Repression of CENP-A assembly in metaphase requires HJURP phosphorylation and inhibition by M18BP1.
The Journal of cell biology
2023; 222 (6)
Centromeres are the foundation for mitotic kinetochore assembly and thus are essential for chromosome segregation. Centromeres are epigenetically defined by nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant CENP-A. CENP-A nucleosome assembly is uncoupled from replication and occurs in G1, but how cells control this timing is incompletely understood. The formation of CENP-A nucleosomes in vertebrates requires CENP-C and the Mis18 complex which recruit the CENP-A chaperone HJURP to centromeres. Using a cell-free system for centromere assembly in X. laevis egg extracts, we discover two activities that inhibit CENP-A assembly in metaphase. HJURP phosphorylation prevents the interaction between HJURP and CENP-C in metaphase, blocking the delivery of soluble CENP-A to centromeres. Non-phosphorylatable mutants of HJURP constitutively bind CENP-C in metaphase but are not sufficient for new CENP-A assembly. We find that the M18BP1.S subunit of the Mis18 complex also binds to CENP-C to competitively inhibit HJURP's access to centromeres. Removal of these two inhibitory activities causes CENP-A assembly in metaphase.
View details for DOI 10.1083/jcb.202110124
View details for PubMedID 37141119
DiMeLo-seq: a long-read, single-molecule method for mapping protein-DNA interactions genome wide.
Studies of genome regulation routinely use high-throughput DNA sequencing approaches to determine where specific proteins interact with DNA, and they rely on DNA amplification and short-read sequencing, limiting their quantitative application in complex genomic regions. To address these limitations, we developed directed methylation with long-read sequencing (DiMeLo-seq), which uses antibody-tethered enzymes to methylate DNA near a target protein's binding sites in situ. These exogenous methylation marks are then detected simultaneously with endogenous CpG methylation on unamplified DNA using long-read, single-molecule sequencing technologies. We optimized and benchmarked DiMeLo-seq by mapping chromatin-binding proteins and histone modifications across the human genome. Furthermore, we identified where centromere protein A localizes within highly repetitive regions that were unmappable with short sequencing reads, and we estimated the density of centromere protein A molecules along single chromatin fibers. DiMeLo-seq is a versatile method that provides multimodal, genome-wide information for investigating protein-DNA interactions.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41592-022-01475-6
View details for PubMedID 35396487