- Diagnostic Radiology
Associate Professor - University Medical Line, Radiology
Fellowship: UCSF Dept of Radiology (2015) CA
Board Certification: American Board of Radiology, Diagnostic Radiology (2015)
Residency: UC Davis Radiology Residency (2014) CA
Internship: St. Vincent's Medical Center Internal Medicine Residency (2010) CT
Medical Education: Maulana Azad Medical College (2007) India
Adnexal Lesion Imaging: Past, Present, and Future.
Currently, imaging is part of the standard of care for patients with adnexal lesions prior to definitive management. Imaging can identify a physiologic finding or classic benign lesion that can be followed up conservatively. When one of these entities is not present, imaging is used to determine the probability of ovarian cancer prior to surgical consultation. Since the inclusion of imaging in the evaluation of adnexal lesions in the 1970s, the rate of surgery for benign lesions has decreased. More recently, data-driven Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS) scoring systems for US and MRI with standardized lexicons have been developed to allow for assignment of a cancer risk score, with the goal of further decreasing unnecessary interventions while expediting the care of patients with ovarian cancer. US is used as the initial modality for the assessment of adnexal lesions, while MRI is used when there is a clinical need for increased specificity and positive predictive value for the diagnosis of cancer. This article will review how the treatment of adnexal lesions has changed due to imaging over the decades; the current data supporting the use of US, CT, and MRI to determine the likelihood of cancer; and future directions of adnexal imaging for the early detection of ovarian cancer.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.223281
View details for PubMedID 37158725
Invited Commentary: Placenta Accreta Spectrum Disorder: Controversies and Consensus.
Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
2023; 43 (5): e220205
View details for DOI 10.1148/rg.220205
View details for PubMedID 37079458
Noninvasive prenatal screening and maternal malignancy: role of imaging.
Abdominal radiology (New York)
Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) tests for fetal chromosomal anomalies through maternal blood sampling. It is becoming widely available and standard of care for pregnant women in many countries. It is performed in the first trimester of pregnancy, usually between 9 and 12 weeks. Fragments of fetal cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) floating in maternal plasma are detected and analyzed by this test to assess for chromosomal aberrations. Similarly, maternal tumor-derived cell-free DNA (ctDNA) released from the tumor cells also circulates in the plasma. Hence, the presence of genomic anomalies originating from maternal tumor-derived DNA may be detected on the NIPS-based fetal risk assessment in pregnant patients. Presence of multiple aneuploidies or autosomal monosomies are the most commonly reported NIPS abnormalities detected with occult maternal malignancies. When such results are received, the search for an occult maternal malignancy begins, in which imaging plays a crucial role. The most commonly detected malignancies via NIPS are leukemia, lymphoma, breast and colon cancers. Ultrasound is a reasonable radiation-free modality for imaging during pregnancy, specially when there are localizing symptoms or findings, such as palpable lumps. While there are no consensus guidelines on the imaging evaluation for these patients, when there are no localizing symptoms or clinically palpable findings, whole body MRI is recommended as the radiation-free modality of choice to search for an occult malignancy. Based on clinical symptoms, practice patterns, and available resources, breast ultrasound, chest radiographs, and targeted ultrasound evaluations can also be performed initially or as a follow-up for MRI findings. CT is reserved for exceptional circumstances due to its higher radiation dose. This article intends to increase awareness of this rare but stressful clinical scenario and guide imaging evaluation for occult malignancy detected via NIPS during pregnancy.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00261-023-03913-1
View details for PubMedID 37095202
View details for PubMedCentralID 8138727
The Intersection of Diversity and Well-Being.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acra.2023.01.028
View details for PubMedID 36813669
Diagnostic Performance of the Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS) Ultrasound Risk Score in Women in the United States.
JAMA network open
2022; 5 (6): e2216370
The American College of Radiology (ACR) Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS) ultrasound (US) risk scoring system has been studied in a selected population of women referred for suspected or known adnexal lesions. This population has a higher frequency of malignant neoplasms than women presenting to radiology departments for pelvic ultrasonography for a variety of indications, potentially impacting the diagnostic performance of the risk scoring system.To evaluate the risk of malignant neoplasm and diagnostic performance of O-RADS US risk scoring system in a multi-institutional, nonselected cohort.This multi-institutional cohort study included a population of nonselected women in the United States who presented to radiology departments for routine pelvic ultrasonography between 2011 and 2014, with pathology confirmation imaging follow up or 2 years of clinical follow up.Analysis of 1014 adnexal lesions using the O-RADS US risk stratification system.Frequency of ovarian cancer and diagnostic performance of the O-RADS US risk stratification system.This study included 913 women with 1014 adnexal lesions. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 42.4 (13.9 years), and 674 of 913 (73.8%) were premenopausal. The overall frequency of malignant neoplasm was 8.4% (85 of 1014 adnexal lesions). The frequency of malignant neoplasm for O-RADS US 2 was 0.5% (3 of 657 lesions; <1% expected); O-RADS US 3, 4.5% (5 of 112 lesions; <10% expected); O-RADS US 4, 11.6% (18 of 155; 10%-50% expected); and O-RADS 5, 65.6% (59 of 90 lesions; >50% expected). O-RADS US 4 was the optimum cutoff for diagnosing cancer with sensitivity of 90.6% (95% CI, 82.3%-95.9%), specificity of 81.9% (95% CI, 79.3%-84.3%), positive predictive value of 31.4% (95% CI, 25.7%-37.7%) and negative predictive value of 99.0% (95% CI, 98.0%-99.6%).In this cohort study of a nonselected patient population, the O-RADS US risk stratification system performed within the expected range as published by the ACR O-RADS US committee. The frequency of malignant neoplasm was at the lower end of the published range, partially because of the lower prevalence of cancer in a nonselected population. However, a high negative predictive value was maintained, and when a lesion can be classified as an O-RADS US 2, the risk of cancer is low, which is reassuring for both clinician and patient.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.16370
View details for PubMedID 35679042
Ovarian Cancer Detection in Average-Risk Women: Classic- versus Nonclassic-appearing Adnexal Lesions at US.
Background Several US risk stratification schemas for assessing adnexal lesions exist. These multiple-subcategory systems may be more multifaceted than necessary for isolated adnexal lesions in average-risk women. Purpose To explore whether a US-based classification scheme of classic versus nonclassic appearance can be used to help appropriately triage women at average risk of ovarian cancer without compromising diagnostic performance. Materials and Methods This retrospective multicenter study included isolated ovarian lesions identified at pelvic US performed between January 2011 and June 2014, reviewed between September 2019 and September 2020. Lesions were considered isolated in the absence of ascites or peritoneal implants. Lesions were classified as classic or nonclassic based on sonographic appearance. Classic lesions included simple cysts, hemorrhagic cysts, endometriomas, and dermoids. Otherwise, lesions were considered nonclassic. Outcomes based on histopathologic results or clinical or imaging follow-up were recorded. Diagnostic performance and frequency of malignancy were calculated. Frequency of malignancy between age groups was compared using the χ2 test, and Poisson regression was used to explore relationships between imaging features and malignancy. Results A total of 970 isolated lesions in 878 women (mean age, 42 years ± 14 [SD]) were included. The malignancy rate for classic lesions was less than 1%. Of 970 lesions, 53 (6%) were malignant. The malignancy rate for nonclassic lesions was 32% (33 of 103) when blood flow was present and 8% (16 of 194) without blood flow (P < .001). For women older than 60 years, the malignancy rate was 50% (10 of 20 lesions) when blood flow was present and 13% (five of 38) without blood flow (P = .004). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the classic-versus-nonclassic schema was 93% (49 of 53 lesions), 73% (669 of 917 lesions), 17% (49 of 297 lesions), and 99% (669 of 673 lesions), respectively, for detection of malignancy. Conclusion Using a US classification schema of classic- or nonclassic-appearing adnexal lesions resulted in high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of malignancy in ovarian cancer. The highest risk of cancer was in isolated nonclassic lesions with blood flow in women older than 60 years. © RSNA, 2022 See also the editorial by Baumgarten in this issue.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.212338
View details for PubMedID 35315722
Increasing Diversity in Radiology and Molecular Imaging: Current Challenges.
Molecular imaging and biology
This paper summarizes the 2020 Diversity in Radiology and Molecular Imaging: What We Need to Know Conference, a three-day virtual conference held September 9-11, 2020. The World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS) and Stanford University jointly organized this event to provide a forum for WMIS members and affiliates worldwide to openly discuss issues pertaining to diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The participants discussed three main conference themes, "racial diversity in STEM," "women in STEM," and "global health," which were discussed through seven plenary lectures, twelve scientific presentations, and nine roundtable discussions, respectively. Breakout sessions were designed to flip the classroom and seek input from attendees on important topics such as increasing the representation of underrepresented minority (URM) members and women in STEM, generating pipeline programs in the fields of molecular imaging, supporting existing URM and women members in their career pursuits, developing mechanisms to effectively address microaggressions, providing leadership opportunities for URM and women STEM members, improving global health research, and developing strategies to advance culturally competent healthcare.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-021-01610-3
View details for PubMedID 33903986
Somatic Differentiation and MR Imaging of Magnetically Labeled Human Embryonic Stem Cells
2012; 21 (12): 2555-2567
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled stem cells offers a noninvasive evaluation of stem cell engraftment in host organs. Excessive cellular iron load from SPIO labeling, however, impairs stem cell differentiation. The purpose of this study was to magnetically label human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) via a reduced exposure protocol that maintains a significant MR signal and no significant impairment to cellular pluripotency or differentiation potential. hESCs were labeled by simple incubation with Food and Drug Administration-approved ferumoxides, using concentrations of 50- 200 µg Fe/ml and incubation times of 3-24 h. The most reduced exposure labeling protocol that still provided a significant MR signal comparable to accepted labeling protocols was selected for subsequent studies. Labeled hESCs were compared to unlabeled controls for differences in pluripotency as studied by fluorescence staining for SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-60, and TRA-81 and in differentiation capacity as studied by quantitative real-time PCR for hOCT4, hACTC1, hSOX1, and hAFP after differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs). Subsequent MR and microscopy imaging were performed to evaluate for cellular iron distribution and long-term persistence of the label. An incubation concentration of 50 µg Fe/ml and incubation time of 3 h demonstrated a significantly reduced exposure protocol that yielded an intracellular iron uptake of 4.50 ± 0.27 pg, an iron content comparable to currently accepted SPIO labeling protocols. Labeled and unlabeled hESCs showed no difference in pluripotency or differentiation capacity. Ferumoxide-labeled hESCs demonstrated persistent MR contrast effects as embryoid bodies for 21 days. Electron microscopy confirmed persistent lysosomal storage of iron oxide particles in EBs up to 9 days, while additional microscopy visualization confirmed the iron distribution within single and multiple EBs. Labeling hESCs with ferumoxides by this tailored protocol reduces exposure of cells to the labeling agent while allowing for long-term visualization with MR imaging and the retention of cellular pluripotency and differentiation potential.
View details for DOI 10.3727/096368912X653156
View details for Web of Science ID 000315001400002
View details for PubMedID 22862886