Clinical Focus


  • Pediatric Endocrinology

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Board Certification: Pediatric Endocrinology, American Board of Pediatrics (2015)
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (2014)
  • Fellowship, University of California - San Francisco, Pediatric Endocrinology (2015)
  • Internship, University of California - San Francisco, Pediatrics (2011)
  • Residency, University of California - San Francisco, Pediatrics (2012)
  • Medical Education:Georgetown University School of Medicine (2010) DC

All Publications


  • Hemoglobin A1c Trajectory in Pediatric Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Prahalad, P., Yang, J., Scheinker, D., Desai, M., Hood, K., Maahs, D. M. 2019

    Abstract

    Despite advances in diabetes technology and treatment, a majority of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) fail to meet hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) targets. Among high-income nations, the United States has one of the highest mean HbA1c values. We tracked the HbA1c values of 261 patients diagnosed with T1D in our practice over a 2.5-year period to identify inflection points in the HbA1c trajectory. The HbA1c declined until 5 months postdiagnosis. There was a rise in the HbA1c between the fifth and sixth month postdiagnosis. The HbA1c continued to steadily rise and by 18 months postdiagnosis, the mean HbA1c was 8.2%, which is also our clinic mean. Understanding the HbA1c trajectory early in the course of diabetes has helped to identify opportunities for intensification of diabetes management to flatten the trajectory of HbA1c and improve clinical outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2019.0065

    View details for PubMedID 31180244

  • CGM Initiation Soon After Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis Results in Sustained CGM Use and Wear Time. Diabetes care Prahalad, P., Addala, A., Scheinker, D., Hood, K. K., Maahs, D. M. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.2337/dc19-1205

    View details for PubMedID 31558548

  • Sustained Continuous Glucose Monitor Use in Low-Income Youth with Type 1 Diabetes Following Insurance Coverage Supports Expansion of Continuous Glucose Monitor Coverage for All DIABETES TECHNOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS Prahalad, P., Addala, A., Buckingham, B., Wilson, D. M., Maahs, D. M. 2018; 20 (9): 632–34
  • ISPAD Annual Conference 2018 Highlights PEDIATRIC DIABETES Prahalad, P., Ray, N., Wong, J. C., Berget, C., Olinder, A., Rangasami, J. J., King, B. R., Deeb, A., Agwu, J. 2019; 20 (4): 375–79

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pedi.12832

    View details for Web of Science ID 000468283100001

  • Cinacalcet therapy in an infant with an R185Q calcium-sensing receptor mutation causing hyperparathyroidism: a case report and review of the literature. Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM Forman, T. E., Niemi, A., Prahalad, P., Shi, R. Z., Nally, L. M. 2019

    Abstract

    Background Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) is commonly treated with either parathyroidectomy or pharmacologic agents with varying efficacy and numerous side effects. Reports of using cinacalcet for NSHPT have increased, however, the effective dose for pediatric patients from the onset of symptoms through infancy has not been established. Case presentation We describe the clinical course of a newborn with a de novo R185Q mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene, causing NSHPT. The infant received cinacalcet from the first days of life until 1 year of age. Conclusions Cinacalcet therapy effectively controlled the patient's serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels without side effects.

    View details for PubMedID 30730839

  • Diabetes Technology Society Report on the FDA Digital Health Software Precertification Program Meeting. Journal of diabetes science and technology King, F., Klonoff, D. C., Ahn, D., Adi, S., Berg, E. G., Bian, J., Chen, K., Drincic, A., Heyl, M., Magee, M., Mulvaney, S., Pavlovic, Y., Prahalad, P., Ryan, M., Sabharwal, A., Shah, S., Spanakis, E., Thompson, B. M., Thompson, M., Wang, J. 2018: 1932296818810436

    Abstract

    Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) convened a meeting about the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Digital Health Software Precertification Program on August 28, 2018. Forty-eight attendees participated from clinical and academic endocrinology (both adult and pediatric), nursing, behavioral health, engineering, and law, as well as representatives of FDA, National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), and industry. The meeting was intended to provide ideas to FDA about their plan to launch a Digital Health Software Precertification Program. Attendees discussed the four components of the plan: (1) excellence appraisal and certification, (2) review pathway determination, (3) streamlined premarket review process, and (4) real-world performance. The format included (1) introductory remarks, (2) a program overview presentation from FDA, (3) roundtable working sessions focused on each of the Software Precertification Program's four components, (4) presentations reflecting the discussions, (5) questions to and answers from FDA, and (6) concluding remarks. The meeting provided useful information to the diabetes technology community and thoughtful feedback to FDA.

    View details for PubMedID 30394807

  • Sustained Continuous Glucose Monitor Use in Low-Income Youth with Type 1 Diabetes Following Insurance Coverage Supports Expansion of Continuous Glucose Monitor Coverage for All. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Prahalad, P., Addala, A., Buckingham, B., Wilson, D. M., Maahs, D. M. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 30020810

  • Diabetes technology: improving care, improving patient-reported outcomes and preventing complications in young people with Type 1 diabetes. Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association Prahalad, P., Tanenbaum, M., Hood, K., Maahs, D. M. 2018

    Abstract

    With the evolution of diabetes technology, those living with Type 1 diabetes are given a wider arsenal of tools with which to achieve glycaemic control and improve patient-reported outcomes. Furthermore, the use of these technologies may help reduce the risk of acute complications, such as severe hypoglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis, as well as long-term macro- and microvascular complications. In addition, diabetes technology can have a beneficial impact on psychosocial health by reducing the burden of diabetes. Unfortunately, diabetes goals are often unmet and people with Type 1 diabetes too frequently experience acute and long-term complications of this condition, in addition to often having less than ideal psychosocial outcomes. Increasing realization of the importance of patient-reported outcomes is leading to diabetes care delivery becoming more patient-centred. Diabetes technology in the form of medical devices, digital health and big data analytics have the potential to improve clinical care and psychosocial support, resulting in lower rates of acute and chronic complications, decreased burden of diabetes care, and improved quality of life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for PubMedID 29356074

  • Evidence-based Mobile Medical Applications in Diabetes. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America Drincic, A., Prahalad, P., Greenwood, D., Klonoff, D. C. 2016; 45 (4): 943-965

    Abstract

    This article reviews mobile medical applications that are commercially available in the United States or European Union (EU) and are (1) associated with published data of clinical outcomes in the peer-reviewed literature during the past 5 years, (2) cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, or (3) a recipient of a CE (Conformité Européenne) mark by the EU. Many of these applications have been shown to positively affect outcomes in the short term, but long-term studies are needed. Until more data are available, consumers and professionals can consider guidance based on FDA/CE status.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ecl.2016.06.001

    View details for PubMedID 27823614

  • Performance of Cleared Blood Glucose Monitors. Journal of diabetes science and technology Klonoff, D. C., Prahalad, P. 2015; 9 (4): 895-910

    Abstract

    Cleared blood glucose monitor (BGM) systems do not always perform as accurately for users as they did to become cleared. We performed a literature review of recent publications between 2010 and 2014 that present data about the frequency of inaccurate performance using ISO 15197 2003 and ISO 15197 2013 as target standards. We performed an additional literature review of publications that present data about the clinical and economic risks of inaccurate BGMs for making treatment decisions or calibrating continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). We found 11 publications describing performance of 98 unique BGM systems. 53 of these 98 (54%) systems met ISO 15197 2003 and 31 of the 98 (32%) tested systems met ISO 15197 2013 analytical accuracy standards in all studies in which they were evaluated. Of the tested systems, 33 were identified by us as FDA-cleared. Among these FDA-cleared BGM systems, 24 out of 32 (75%) met ISO 15197 2003 and 15 out of 31 (48.3%) met ISO 15197 2013 in all studies in which they were evaluated. Among the non-FDA-cleared BGM systems, 29 of 65 (45%) met ISO 15197 2003 and 15 out of 65 (23%) met ISO 15197 2013 in all studies in which they were evaluated. It is more likely that an FDA-cleared BGM system, compared to a non-FDA-cleared BGM system, will perform according to ISO 15197 2003 (χ(2) = 6.2, df = 3, P = 0.04) and ISO 15197 2013 (χ(2) = 11.4, df = 3, P = 0.003). We identified 7 articles about clinical risks and 3 articles about economic risks of inaccurate BGMs. We conclude that a significant proportion of cleared BGMs do not perform at the level for which they were cleared or according to international standards of accuracy. Such poor performance leads to adverse clinical and economic consequences.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1932296815584797

    View details for PubMedID 25990294

  • Retinoic acid mediates regulation of network formation by COUP-TFII and VE-cadherin expression by TGFbeta receptor kinase in breast cancer cells. PloS one Prahalad, P., Dakshanamurthy, S., Ressom, H., Byers, S. W. 2010; 5 (4)

    Abstract

    Tumor development, growth, and metastasis depend on the provision of an adequate vascular supply. This can be due to regulated angiogenesis, recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitors, and/or vascular transdifferentiation. Our previous studies showed that retinoic acid (RA) treatment converts a subset of breast cancer cells into cells with significant endothelial genotypic and phenotypic elements including marked induction of VE-cadherin, which was responsible for some but not all morphological changes. The present study demonstrates that of the endothelial-related genes induced by RA treatment, only a few were affected by knockdown of VE-cadherin, ruling it out as a regulator of the RA-induced endothelial genotypic switch. In contrast, knockdown of the RA-induced gene COUP-TFII prevented the formation of networks in Matrigel but had no effect on VE-cadherin induction or cell fusion. Two pan-kinase inhibitors markedly blocked RA-induced VE-cadherin expression and cell fusion. However, RA treatment resulted in a marked and broad reduction in tyrosine kinase activity. Several genes in the TGFbeta signaling pathway were induced by RA, and specific inhibition of the TGFbeta type I receptor blocked both RA-induced VE-cadherin expression and cell fusion. Together these data indicate a role for the TGFbeta pathway and COUP-TFII in mediating the endothelial transdifferentiating properties of RA.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0010023

    View details for PubMedID 20386594

  • Role of Sox-9, ER81 and VE-Cadherin in Retinoic Acid-Mediated Trans-Differentiation of Breast Cancer Cells PLOS ONE Endo, Y., Deonauth, K., Prahalad, P., Hoxter, B., Zhu, Y., Byers, S. W. 2008; 3 (7)

    Abstract

    Many aspects of development, tumor growth and metastasis depend upon the provision of an adequate vasculature. This can be a result of regulated angiogenesis, recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitors and/or vascular trans-differentiation. The present study demonstrates that treatment of SKBR-3 breast cancer cells with retinoic acid (RA), an important regulator of embryogenesis, cancer and other diseases, stimulates the formation of networks in Matrigel. RA-treatment of SKBR-3 cells co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells resulted in the formation of mixed structures. RA induces expression of many endothelial genes including vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin. VE-cadherin was also induced by RA in a number of other breast cancer cells. We show that RA-induced VE-cadherin is responsible for the RA-induced morphological changes. RA rapidly induced the expression of Sox-9 and ER81, which in turn form a complex on the VE-cadherin promoter and are required to mediate the transcriptional regulation of VE-cadherin by RA. These data indicate that RA may promote the expression of endothelial genes resulting in endothelial-like differentiation, or provide a mechanism whereby circulating endothelial progenitor cells could be incorporated into a growing organ or tumor.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0002714

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264057200057

    View details for PubMedID 18628953

  • Regulation of MDCK cell-substratum adhesion by RhoA and myosin light chain kinase after ATP depletion AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-CELL PHYSIOLOGY Prahalad, P., Calvo, I., Waechter, H., Matthews, J. B., Zuk, A., Matlin, K. S. 2004; 286 (3): C693-C707

    Abstract

    The attachment of epithelial cells to the extracellular matrix substratum is essential for their differentiation and polarization. Despite this, the precise adhesion mechanism and its regulation are poorly understood. In the kidney, an ischemic insult causes renal tubular epithelial cells to detach from the basement membrane, even though they remain viable. To understand this phenomenon, and to probe the regulation of epithelial cell attachment, we used a model system consisting of newly adherent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells subjected to ATP depletion to mimic ischemic injury. We found that MDCK cells detach from collagen I after 60 min of ATP depletion but reattach when resupplied with glucose. Detachment is not caused by degradation or endocytosis of beta(1)-integrins, which mediate attachment to collagen I. Basal actin filaments and paxillin-containing adhesion complexes are disrupted by ATP depletion and quickly reform on glucose repletion. However, partial preservation of basal actin by overexpression of constitutively active RhoA does not significantly affect cell detachment. Furthermore, Y-27632, an inhibitor of the RhoA effector Rho-kinase, does not prevent reattachment of cells on glucose addition, even though reformation of central stress fibers and large adhesion complexes is blocked. In contrast, reattachment of ATP-depleted cells and detachment of cells not previously subjected to ATP depletion are prevented by ML-7, an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). We conclude that initial adherence of MDCK cells to a collagen I substratum is mediated by peripheral actin filaments and adhesion complexes regulated by MLCK but not by stress fibers and adhesion complexes controlled by RhoA.

    View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpcell.00124.2003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188707600027

    View details for PubMedID 14644769