Patricia Nguyen, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
The Prognostic Value of Qualitative and Quantitative Stress CMR in Patients with Known or Suspected CAD.
JACC. Cardiovascular imaging
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may have more accuracy than qualitative CMR in coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis. However, the prognostic value of quantitative and qualitative CMR has not been compared systematically.OBJECTIVES: The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the utility of qualitative and quantitative stress CMR in the prognosis of patients with known or suspected CAD.METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed through Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Medline. Studies that used qualitative vasodilator CMR or quantitative CMR assessments to compare the prognosis of patients with positive and negative CMR results were extracted. A meta-analysis was then performed to assess: 1) major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina, and coronary revascularization; and 2) cardiac hard events defined as the composite of cardiac death and nonfatal MI.RESULTS: Forty-one studies with 38,030 patients were included in this systematic review. MACE occurred significantly more in patients with positive qualitative (HR: 3.86; 95%CI: 3.28-4.54) and quantitative (HR: 4.60; 95%CI: 1.60-13.21) CMR assessments. There was no significant difference between qualitative and quantitative CMR assessments in predicting MACE (P = 0.75). In studies with qualitative CMR assessment, cardiac hard events (OR: 7.21; 95%CI: 4.99-10.41), cardiac death (OR: 5.63; 95%CI: 2.46-12.92), nonfatal MI (OR: 7.46; 95%CI: 3.49-15.96), coronary revascularization (OR: 6.34; 95%CI: 3.42-1.75), and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.12-2.47) were higher in patients with positive CMR.CONCLUSIONS: The presence of myocardial ischemia on CMR is associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with known or suspected CAD. Both qualitative and quantitative stress CMR assessments are helpful tools for predicting clinical outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcmg.2023.05.025
View details for PubMedID 37632499
Brain MRI findings in neurologically symptomatic COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Journal of neurology
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with nervous system involvement, with more than one-third of COVID-19 patients experiencing neurological manifestations. Utilizing a systematic review, this study aims to summarize brain MRI findings in COVID-19 patients presenting with neurological symptoms.Systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) checklist. The electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were systematically searched for literature addressing brain MRI findings in COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms.25 publications containing a total number of 3118 COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms who underwent MRI were included. The most common MRI findings and the respective pooled incidences in decreasing order were acute/subacute infarct (22%), olfactory bulb abnormalities (22%), white matter abnormalities (20%), cerebral microbleeds (17%), grey matter abnormalities (12%), leptomeningeal enhancement (10%), ADEM (Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis) or ADEM-like lesions (10%), non-traumatic ICH (10%), cranial neuropathy (8%), cortical gray matter signal changes compatible with encephalitis (8%), basal ganglia abnormalities (5%), PRES (Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome) (3%), hypoxic-ischemic lesions (4%), venous thrombosis (2%), and cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (2%).The present study revealed that a considerable proportion of patients with COVID-19 might harbor neurological abnormalities detectable by MRI. Among various findings, the most common MRI alterations are acute/subacute infarction, olfactory bulb abnormalities, white matter abnormalities, and cerebral microbleeds.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00415-023-11914-9
View details for PubMedID 37535100
View details for PubMedCentralID 7169770
- PET-FDG for vascular imaging: a "visual barometer" for inflammatory risk? Journal of nuclear cardiology : official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology 2023
Early and mid-term outcomes of off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with triple-vessel coronary artery disease: a randomized controlled trial.
Journal of cardiothoracic surgery
2023; 18 (1): 140
Several studies have compared early and late outcomes of on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and off-pump CABG. However, there is still an ongoing debate on this matter, especially in patients with triple-vessel coronary artery disease (3VD).We randomly assigned 274 consecutive patients with 3VD to two equal groups to undergo on-pump CABG or off-pump CABG. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), including all-cause mortality, acute coronary syndrome, stroke or transient ischemic attack, and the need for repeat revascularization. The secondary outcomes were postoperative infection, ventilation time, ICU admission duration, hospital stay length, and renal failure after surgery.The median follow-up duration was 31.2 months (range 24.6-35.2 months). The mean age of patients was 61.4 ± 9.3 years (range: 38-86), and 207 (78.7%) were men. There were 15 (11.2%) and 9 (7.0%) MACCE occurrences in on-pump and off-pump groups, respectively (P value = 0.23). MACCE components including all-cause death, non-fatal MI, CVA, and revascularization did not significantly differ between on-pump and off-pump groups. We observed no difference in the occurrence of MACCE between off-pump and on-pump groups in multivariable regression analysis (HR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.24-1.32; P value = 0.192). There were no statistical differences in postoperative outcomes between the off-pump and on-pump CABG groups.Off-pump CABG is an equal option to on-pump CABG for 3VD patients with similar rates of MACCE and postoperative complications incidence when surgery is performed in the same setting by an expert surgeon in both methods. (IRCT20190120042428N1).
View details for DOI 10.1186/s13019-023-02258-6
View details for PubMedID 37046338
View details for PubMedCentralID 8851363
Meta-Analysis on the Association Between Nutritional Status and Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.
The American journal of cardiology
Malnutrition is a common co-morbidity among candidates for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). This study aimed to investigate the association between nutritional status determined by objective nutritional indices and outcomes of patients who underwent TAVI. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library from inception until April 18, 2022 to identify studies examining the association of preprocedural nutritional status with post-TAVI outcomes. Malnutrition was defined by objective nutritional indices-controlling nutritional index, nutritional risk index, geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI). The primary end point was 1-year all-cause mortality. The review included 13 observational studies and 6,785 patients who underwent TAVI. Malnutrition was associated with a higher risk of 1-year all-cause mortality, as defined by either the controlling nutritional index (hazard ratio [HR] 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21 to 6.03, p = 0.015), GNRI (HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.93, p = 0.021), or PNI (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.23, p <0.001). In the meta-analysis of adjusted results, lower GNRI was independently associated with higher 1-year mortality (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.50, p = 0.006). Lower GNRI was associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury (relative risk [RR] 2.21, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.99, p <0.001) and 1-year cardiovascular mortality (RR 2.50, 95% CI 1.66 to 3.78, p <0.001). Lower PNI was associated with a higher risk of major vascular complications (RR 2.99, 95% CI 1.38 to 6.51, p = 0.006). In conclusion, baseline malnutrition, as assessed by objective indices, is associated with worse outcomes after TAVI. Future studies should focus on the value of nutritional assessment and interventions to improve nutritional status in patients who underwent TAVI.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.10.016
View details for PubMedID 36328831
Statins and Mortality of Patients After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
While TAVI is widely used, optimal medical therapy to reduce the mortality rate after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is still unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of statins on mortality following TAVI. Present systematic review of the literature was performed using Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science; all studies reported all-cause mortality in patients who underwent TAVI and received or did not receive statin therapy. Data were analyzed using random-effects models. Seventeen articles (21 380 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. Statin therapy was associated with a reduction of all-cause mortality (Hazard ratio [HR] = .78, 95% Confidence interval [CI] .68-.89, P < .001). Moderate between-study heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 45.2). High-intensity statin therapy was more effective than low or moderate intensity statin therapy in reduction of all-cause mortality (Risk ratio [RR] = .62, 95% CI 0.45-.85, P = .003, I2 = .0). Statin therapy could reduce the mid-term all-cause mortality rate following TAVI. However, all included studies were observational and, therefore, randomized controlled trials are still needed to assess the effect of statin therapy on mortality after TAVI.
View details for DOI 10.1177/00033197221124778
View details for PubMedID 36067358
Intra-procedural complications, success rate, and need for retreatment of endovascular treatments in anterior communicating artery aneurysms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
In recent years, intracranial aneurysms have been widely treated with endovascular methods. The anterior communicating artery (Acom) is the most common site of intracranial aneurysms. Despite its effectiveness, endovascular interventions can be associated with various intra-procedural and post-procedural complications. A systematic review of the literature was performed through PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Sciences databases up to March 18, 2022. The pooled rates of intra-procedural complications, mortality, procedure-related morbidities, the immediate and late aneurysm occlusion, and also the necessity for retreatment were calculated by applying random-effects models. A total of 41 articles with 4583 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled rate of overall intra-procedural complications was 9.6% (95% CI: 7.7 to 11.8%). The initial rupture status and also type of EVT procedure did not affect the overall complication rate. The pooled rate of intra-procedural thrombosis, aneurysm rupture, coil prolapse, and early aneurysm rebleeding were 6.1% (95% CI: 4.5 to 8.2%); 4.2% (95% CI: 3.4 to 5.2%), 4.7% (95% CI: 3.2 to 6.7%), and 2.2% (95% CI: 1.5 to 3.2%), respectively. Our analysis showed that intra-procedural mortality occurred in 1.7% (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.5%) and procedure-related permanent morbidities in 3.3% (95% CI: 2.3 to 4.7%) of patients. Endovascular methods achieved complete and near to complete aneurysm occlusion (Raymond-Roy occlusion classification 1 and 2) in 89.2% (95% CI: 86.4 to 92.5%) of cases post-procedure, and 9.5% (95% CI: 7.3 to 12.4%) of patients needed retreatment due to recanalization in follow-ups. Endovascular treatment can serve as an acceptable method for Acom aneurysms. However, improved endovascular treatment equipment and new techniques provide more satisfactory outcomes for complicated cases.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10143-022-01853-w
View details for PubMedID 36029421
Comparison between surgery and fibrinolytic therapy in prosthetic valve thrombosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY
Prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) is a rare but life-threatening complication. Surgery and fibrinolytic therapy (FT) are the two main treatment options for PVT. The choice between surgery and FT has always been a matter of debate. Previous studies have shown that although the mortality rate is higher in surgery, complications are less frequent than in FT. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the results of surgery and FT in PVT.A systematic review of the literature was performed through Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science, encompassing all studies comparing surgery and FT in PVT. The rate of each complication and risk ratio (RR) of complications in surgery and FT were assessed using random-effects models.Fifteen studies with 1235 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled risk of the mortality was not significantly different between FT and surgery in patients with PVT (pooled RR = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38-1.60, I² = 61.4%). The pooled risks of thromboembolic events (pooled RR = 4.70, 95% CI: 1.83-12.07, I² = 49.6%) and major bleeding (pooled RR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.09-5.50, I² = 41.1%) and PVT recurrence (pooled RR = 2.06 95% CI: 1.29-3.27, I² = 0.0%) were significantly higher in patients who received FT.Surgery may be safer and with fewer complications than FT for PVT treatment. However, randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the proper treatment for PVT.
View details for DOI 10.1111/jocs.16681
View details for Web of Science ID 000810776800001
View details for PubMedID 35701901
Comparison of effects of Empagliflozin and Linagliptin on renal function and glycaemic control: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial.
Clinical diabetes and endocrinology
2022; 8 (1): 5
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the effects of Linagliptin and Empagliflozin on renal function and glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).METHOD: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, parallel trial on patients aged 30 to 80years with type 2 DM and HbA1c≤9%, regardless of background medical therapy, to compare the effects of Empagliflozin and Linagliptin on albuminuria, FBS, HbA1c, and eGFR. Participants were given the mentioned drugs for 12weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using appropriate tests in IBMSPSS statistics software for windows version 24.RESULTS: In total, 60 patients participated in the study, thirty patients in each group. The mean age of participants was 56.8 (SD=8.15) in the Empagliflozin group and 60.9 (SD=7.22) in the Linagliptin group. Before the intervention, FBS, HbA1C, and albuminuria values were significantly higher in the Empagliflozin group than those in the Linagliptin group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between groups regarding eGFR (P=0.271). Changes in the FBS, HbA1C, and eGFR were not significantly different between groups (P>0.05), but there was more decrease in albuminuria in the Empagliflozin group compared to the Linagliptin group (P=0.001, Cohen's d=0.98).CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of baseline albuminuria, eGFR, or HbA1c, Empagliflozin 10mg daily significantly reduced albuminuria at 12weeks compared to Linagliptin 5mg daily in patients with type 2 diabetes.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, IRCT20200722048176N1 . Registered 3 August 2020.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s40842-022-00142-1
View details for PubMedID 35610696
The Outcome of COVID-19 in Patients with a History of Taking Rituximab: A Narrative Review
IRANIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
2021; 46 (6): 411-419
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently emerging disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Notably, the safety of immunosuppressive medications is a major concern during an infectious disease pandemic. Rituximab (RTX), as a monoclonal antibody against CD20 molecule, is widely used for the treatment of various diseases, mostly autoimmune diseases and some malignancies. Previous studies indicated that RTX, as an immunosuppressive medication, may be associated with the increased risk of infections. Moreover, given the wide use of RTX, a necessity of determining the different aspects of RTX use in the COVID-19 era is strongly felt. We reviewed current studies on the clinical courses of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. It appears that the use of RTX does not increase morbidity and mortality in most patients. However, underlying diseases and other concomitant medications may play a role in the disease course, while the concerns of vaccine efficacy in patients receiving RTX still need to be addressed. Therefore, more controlled studies are needed for a better conclusion.
View details for DOI 10.30476/IJMS.2021.88717.1946
View details for Web of Science ID 000721052100001
View details for PubMedID 34840381
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8611224
A 10-year cross-sectional retrospective study on Kawasaki disease in Iranian children: incidence, clinical manifestations, complications, and treatment patterns
BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2021; 21 (1): 368
Kawasaki disease (KD) as an acute, systemic vasculitis is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children under the age of 5 years.A 10-year cross-sectional retrospective study was designed to assess 190 Iranian children with KD during 2008-2018. Demographic data, clinical and laboratory manifestations from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis, clinical signs and symptoms, and subsequent treatments were evaluated to predict hospitalization stay, complications, and response to treatment.Children with KD had a male-to-female ratio of 1.18:1 and an average age of 36 months. There was an insignificantly more incidence of KD in cold seasons. The most frequent symptoms were fever (92.6%), oral mucus membrane changes (75.8%), bilateral bulbar conjunctival injection (73.7%), polymorphous skin rash (73.2%), peripheral extremity changes (63.7%), and cervical lymphadenopathy (60.0%). The rate of gastrointestinal, cardiac, joint, and hepatic complications was determined to be 38.4, 27.9, 6.8, and 4.2%, respectively. 89.5% of patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) plus aspirin as the first line of treatment, while, 16.3% of them needed an extra second line of treatment. Significantly low serum sodium levels and high platelet counts were detected in KD patients with cardiac complications. Cardiac complications often were more encountered in patients who did not respond to the first line of treatment. Higher platelet count, lower serum sodium amount, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level were significantly associated with a need for an additive second line of treatment. A significant relationship between hospitalization stay and hemoglobin level was found.As most of the clinical manifestations and complications were following other reports released over the past few years, such data can be confidently used to diagnose KD in Iran. Seasonal incidence and a positive history of recent infection in a notable number of patients may provide clues to understand possible etiologies of KD. Laboratory markers can successfully contribute to health practitioners with the clinical judgment of the need for additional treatments, possible complications, and hospitalization duration.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12879-021-06046-2
View details for Web of Science ID 000641702500002
View details for PubMedID 33874899
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8056507
Demographic features, behavioral measures, and clinical factors as predictors of cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND RELATED DISORDERS
2021; 49: 102758
One of the most concerning features that involves 40-70% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is cognitive impairment. Moreover, it affects various aspects of patients' life. In this regard, this study was conducted to find independent predictors of cognitive function.We performed a cross-sectional analysis on 92 patients chosen from MS clinic of Sina hospital, Iran. After completing a general questionnaire of demographic and various clinical features, the included participants (patients with RRMS) underwent neuropsychological assessment using Minimal Assessment of Cognitive function in Multiple Sclerosis (MACFIMS), Expanded disability Status Scale (EDSS), Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), and National American Adult Reading Test (NAART). An un-weighted average of MACFIMS subscales z-scores was reported as cognitive index. In order to find the association between CI and different factors, each variable was entered in a simple regression model first. Then, a univariate multiple regression model was invoked to evaluate the predictors of cognitive index in patients.Simple regression for cognitive index of 92 patients (86% female) with a mean age of 33.4±7.6 years old suffering of RRMS for 6.8±4.8 years revealed patients with history of former smoking (p=0.001), sole visual symptoms as the presentation sign of the study (β=-0.341, p=0.001), lower EDSS score (β=-0.299, p=0.005), higher NAART score (β=0.416, p≤0.0001), and college education (p=0.001), had better cognitive function in our study population. Such factors including age, educational status, BDI-II score, EDSS score, and disease duration were fixed and the other significant factors entered once separately and then simultaneously in the univariate multiple linear regression model. It was revealed that former smoking (β=-0.372, p≤0.0001), NAART (β=0.304, p=0.002), and EDSS (β= -0.185, P=0.045) are associated significantly with the cognitive function of patients with multiple sclerosis.This study demonstrated NAART, as a proxy of premorbid intelligence, history of former smoking, and EDSS score may have effects on cognitive function in MS. Future studies need to be invoked for the evaluation of the causality relation of these factors.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.msard.2021.102758
View details for Web of Science ID 000641391200032
View details for PubMedID 33567391
Increased Intracranial Pressure on a Patient with Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder
CASPIAN JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE
2021; 12: S435-S438
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune astrocytopathic disease affecting central nervous system (CNS). CSF pressure in these patients is usually normal.A 30-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of headache and lower limbs paresis. Lumbar puncture (LP) and magnetic resonance imaging were performed for the patient. Opening pressure was 42 cm H2O in the first LP. According to the clinical evidences, imaging, and the patient's positive aquaporin-4 antibody, the diagnosis of NMOSD was established.High intracranial pressure headache; however rare, may be the first sign of the onset of the acute exacerbation phase of NMOSD.
View details for DOI 10.22088/cjim.12.0.435
View details for Web of Science ID 000756527700019
View details for PubMedID 34760100
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8559654
Evaluation of emotional intelligence (EI) in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients compared to healthy individuals
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND RELATED DISORDERS
2020; 45: 102387
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is known as an autoimmune astrocytopathic disorder involving central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this study was to compare Emotional Intelligence (EI) score between NMOSD patients and healthy individuals, and to find out the possible effect of this disease on EI.A total of 45 NMOSD participants and 48 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Demographic information (e.g., gender and age) of all participants as well as their level of education, and data on the patients' duration of disease were collected. EI of each participant was assessed using Persian version of Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire.The mean total EI score was significantly different between the participants and controls (322±36.7 vs 338±31.5, p value<0.03). Compared to controls, patients had a poor performance in 4 of 15 EI subscales including emotional self-awareness (21.29±3.6 vs 22.85±3, p value<0.03), optimism (22.4±4 vs 24.1±3.1, p value<0.03), self-regard (22.7±4.6 vs 24.5±3.4, p value<0.04), and impulse control (16.9±6.5 vs 19.5±5.5, p value<0.05). No difference was found between anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-IgG) positive and AQP4-IgG negative patients regarding EI score or its subscale scores, except for self-actualization (p value<0.05).Our study showed that EI could be regarded as a tool for understanding emotions, thoughts, and behavior of NMOSD patients. It was implied that taking therapeutic steps could improve the performance of NMOSD patients with EI impairment in social life.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.msard.2020.102387
View details for Web of Science ID 000582230900033
View details for PubMedID 32663794