free of macrophage invasion and foam cell deposition. Since endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in vascular disease, the current study examined the effect of this genetic engineering strategy on graft endothelial function and its potential relationship to the engineered vessels' resistance to atherosclerosis. Rabbit vein grafts transfected with AS ODN against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cell division cycle 2 (cdc2) kinase elaborated significantly more nitric oxide and exhibited greater vasorelaxation to both calcium ionophore and acetylcholine than did untreated or control ODN-treated grafts. This preservation of endothelial function was associated with a reduction in superoxide radical generation, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression, and monocyte binding activity in grafts in both normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Our data demonstrate that AS ODN arrest of vascular cell cycle progression results in the preservation of normal endothelial phenotype and function, thereby influencing the biology of the vessel wall towards a reduction of its susceptibility to occlusive disease.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997WQ61300023
View details for PubMedID 9077539
Dietary L-arginine supplementation normalizes platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic humans
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
1997; 29 (3): 479-485
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that long-term dietary supplementation with the nitric oxide precursor L-arginine would enhance vascular or platelet-derived nitric oxide activity, or both, and thereby inhibit platelet reactivity in hypercholesterolemic humans.We have shown that reduced vascular activity of nitric oxide in hypercholesterolemic rabbits can be restored by L-arginine supplementation. The improvement in nitric oxide activity is associated with an inhibition of platelet aggregation ex vivo. This effect is most likely due to increased elaboration of endothelium- or platelet-derived nitric oxide, or both, because the inhibition of platelet reactivity was associated with elevation of intraplatelet cyclic guanosine monophosphate and was reversed by the nitric oxide synthase antagonist N-methyl-arginine.In a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, hypercholesterolemic patients were assigned to L-arginine hydrochloride, 8.4 g/day orally, or placebo for 2 weeks. Platelet-rich plasma was obtained for aggregometry induced by collagen (1 to 10 micrograms/ml) at four points: baseline, after 2 weeks of treatment, after a 2-week washout and after a long-term washout of 16 weeks on average. Aggregation was quantified by light transmittance and expressed as a percent transmittance observed with platelet-poor plasma.Compared with normocholesterolemic control subjects, platelets from hypercholesterolemic subjects stimulated with 5 micrograms/ml of collagen showed increased aggregability (68.6% in hypercholesterolemic patients vs. 54.5% in normocholesterolemic control subjects, p < or = 0.02). After 2 weeks of treatment with L-arginine (but not placebo), platelet reactivity was modestly reduced; this effect persisted for 2 weeks after discontinuation of arginine (52.6% in arginine-treated patients vs. 65.1% in normocholesterolemic control subjects, p = 0.07). After 18 weeks (i.e., 16 weeks after discontinuing arginine treatment), the platelets of hypercholesterolemic patients once again became hyperaggregable, and the extent of platelet aggregation was significantly increased compared with the 4-week point (73.6% after vs. 52.6% during arginine treatment, p < 0.01). No significant change in platelet reactivity was seen in placebo-treated hypercholesterolemic patients throughout the study. L-Arginine treatment was well tolerated without side effects.This double-blinded, placebo-controlled study demonstrates that dietary supplementation with L-arginine can modestly attenuate the increased platelet reactivity seen in hypercholesterolemic patients. The data are consistent with our previous studies in hypercholesterolemic animals, demonstrating that L-arginine restores endogenous nitric oxide activity and inhibits platelet aggregation. Enhancement of endogenous nitric oxide activity is a potential novel therapeutic strategy worthy of further study.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997WL49000002
View details for PubMedID 9060881
Arginine restores nitric oxide activity and inhibits monocyte accumulation after vascular injury in hypercholesterolemic rabbits
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
1996; 28 (6): 1573-1579
This study sought to determine whether the alterations in vascular function and structure after balloon injury in hypercholesterolemic rabbits could be inhibited by dietary arginine.Administration of arginine (the nitric oxide [NO] precursor) restores vascular NO activity in hypercholesterolemic animals. We and other investigators have shown that enhancement of vascular NO activity can inhibit myointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury in normocholesterolemic animals.Twenty-eight New Zealand White rabbits received either normal rabbit chow, 0.5% cholesterol diet or 0.5% cholesterol diet plus L-arginine hydrochloride (2.25% wt/vol) in the drinking water. After 6 weeks of dietary intervention, the left iliac artery of each animal was subjected to a balloon injury. Four weeks later, the iliac arteries were harvested for vascular reactivity studies and immunohistochemical analysis.Vascular injury induced intimal thickening that was largely composed of vascular smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix. In the setting of hypercholesterolemia, vascular injury induced an exuberant myointimal lesion that was augmented by the accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages. Dietary arginine reduced intimal thickening in the injured vessels of hypercholes-terolemic animals and substantially inhibited the accumulation of macrophages in the lesion (from 28% to 5% of the lesion area, p < 0.001).We report that lesions induced by vascular injury in hypercholesterolemic animals are markedly reduced by oral administration of arginine. Moreover, we find that the nature of the lesion is altered, with a striking reduction in the percentage of macrophages comprising the lesion.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VT31000020
View details for PubMedID 8917274
Fluid flow inhibits endothelial adhesiveness - Nitric oxide and transcriptional regulation of VCAM-1
1996; 94 (7): 1682-1689
In the arterial tree, regions exposed to reduced shear stress (low and/or disturbed flow) are predisposed to atherogenesis. Fluid flow is a potent stimulus for the release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). Because NO inhibits monocyte-endothelial cell interaction, we speculated that the effects of flow in inhibiting atherogenesis might be mediated in part by NO.Confluent monolayers of human aortic endothelial cells were exposed to static or fluid flow conditions for 4 hours. The medium was replaced, and cells were then incubated with native LDL (50 micrograms/mL), oxidized LDL (30 micrograms/mL), or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 ng/mL)+tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (10 U/mL) for an additional 4 hours. Functional binding assays using THP-1 monocytes were then performed. Superoxide production by human aortic endothelial cells was monitored by lucigenin chemiluminescence, and expression of the adhesion molecules vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were quantified by flow cytometry. Whereas native LDL had little effect, incubation with either oxidized LDL or LPS/TNF-alpha significantly increased superoxide production, nuclear factor-kappa B activity, VCAM-1 expression, and endothelial adhesiveness for monocytes. Previous exposure to fluid flow inhibited these sequelae of exposure to cytokines or oxidized lipoprotein. The effect of fluid flow appears to be due in part to shear-induced release of NO, because coincubation with nitro-L-arginine completely abolished these effects of flow. Furthermore, the NO donor PAPA-NONO-ate and 8-Br-cGMP (but not 8-Br-cAMP) mimicked the effects of flow.Previous exposure to fluid flow decreased cytokine- or lipoprotein-stimulated endothelial cell superoxide production, VCAM-1 expression, and monocyte binding; the effects of flow appear to be due to NO. Flow-mediated NO-dependent regulation of oxidant-responsive transcription may influence the site of a lesion.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VJ97900030
View details for PubMedID 8840861
Hypertension-enhanced monocyte adhesion in experimental atherosclerosis
JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY
1996; 23 (4): 596-605
Hypertension is a known clinical risk factor for atherosclerosis. In experimental atherosclerosis, monocyte adhesion to the endothelial surface is enhanced and is considered to be an important early stage in plaque formation. We tested the hypothesis that hypertension enhances monocyte adhesion in experimental atherosclerosis.Twenty-two New Zealand White rabbits were fed an atherogenic diet for 3 weeks to induce plaque formation. Aortic coarctation was created in eight rabbits by wrapping a Dacron band around the midportion of the descending thoracic aorta (stenosis group), whereas six rabbits underwent banding without aortic constriction (no stenosis group). Eight rabbits served as nonoperated controls. Monocyte binding to the aortic endothelial surface was counted with epifluorescent microscopy on standard aortic segments proximal and distal to the band. Immunohistochemistry was performed for the following antibodies: VCAM-1, RAM11, CD11b, and factor VIII.Mean blood pressure was 89 +/- 3 mm Hg in the aorta proximal to the stenosis, compared with 64 +/- 4 mm Hg in the no stenosis group and 74 +/- 3 mm Hg in the control group (p < 0.01). The mean aortic blood pressure gradient across the stenosis was 16 +/- 2 mm Hg in the stenosis group, whereas the aortic blood pressure gradient was 0.2 +/- 0.6 mm Hg in the no stenosis group and -0.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg in the control group (p < 0.001). Monocyte adhesion to the aortic endothelial surface proximal to the stenosis was increased twofold compared with adhesion to the aorta distal to the stenosis and compared with the proximal aorta in the control group (p < 0.02). The proximal-to-distal aortic ratio of monocyte binding was enhanced in the stenosis group (2.2) compared with the no stenosis (0.76) and control (0.83) groups (p < 0.01). The intima area of the aorta proximal to the stenosis was significantly increased compared with the proximal aortas in the no stenosis and control groups (p < 0.01). RAM11, CD11b, and endothelial VCAM-1 expression were enhanced in the hypertensive region proximal to the stenosis.In the hypertensive region in the aorta proximal to the stenosis, monocyte adhesion and endothelial VCAM-1 expression were increased, with intimal thickening and accumulation of macrophages. These findings suggest that hypertension may promote atherosclerotic plaque formation by enhancing monocyte adhesion.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996UJ12600010
View details for PubMedID 8627894
Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase fin human heart failure
1996; 93 (6): 1087-1094
There is increasing evidence that alterations in nitric oxide synthesis are of pathophysiological importance in heart failure. A number of studies have shown altered nitric oxide production by the endothelial constitutive isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), but there is very little information on the role of the inducible isoform.We analyzed inducible NOS (iNOS) expression in ventricular myocardium taken from 11 control subjects (who had died suddenly from noncardiac causes), from 10 donor hearts before implantation, and from 51 patients with heart failure (24 with dilated cardiomyopathy [DCM], 17 with ischemic heart disease [IHD], and 10 with valvular heart disease [VHD]). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the presence of intact mRNA and to detect expression of iNOS and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). ANP was used as a molecular phenotypic marker of ventricular failure. iNOS was expressed in 36 of 51 biopsies (71%) from patients with heart failure and in none of the control patients (P<.0001). iNOS expression could also be detected in 50% of the donor hearts. All samples that expressed iNOS also expressed ANP. iNOS gene expression occurred in 67% of patients with DCM, 59% of patients with IHD, and 100% of patients with VHD. To determine whether iNOS protein was expressed in failing ventricles, immunohistochemistry was performed on three donor hearts and nine failing hearts with iNOS mRNA expression. Staining for iNOS was almost undetectable in the donor myocardium and in control sections, but all failing hearts showed diffuse cytoplasmic staining in cardiac myocytes. Expression of iNOS could be observed in all four chambers. Western blot analysis with the same primary antibody showed a specific positive band for iNOS protein in the heart failure specimens; minimal iNOS protein expression was seen in donor heart samples.iNOS expression occurs in failing human cardiac myocytes and may be involved in the pathophysiology of DCM, IHD, and VHD.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996UA05300006
View details for PubMedID 8653828
Induction of nitric oxide synthase in the human cardiac allograft is associated with contractile dysfunction of the left ventricle
1996; 93 (4): 720-729
The mechanisms underlying cardiac contractile dysfunction after transplantation remain poorly defined. Previous work has revealed that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in the rat heterotopic cardiac allograft during rejection; resultant overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) might cause cardiac contractile dysfunction via the negative inotropic and cytotoxic actions of NO. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that induction of iNOS may occur and be associated with cardiac allograft contractile dysfunction in humans.We prospectively studied 16 patients in the first year after cardiac transplantation at the time of serial surveillance endomyocardial biopsy. Clinical data, the results of biopsy histology, and echocardiographic and Doppler evaluation of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function were recorded. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens, and mRNA for beta-actin, detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using human specific primers, was used as a constitutive gene control; iNOS mRNA was similarly detected by RT-PCR using human specific primers. iNOS protein was detected in biopsy frozen sections by immunofluorescence. Myocardial cGMP was measured by radioimmunoassay, and serum nitrogen oxide levels (NOx = NO2 + NO3) were measured by chemiluminescence. iNOS mRNA was detected in allograft myocardium at some point in each patient and in 59 of 123 biopsies (48%) overall. In individual patients, iNOS mRNA expression was episodic and time dependent; the frequency of expression was highest during the first 180 days after transplant (P = .0006). iNOS protein associated with iNOS mRNA was detected by immunofluorescence in cardiac myocytes. iNOS mRNA expression was not related to the ISHLT histological grade of rejection or to serum levels of NOx but was associated with increased levels of myocardial cGMP (P = .01) and with both systolic (P = .024) and diastolic (P = .006) left ventricular contractile dysfunction measured by echocardiography and Doppler.These data support a relation between iNOS mRNA expression and contractile dysfunction in the human cardiac allograft.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996TV05300015
View details for PubMedID 8641001
Regression or progression - Dependency on vascular nitric oxide
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY
1996; 16 (1): 44-50
We have shown that chronic administration of the nitric oxide (NO) precursor L-arginine inhibits atherogenesis in the hypercholesterolemic rabbit. However, the effect of supplemental arginine on preexisting lesions is not known and was the focus of the present study. New Zealand White rabbits received normal chow or 0.5% cholesterol chow for 10 weeks. Subsequently, L-arginine (2.25% in drinking water; ARG group) or vehicle (CHOL group) was administered for an additional 13 weeks, while the high-cholesterol diet was continued. Thoracic aortae were harvested at weeks 10, 14, 18, or 23. Rings of aorta were used to assess NO-dependent vasodilation to acetylcholine. Maximal relaxation to acetylcholine in the CHOL rabbits became progressively attenuated from 53.4% (at week 10) to 17.4% (by week 23). Planimetry of the luminal surface of the aortae from CHOL animals revealed a progressive increase in lesion surface area from 30.3% (at week 10) to 56.5% (by week 23). By contrast, animals in the ARG groups manifested improved endothelium-dependent relaxation associated with a reduction of lesion surface area at 14 and 18 weeks. The arginine-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent relaxation was associated with an increased generation of vascular NO and a reduced generation of vascular superoxide anion. By 23 weeks, 3 of 7 ARG animals had persistent improvement in NO-dependent vasodilation and exhibited a further reduction of lesion surface area tc 5.4%. We conclude that hypercholesterolemia induces a progressive loss of NO-dependent vasodilation associated with progressive intimal lesion formation. Administration of L-arginine to animals with preexisting intimal lesions augments vascular NO elaboration, reduces superoxide anion generation, and is associated with a reduction in lesion surface area. This is the first demonstration that restoration of NO activity can induce regression of preexisting intimal lesions and provides evidence that L-arginine therapy may be of potential clinical benefit.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996TP12400006
View details for PubMedID 8548425
Felodipine inhibits intimal lesion formation in the hypercholesterolemic rabbit: differential effects on endothelial and monocyte determinants of atherogenesis.
1996; 1 (3): 173-179
The purpose of this study was to determine if the calcium entry antagonist felodipine inhibited intimal lesion formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits, and to determine if this was due to an effect upon monocyte and/or endothelial determinants of this interaction. Twenty-three male New Zealand White rabbits received the following treatment regimen for 10 weeks: normal chow (NP, n = 3); normal chow with felodipine infusion (NF, n = 6); 0.5% cholesterol chow (CP, n = 7); or 0.5% cholesterol chow and felodipine infusion (CF, n = 7). After 10 weeks blood was collected for biochemical measurements and mononuclear cell binding assays, and thoracic aortae were harvested for vascular reactivity studies and histomorphometry. In the animals receiving normal chow, felodipine did not significantly affect blood pressure, plasma cholesterol levels, binding studies, vascular reactivity, or structure; therefore these animals were analyzed as one group (N). Plasma cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in groups receiving the 0.5% cholesterol diet (N, 29 +/- 3 mg/dl; CP, 1221 +/- 73 mg/dl; CF, 979 +/- 108 mg/dl). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was not different between the groups (25 +/- 4 vs 23 +/- 4 vs 27 +/- 4 mg/dl; N vs CF vs CP respectively; p = NS). Cholesterol feeding markedly augmented the adhesiveness of mononuclear cells, as demonstrated by a 250% increase in cell binding. Felodipine did not alter the adhesiveness of mononuclear cells in hypercholesterolemic animals. Cholesterol feeding significantly impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations. Endothelium-dependent relaxations were restored by felodipine treatment as reflected by the maximal responses to acetylcholine (40 +/- 7% vs 58 +/- 4% vs 67 +/- 5%; CP vs CF vs N respectively). The improvement in endothelium-dependent relaxation in the felodipine-treated animals was associated with a 2.2-fold reduction in lesion surface area of the thoracic aorta (8.2 +/- 6.3% vs 18.2 +/- 9.5%; CF vs CP; p < 0.01). Moreover, the intima/media ratio reflecting lesion thickness was substantially reduced by felodipine treatment (0.05 +/- 0.02 vs 0.20 +/- 0.07; CF vs CP; p = 0.006). Ex vivo studies revealed that felodipine inhibited the adhesiveness of vascular endothelium, but not mononuclear cells, derived from hypercholesterolemic animals. Low-dose felodipine appears to inhibit monocyte-endothelial interaction, as indicated by a reduction in the formation of lesions in hypercholesterolemic animals. This effect is not due to an alteration in adhesiveness of mononuclear cells. The salutary effect of felodipine is associated with an increase in vascular nitric oxide activity which may reduce endothelial adhesiveness.
View details for PubMedID 9546935
EXPOSURE TO SHEAR-STRESS ALTERS ENDOTHELIAL ADHESIVENESS - ROLE OF NITRIC-OXIDE
1995; 92 (12): 3513-3519
Shear stress increases the release of nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial cells (ECs). We and others have provided evidence that endothelium-derived NO inhibits monocyte adhesion to the vessel wall. We therefore hypothesized that previous exposure to shear stress would inhibit endothelial adhesiveness for monocytes by virtue of its effect to increase NO release.Confluent monolayers of bovine aortic endothelial cells, human aortic endothelial cells, or human venous endothelial cells were exposed to laminar fluid flow. Culture media were collected for measurement of NO (by chemiluminescence) and the prostacyclin metabolite 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha. NOx and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha accumulated in the conditioned medium during laminar fluid flow from 30 minutes to 24 hours in a time-dependent fashion. In another set of studies, ECs previously exposed to flow or to static conditions were washed with Hanks' buffer and exposed to THP-1 cells for 30 minutes. Adherent cells were counted by microscopy. Previous exposure to flow reduced endothelial adhesiveness for monocytes by 50% (P < .05). The effect of flow on endothelial adhesiveness occurred within 30 minutes. This effect was abrogated by nitro-L-arginine (an antagonist of NO synthesis), as well as by tetraethylammonium ion (an antagonist of the flow-activated potassium channel); the effects of these inhibitors were reversed by the NO donor SPM-5185. Although the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin totally inhibited the flow-induced production of prostacyclin by ECs, it minimally affected adherence of THP-1 cells. The early effect of flow on endothelial adhesiveness was not mediated by alterations in the expression of the endothelial adhesion molecules VCAM-1 or ICAM-1 as assessed by fluorescent activated cell sorting.Shear stress alters endothelial adhesiveness for monocytes; at early time points, this effect is largely due to flow-stimulated release of NO and, to a lesser extent, prostacyclin. This effect of flow occurs within 30 minutes and is probably due to alterations in the signal transduction or activation state (rather than the expression) of endothelial adhesion molecules.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995TJ65500026
View details for PubMedID 8521574
GENETIC-ENGINEERING OF VEIN GRAFTS RESISTANT TO ATHEROSCLEROSIS
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
1995; 92 (10): 4502-4506
Previously, researchers have speculated that genetic engineering can improve the long-term function of vascular grafts which are prone to atherosclerosis and occlusion. In this study, we demonstrated that an intraoperative gene therapy approach using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide blockage of medial smooth muscle cell proliferation can prevent the accelerated atherosclerosis that is responsible for autologous vein graft failure. Selective blockade of the expression of genes for two cell cycle regulatory proteins, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell division cycle 2 kinase, was achieved in the smooth muscle cells of rabbit jugular veins grafted into the carotid arteries. This alteration of gene expression successfully redirected vein graft biology away from neointimal hyperplasia and toward medial hypertrophy, yielding conduits that more closely resembled normal arteries. More importantly, these genetically engineered grafts proved resistant to diet-induced atherosclerosis. These findings establish the feasibility of developing genetically engineered bioprostheses that are resistant to failure and better suited to the long-term treatment of occlusive vascular disease.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995QX87600085
View details for PubMedID 7753833
DISCORDANT EFFECTS OF DIETARY L-ARGININE ON VASCULAR STRUCTURE AND REACTIVITY IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RABBITS
JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR PHARMACOLOGY
1995; 25 (5): 710-716
We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of L-arginine (L-Arg), the precursor of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vascular responses, as well as vascular structure, in the abdominal aorta of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Rabbits were fed (a) normal rabbit chow, (b) 1% cholesterol diet, or (c) 1% cholesterol diet supplemented with 2.25% L-Arg HCl in drinking water. After 10 weeks, the abdominal aorta was harvested for study of vascular reactivity and histomorphometry. L-Arg did not affect serum cholesterol levels. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated an eightfold reduction in intimal thickening in the abdominal aorta of the arginine-supplemented hypercholesterolemic rabbits. By contrast, the effects on vascular reactivity were subtle. Contraction to norepinephrine (NE) was not altered by hypercholesterolemia or L-Arg. Contraction to acetylcholine (ACh) was increased in hypercholesterolemic animals; this was normalized by dietary arginine supplementation. Relaxation to nitroglycerin (NTG) was not altered by hypercholesterolemia but was attenuated in the arginine-supplemented rabbits. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was impaired in both hypercholesterolemic groups. Dietary L-Arg has a dramatic antiatherogenic effect in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. This effect is associated with rather slight changes in vascular reactivity that are suggestive of a slight increase in NO elaboration by the endothelium. The discordance between the effects of dietary arginine on vascular structure and reactivity suggests that the antiatherogenic effects of the NO precursor may not be mediated entirely by its effect on the endothelium.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995QV17000005
View details for PubMedID 7630149
L-ARGININE ATTENUATES PLATELET REACTIVITY IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RABBITS
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS AND THROMBOSIS
1994; 14 (10): 1529-1533
Platelets are capable of producing nitric oxide (NO) through the L-arginine-NO synthase pathway. Acute exposure to supraphysiological concentrations of L-arginine in vitro increases the production of NO by platelets and is associated with an increase in platelet cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels and a reduction in platelet aggregation. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic oral administration of L-arginine decreases platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic animals and to determine if this effect is mediated by the metabolism of L-arginine to NO. Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed normal chow (Con), a 1% cholesterol diet (Chol), or a 1% cholesterol diet supplemented with a sixfold enrichment of dietary L-arginine (Arg) or L-methionine (Met). After 10 weeks, cholesterol levels were equally increased in Chol and Arg animals, whereas plasma arginine levels were doubled in the Arg group. There was no difference in maximum aggregation initiated by ADP (100 mumol/L) between washed platelets from Con, Met, and Chol animals, but aggregation of platelets from Arg animals was significantly decreased (P < .05). In aggregating platelets from Arg animals, cGMP levels were significantly higher than the other groups (P < .05). When platelets were incubated ex vivo with the NO synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, the effects of dietary L-arginine were reversed. Chronic dietary supplementation of L-arginine decreases platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. This effect appears to be due to the metabolism of L-arginine to NO.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994PL39400002
View details for PubMedID 7918301
ENHANCED ENDOTHELIAL ADHESIVENESS IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA IS ATTENUATED BY L-ARGININE
1994; 89 (5): 2176-2182
We have shown that chronic administration of the nitric oxide (NO) precursor L-arginine normalizes NO-dependent vasodilation and markedly inhibits atherogenesis in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model. We hypothesized that this antiatherogenic effect is due to modulation of endothelial adhesiveness by endothelium-derived NO.New Zealand White rabbits were fed normal chow (Cont), a high-cholesterol diet (Chol), a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with L-arginine (Arg), or a normal diet supplemented with the NO synthase antagonist L-nitroarginine (L-NA) for 2 weeks. In additional studies, some animals receiving L-NA were also treated with hydralazine to normalize blood pressure. After 2 weeks, thoracic aortas were harvested, opened longitudinally, and placed in a culture dish with the endothelial surface exposed to medium containing WEHI 78/24 cells, a monocytoid cell line. After incubation with the monocytoid cells for 30 minutes on a rocking platform, the aortic segments were washed repeatedly to remove nonadherent cells and adherent cells counted by epifluorescent microscopy. Monocytoid cell binding to aortic endothelium was significantly increased in Chol (P < .001 versus Cont); binding was markedly reduced in arginine-fed hypercholesterolemic animals (P < .05, Arg versus Chol). Monocytoid cell binding to aortic endothelium was also significantly increased in L-NA (P < .05); hydralazine normalized blood pressure but did not reduce monocytoid cell binding. To confirm that alterations in NO activity modulate endothelial cell-monocyte interaction, the release of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by thoracic aortas was assessed by a chemiluminescent technique. The concentration of NOx in the conditioned medium from segments of Arg thoracic aortas was significantly greater than that from Cont aortas, whereas that from L-NA aortas was significantly less.Hypercholesterolemia enhances the adhesiveness of aortic endothelium for monocytes; this effect is attenuated by dietary L-arginine. Conversely, inhibition of NO synthesis enhances monocyte binding. The results suggest that endothelium-derived NO plays an important role in regulating the endothelial adhesiveness for monocytes. Alterations in NO activity may play a critical role in atherogenesis.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994NL67500034
View details for PubMedID 8181143
DIETARY ARGININE PREVENTS ATHEROGENESIS IN THE CORONARY-ARTERY OF THE HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RABBIT
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
1994; 23 (2): 452-458
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that long-term oral supplementation of dietary L-arginine (to provide a sustained elevation of nitric oxide activity) would inhibit atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits, as assessed by histomorphometric measurements.Endothelium-derived nitric oxide inhibits a number of processes that are critical in atherogenesis. Hypercholesterolemia reduces endothelial nitric oxide activity, and we postulate that this may promote atherogenesis. This reduction in nitric oxide activity can be reversed acutely by intravenous infusion of L-arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide. We show that dietary supplementation of L-arginine abrogates the development of coronary atheroma in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed normal rabbit chow, 1% cholesterol chow or 1% cholesterol chow with dietary arginine or methionine supplementation to increase their intake of these amino acids sixfold. After 1 or 10 weeks of dietary intervention, the left main and left anterior descending coronary arteries were harvested for histologic study. Plasma cholesterol measurements were elevated to the same degree in all groups of rabbits receiving the 1% cholesterol diet, whereas plasma arginine levels were doubled in the arginine-treated group. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol values were not affected by arginine treatment.In rabbits receiving the 1% cholesterol diet, with or without methionine supplementation, light and electron microscopy revealed a marked increase from 1 to 10 weeks in the intimal accumulation of macrophages, associated with an increase in the intimal area of the left main coronary artery. By contrast, in arginine-treated hypercholesterolemic rabbits, there was a near absence of adherent monocytes and tissue macrophages and no progression of intimal thickness from 1 to 10 weeks.Dietary supplements of L-arginine prevent intimal thickening in the coronary arteries of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. This antiatherogenic effect is not due to an alteration in plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol or caloric or nitrogen balance. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that nitric oxide has antiatherogenic properties.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994NR75200026
View details for PubMedID 8294700
The role of endothelial dysfunction in restenosis.
Revista portuguesa de cardiologia
1992; 11 (10): 889-892
View details for PubMedID 1285965
CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF ATHEROGENESIS AND THE EFFECTS OF NITRIC-OXIDE
CURRENT OPINION IN CARDIOLOGY
1992; 7 (5): 799-804
View details for Web of Science ID A1992JM46600012
ANTIATHEROGENIC EFFECTS OF L-ARGININE IN THE HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RABBIT
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
1992; 90 (3): 1168-1172
The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic administration of L-arginine, the precursor of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), normalizes endothelium-dependent relaxation and decreases atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic animals. Male rabbits were fed (a) normal rabbit chow; (b) 1% cholesterol diet; or (c) 1% cholesterol diet supplemented by 2.25% L-arginine HCl in drinking water. Arginine supplementation doubled plasma arginine levels without affecting serum cholesterol values. After 10 wk, the thoracic aorta was harvested for studies of vascular reactivity and histomorphometry. Endothelium-dependent relaxations (to acetylcholine and calcium ionophore A23187) were significantly impaired in thoracic aortae from animals fed a 1% cholesterol diet. By contrast, vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals receiving L-arginine supplementation exhibited significantly improved endothelium-dependent relaxations. Responses to norepinephrine or nitroglycerin were not affected by either dietary intervention. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a reduction in lesion surface area and intimal thickness in thoracic aortae from arginine-supplemented animals compared to those from untreated hypercholesterolemic rabbits. This is the first study to demonstrate that supplementation of dietary L-arginine, the EDRF precursor, improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. More importantly, we have shown that this improvement in EDRF activity is associated with a reduction in atherogenesis.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992JN95900065
View details for PubMedID 1522225
Human Leukocyte Antigen I Knockdown Human Embryonic Stem Cells Induce Host Ignorance and Achieve Prolonged Xenogeneic Survival
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2011: S3-S9
Although human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have enormous potential for cell replacement therapy of heart failure, immune rejection of hESC derivatives inevitably would occur after transplantation. We therefore aimed to generate a hypoantigeneic hESC line with improved survival characteristics.Using various in vivo, nonischemic, hindlimb xenotransplant models (immunocompetent and defined immunodefective mouse strains) as well as human in vitro T-cell and natural killer (NK)-cell assays, we revealed a central role for T cells in mediating hESC rejection. The NK-cell susceptibility of hESC in vivo was found to be low, and the NK response to hESC challenge in vitro was negligible. To reduce the antigenicity of hESC, we successfully generated human leukocyte antigen (HLA) I knockdown cells (hESC(siRNA+IB)) using both HLA I RNA interference (siRNA) and intrabody (IB) technology. HLA I expression was ?99% reduced after 7 days and remained low for weeks. Cellular immune recognition of these hESC(siRNA+IB) was strongly reduced in both xenogeneic and allogeneic settings. Immune rejection was profoundly mitigated after hESC(siRNA+IB) transplantation into immunocompetent mice, and even long-term graft survival was achieved in one third of the animals without any immunosuppression. The survival benefit of hESC(siRNA+IB) was further confirmed under ischemic conditions in a left anterior descending coronary artery ligation model.HLA I knockdown hESC(siRNA+IB) provoke T-cell ignorance and experience largely mitigated xenogeneic rejection. By generating hypoantigeneic hESC lines, the generation of acceptable hESC derivatives may become a practical concept and push cell replacement strategies forward.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.020727
View details for Web of Science ID 000294782800001
View details for PubMedID 21911816