Dr. Hopper is a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Division of Pediatric Cardiology in the Department of Pediatrics. Dr. Hopper’s clinical responsibilities are focused on the inpatient and outpatient Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) Service based within the Children’s Heart Center as well as the inpatient Cardiology service at LPCH. Additionally, Dr. Hopper pursues clinical and translational research in the area of pulmonary hypertension within the Children's Heart Center at LPCH.
Dr. Hopper received her Bachelor of Arts degree in Molecular Biology from Pomona College in Claremont, California, and she attended medical school at the University of Michigan Medical School, graduating cum laude. She completed her residency in Pediatrics at Boston Children’s Hospital and performed both her fellowship training in Pediatric Cardiology and her advanced clinical fellowship in Pulmonary Hypertension at Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford. Dr. Hopper was formerly an Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Associate Director of the Pulmonary Hypertension Program in the Division of Cardiology in the Department of Pediatrics at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.
- Pediatric Cardiology
- Pulmonary Hypertension
Clinical Assistant Professor, Pediatrics - Cardiology
Associate Director, Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Program, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford (2017 - Present)
Co-director, CRIB Program, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford (2018 - Present)
Honors & Awards
Barst Fund Award, Pulmonary Hypertension Association (12/1/2016 - 11/30/2017)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Co-chair, Clinical Trials Committee, Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Network (2014 - Present)
Member, Pediatric Task Force, Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (2013 - Present)
Member, American Thoracic Society (2016 - Present)
Member, American Heart Association (2014 - Present)
Fellowship:Stanford University Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship (2014) CA
Fellowship:Stanford University Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship (2013) CA
Board Certification: Pediatric Cardiology, American Board of Pediatrics (2014)
Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (2010)
Residency:Boston Childrens Hospital Pediatric Residency (2010) MA
Medical Education:University of Michigan Medical School (2007) MI
Fellowship, Stanford (Lucile Packard Children's Hospital), Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension (2014)
Fellowship, Stanford (Lucile Packard Children's Hospital), Pediatric Cardiology (2013)
Residency, Boston Children's Hospital (Boston Combined Residency Program in Pediatrics), Pediatrics (2010)
MD, University of Michigan Medical School (2007)
BA, Pomona College, Molecular Biology (2001)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
Current research interests include:
PH related to prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Right heart failure in children with pulmonary hypertension, imaging and biomarkers
Pulmonary hypertension related to congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Pulmonary vein stenosis in infants and children
Pulmonary hypertension in children with congenital heart disease
Clinical trials in children with PH
Pulmonary Vein Stenosis: Outcomes in Children with Congenital Heart Disease and Prematurity.
Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare condition that has been linked to prematurity and congenital heart disease (CHD). Despite these associations, treatment options are limited and outcomes are guarded. We investigated differences in PVS outcomes based on the presence of CHD and prematurity, and risk factors for mortality or lung transplantation in PVS.METHODS: Single center retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with PVS between January 2005 and May 2016, identified by ICD codes with chart validation. Cox proportional hazard models assessed risk factors for the composite outcome of mortality or lung transplantation.RESULTS: Ninety-three patients with PVS were identified: 65 (70%) had significant CHD, 32 (34%) were premature, and 14 (15%) were premature with CHD. Sixty-five (70%) underwent a PVS intervention and 42 (46%) underwent ≥2 interventions. Twenty-five (27%) subjects died or underwent lung transplant 5.8 months (Interquartile range (IQR) 1.1, 15.3) after diagnosis. There was no difference in age at diagnosis or mortality based on presence of CHD or prematurity. PVS diagnosis before age 6 months and greater than one pulmonary vein affected at diagnosis were associated with higher mortality (HR 3.4 (95% CI 1.5, 7.5), p=0.003, and HR 2.1 per additional vein affected (95% CI 1.3, 3.4), p=0.004, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: Survival in children with PVS is poor, independent of underlying CHD or prematurity. Younger age and greater number of veins affected at diagnosis are risk factors for worse outcome. Understanding causal mechanisms and development of treatment strategies are necessary to improve outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1053/j.semtcvs.2018.09.027
View details for PubMedID 30278272
- Settling the Score in Pulmonary Hypertension? Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies 2018; 19 (8): 782–83
Right ventricular function mirrors clinical improvement with use of prostacyclin analogues in pediatric pulmonary hypertension
2018; 8 (2): 2045894018759247
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) causes significant morbidity and mortality in children due to right ventricular (RV) failure. We sought to determine the effect of prostacyclin analogues on RV function assessed by echocardiography in children with PH. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children with PH treated with a prostacyclin analogue (epoprostenol or treprostinil) between January 2001 and August 2015 at our center. Data were collected before initiation of treatment (baseline) and at 1-3 and 6-12 months after. Protocolized echocardiogram measurements including tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and RV global longitudinal strain were made with blinding to clinical information. Forty-nine individuals (65% female), aged 0-29 years at the time of prostacyclin initiation were included. Disease types included pulmonary arterial hypertension (idiopathic [35%], heritable [2%], and congenital heart disease-associated [18%]), developmental lung disease (43%), and chronic thromboembolic PH (2%). Participants received intravenous (IV) epoprostenol (14%) and IV/subcutaneous (SQ) (67%) or inhaled (18%) treprostinil. Over the study period, prostacyclin analogues were associated with improvement in TAPSE ( P = 0.007), RV strain ( P < 0.001), and qualitative RV function ( P = 0.037) by echocardiogram, and BNP ( P < 0.001), functional class ( P = 0.047) and 6-min walk distance ( P = 0.001). TAPSE and strain improved at early follow up ( P = 0.05 and P = 0.002, respectively) despite minimal RV pressure change. In children with PH, prostacyclin analogues are associated with an early and sustained improvement in RV function measured as TAPSE and strain as well as clinical markers of PH severity. RV strain may be a sensitive marker of RV function in this population.
View details for DOI 10.1177/2045894018759247
View details for Web of Science ID 000426599500001
View details for PubMedID 29480089
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5843105
Central line replacement following infection does not improve reinfection rates in pediatric pulmonary hypertension patients receiving intravenous prostanoid therapy
2018; 8 (1): 2045893218754886
Treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH) with IV prostanoids has greatly improved outcomes but requires a central line, posing inherent infection risk. This study examines the types of infections, infection rates, and importantly the effect of line management strategies on reinfection in children receiving IV prostanoids for PH. This study is a retrospective review of all pediatric PH patients receiving intravenous epoprostenol (EPO) or treprostinil (TRE) at one academic tertiary care center between 2000 and 2014. No patients declined participation in the study or were otherwise excluded. Infectious complications were characterized by organism(s), infection rates, time to next infection, and line management decisions (salvage vs. replace). Of the 40 patients followed, 13 sustained 38 infections involving 49 pathogens, with a predominance of gram-positive (GP) organisms (n = 35). The pooled infection rate was 1.06 per 1000 prostanoid days with no difference between EPO and TRE. No significant difference in reinfection rate was observed when comparing line salvage to replacement, regardless of organism type. Both overall and organism-type comparisons suggest longer time between line infections following line salvage compared with line replacement (732 vs. 410 days overall; 793 vs. 363 days for GP; 611 vs. 581 days for gram-negative [GN]; P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Central line replacement following blood stream infections in pediatric PH patients does not improve subsequent infection rates or time to next infection, and may lead to unnecessary risks associated with line replacement, including potential loss of vascular access. A revised approach to central line infections in pediatric PH is proposed.
View details for DOI 10.1177/2045893218754886
View details for Web of Science ID 000429938800001
View details for PubMedID 29309237
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5826011
Subcutaneous treprostinil in pediatric patients with failing single-ventricle physiology
JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION
2018; 37 (2): 306–7
View details for Web of Science ID 000424293900022
Treprostinil Improves Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Associated with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.
The Journal of pediatrics
To evaluate the effect of continuous treprostinil in infants with severe pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) on specific markers of pulmonary hypertension severity and to report the safety and tolerability of treprostinil.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants with CDH-associated pulmonary hypertension treated with treprostinil from January 2011 to September 2016. Severity of pulmonary hypertension was assessed by echocardiogram and serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) by using time points before initiation and 24 hours, 1 week, and 1 month after treprostinil initiation. Fisher exact tests, Wilcoxon-rank sum tests, and mixed-effects models were used for analysis.Seventeen patients were treated with treprostinil for a median of 54.5 days (IQR 44.3-110 days). Compared with the concurrent CDH population (n = 147), infants treated with treprostinil were more likely to require extracorporeal support (76.5% vs 25.2%, P < .0001), to have a longer hospital stay (144 vs 60 days, P < .0001), and to need longer mechanical ventilator support (76.5 vs 30.9 days, P < .0001). Following treprostinil initiation, there was a significant reduction in BNP at 1 week (1439 vs 393 pg/mL, P < .01) and 1 month (1439 vs 242 pg/mL, P = .01). Severity of pulmonary hypertension by echocardiogram improved at 1 month (OR 0.14, CI 95% 0.04-0.48, P = .002). Despite these improvements, overall mortality remained high (35%). There were no adverse events related to treprostinil, including no hypotension, hypoxia, or thrombocytopenia.In this cohort, treprostinil use was associated with improved severity of pulmonary hypertension assessed by echocardiogram and decreased BNP, with no significant side effects.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.04.052
View details for PubMedID 29784517
- The Left Ventricle in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: Implications for the Management of Pulmonary Hypertension. The Journal of pediatrics 2018; 197: 17–22
- Evaluation and Management of Pulmonary Hypertension in Children with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. The Journal of pediatrics 2017; 188: 24–34.e1
Codependence of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2 and Transforming Growth Factor-β in Elastic Fiber Assembly and Its Perturbation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
We determined in patients with pulmonary arterial (PA) hypertension (PAH) whether in addition to increased production of elastase by PA smooth muscle cells previously reported, PA elastic fibers are susceptible to degradation because of their abnormal assembly.Fibrillin-1 and elastin are the major components of elastic fibers, and fibrillin-1 binds bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and the large latent complex of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1). Thus, we considered whether BMPs like TGFβ1 contribute to elastic fiber assembly and whether this process is perturbed in PAH particularly when the BMP receptor, BMPR2, is mutant. We also assessed whether in mice with Bmpr2/1a compound heterozygosity, elastic fibers are susceptible to degradation. In PA smooth muscle cell and adventitial fibroblasts, TGFβ1 increased elastin mRNA, but the elevation in elastin protein was dependent on BMPR2; TGFβ1 and BMP4, via BMPR2, increased extracellular accumulation of fibrillin-1. Both BMP4- and TGFβ1-stimulated elastic fiber assemblies were impaired in idiopathic (I) PAH-PA adventitial fibroblast versus control cells, particularly those with hereditary (H) PAH and a BMPR2 mutation. This was related to profound reductions in elastin and fibrillin-1 mRNA. Elastin protein was increased in IPAH PA adventitial fibroblast by TGFβ1 but only minimally so in BMPR2 mutant cells. Fibrillin-1 protein increased only modestly in IPAH or HPAH PA adventitial fibroblast stimulated with BMP4 or TGFβ1. In Bmpr2/1a heterozygote mice, reduced PA fibrillin-1 was associated with elastic fiber susceptibility to degradation and more severe pulmonary hypertension.Disrupting BMPR2 impairs TGFβ1- and BMP4-mediated elastic fiber assembly and is of pathophysiologic significance in PAH.
View details for DOI 10.1161/ATVBAHA.117.309696
View details for PubMedID 28619995
In Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Reduced BMPR2 Promotes Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition via HMGA1 and Its Target Slug
2016; 133 (18): 1783-?
-We previously reported high-throughput RNA sequencing analyses that identified heightened expression of the chromatin architectural factor High Mobility Group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) in pulmonary arterial (PA) endothelial cells (ECs) from idiopathic PA hypertension (IPAH) patients compared to controls. Since HMGA1 promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition in cancer, we hypothesized that increased HMGA1 could induce transition of PAECs to a smooth muscle (SM)-like mesenchymal phenotype (EndMT), explaining both dysregulation of PAEC function and possible cellular contribution to the occlusive remodeling that characterizes advanced IPAH.-We documented increased HMGA1 in PAECs cultured from IPAH vs. donor control lungs. Confocal microscopy of lung explants localized the increase in HMGA1 consistently to PA endothelium, and identified many cells double-positive for HMGA1 and smooth muscle 22 alpha (SM22α) in occlusive and plexogenic lesions. Since decreased expression and function of bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR)2 is observed in PAH, we reduced BMPR2 by siRNA in control PAECs and documented an increase in HMGA1 protein. Consistent with transition of PAECs by HMGA1, we detected reduced PECAM-1 (CD31) and increased EndMT markers, αSMA, SM22α, calponin, phospho-vimentin and Slug. The transition was associated with spindle SM-like morphology, and the increase in αSMA was largely reversed by joint knockdown of BMPR2 and HMGA1 or Slug. Pulmonary ECs from mice with EC-specific loss of BMPR2 showed similar gene and protein changes.-Increased HMGA1 in PAECs resulting from dysfunctional BMPR2 signaling can transition endothelium to SM-like cells associated with PAH.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.020617
View details for Web of Science ID 000375604400008
View details for PubMedID 27045138
RNA Sequencing Analysis Detection of a Novel Pathway of Endothelial Dysfunction in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
2015; 192 (3): 356-366
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by endothelial dysregulation, but global changes in gene expression have not been related to perturbations in function.RNA sequencing was utilized to discriminate changes in transcriptomes of endothelial cells cultured from lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension vs. controls and to assess the functional significance of major differentially expressed transcripts.The endothelial transcriptomes from seven control and six idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients' lungs were analyzed. Differentially expressed genes were related to BMPR2 signaling. Those downregulated were assessed for function in cultured cells, and in a transgenic mouse.Fold-differences in ten genes were significant (p<0.05), four increased and six decreased in patients vs.No patient was mutant for BMPR2. However, knockdown of BMPR2 by siRNA in control pulmonary arterial endothelial cells recapitulated six/ten patient-related gene changes, including decreased collagen IV (COL4A1, COL4A2) and ephrinA1 (EFNA1). Reduction of BMPR2 regulated transcripts was related to decreased β-catenin. Reducing COL4A1, COL4A2 and EFNA1 by siRNA inhibited pulmonary endothelial adhesion, migration and tube formation. In mice null for the EFNA1 receptor, EphA2, vs. controls, VEGF receptor blockade and hypoxia caused more severe pulmonary hypertension, judged by elevated right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy and loss of small arteries.The novel relationship between BMPR2 dysfunction and reduced expression of endothelial COL4 and EFNA1 may underlie vulnerability to injury in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
View details for DOI 10.1164/rccm.201408-1528OC
View details for Web of Science ID 000359178500017
View details for PubMedID 26030479
BMPR2 Preserves Mitochondrial Function and DNA during Reoxygenation to Promote Endothelial Cell Survival and Reverse Pulmonary Hypertension
2015; 21 (4): 596-608
Mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and mutant bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) are associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), an incurable disease characterized by pulmonary arterial (PA) endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis, decreased microvessels, and occlusive vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that reduced BMPR2 induces PAEC mitochondrial dysfunction, promoting a pro-inflammatory or pro-apoptotic state. Mice with EC deletion of BMPR2 develop hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension that, in contrast to non-transgenic littermates, does not reverse upon reoxygenation and is associated with reduced PA microvessels and lung EC p53, PGC1α and TFAM, regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial DNA. Decreasing PAEC BMPR2 by siRNA during reoxygenation represses p53, PGC1α, NRF2, TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP and induces mitochondrial DNA deletion and apoptosis. Reducing PAEC BMPR2 in normoxia increases p53, PGC1α, TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production, and glycolysis, and induces mitochondrial fission and a pro-inflammatory state. These features are recapitulated in PAECs from PAH patients with mutant BMPR2.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.03.010
View details for Web of Science ID 000352500800014
View details for PubMedID 25863249
Neonatal Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Noonan Syndrome: Two Fatal Cases with a Specific RAF1 Mutation
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART A
2015; 167A (4): 882-885
Mutations in RAF1 are associated with Noonan syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We present two infants with Noonan syndrome and an identical RAF1 mutation, p.Ser257Leu (c.770C>T), who developed severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that proved to be fatal. The RAF1 gene encodes Raf-1 kinase, part of the Ras/mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, which has been linked to the development of PAH. This specific mutation has been associated with dephosphorylation of a critical serine residue and constitutive activation of the Raf-1 kinase. These two cases suggest that abnormal activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway may play a significant role in the development of pulmonary vascular disease in the subset of patients with Noonan syndrome and a specific RAF1 mutation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View details for DOI 10.1002/ajmg.a.37024
View details for Web of Science ID 000352019000035
FK506 activates BMPR2, rescues endothelial dysfunction, and reverses pulmonary hypertension.
journal of clinical investigation
2013; 123 (8): 3600-3613
Dysfunctional bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2 (BMPR2) signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We used a transcriptional high-throughput luciferase reporter assay to screen 3,756 FDA-approved drugs and bioactive compounds for induction of BMPR2 signaling. The best response was achieved with FK506 (tacrolimus), via a dual mechanism of action as a calcineurin inhibitor that also binds FK-binding protein-12 (FKBP12), a repressor of BMP signaling. FK506 released FKBP12 from type I receptors activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), ALK2, and ALK3 and activated downstream SMAD1/5 and MAPK signaling and ID1 gene regulation in a manner superior to the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine and the FKBP12 ligand rapamycin. In pulmonary artery endothelial cells (ECs) from patients with idiopathic PAH, low-dose FK506 reversed dysfunctional BMPR2 signaling. In mice with conditional Bmpr2 deletion in ECs, low-dose FK506 prevented exaggerated chronic hypoxic PAH associated with induction of EC targets of BMP signaling, such as apelin. Low-dose FK506 also reversed severe PAH in rats with medial hypertrophy following monocrotaline and in rats with neointima formation following VEGF receptor blockade and chronic hypoxia. Our studies indicate that low-dose FK506 could be useful in the treatment of PAH.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI65592
View details for PubMedID 23867624
Use of P-32 To Study Dynamics of the Mitochondrial Phosphoproteome
JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH
2009; 8 (6): 2679-2695
Protein phosphorylation is a well-characterized regulatory mechanism in the cytosol, but remains poorly defined in the mitochondrion. In this study, we characterized the use of (32)P-labeling to monitor the turnover of protein phosphorylation in the heart and liver mitochondria matrix. The (32)P labeling technique was compared and contrasted to Phos-tag protein phosphorylation fluorescent stain and 2D isoelectric focusing. Of the 64 proteins identified by MS spectroscopy in the Phos-Tag gels, over 20 proteins were correlated with (32)P labeling. The high sensitivity of (32)P incorporation detected proteins well below the mass spectrometry and even 2D gel protein detection limits. Phosphate-chase experiments revealed both turnover and phosphate associated protein pool size alterations dependent on initial incubation conditions. Extensive weak phosphate/phosphate metabolite interactions were observed using nondisruptive native gels, providing a novel approach to screen for potential allosteric interactions of phosphate metabolites with matrix proteins. We confirmed the phosphate associations in Complexes V and I due to their critical role in oxidative phosphorylation and to validate the 2D methods. These complexes were isolated by immunocapture, after (32)P labeling in the intact mitochondria, and revealed (32)P-incorporation for the alpha, beta, gamma, OSCP, and d subunits in Complex V and the 75, 51, 42, 23, and 13a kDa subunits in Complex I. These results demonstrate that a dynamic and extensive mitochondrial matrix phosphoproteome exists in heart and liver.
View details for DOI 10.1021/pr800913j
View details for Web of Science ID 000266719400008
View details for PubMedID 19351177
Mitochondrial matrix phosphoproteome: Effect of extra mitochondrial calcium
2006; 45 (8): 2524-2536
Post-translational modification of mitochondrial proteins by phosphorylation or dephosphorylation plays an essential role in numerous cell signaling pathways involved in regulating energy metabolism and in mitochondrion-induced apoptosis. Here we present a phosphoproteomic screen of the mitochondrial matrix proteins and begin to establish the protein phosphorylations acutely associated with calcium ions (Ca(2+)) signaling in porcine heart mitochondria. Forty-five phosphorylated proteins were detected by gel electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of Pro-Q Diamond staining, while many more Pro-Q Diamond-stained proteins evaded mass spectrometry detection. Time-dependent (32)P incorporation in intact mitochondria confirmed the extensive matrix protein phosphoryation and revealed the dynamic nature of this process. Classes of proteins that were detected included all of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, as well as enzymes involved in intermediary metabolism, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), citrate synthase, and acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. These data demonstrate that the phosphoproteome of the mitochondrial matrix is extensive and dynamic. Ca(2+) has previously been shown to activate various dehydrogenases, promote the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and initiate apoptosis via cytochrome c release. To evaluate the Ca(2+) signaling network, the effects of a Ca(2+) challenge sufficient to release cytochrome c were evaluated on the mitochondrial phosphoproteome. Novel Ca(2+)-induced dephosphorylation was observed in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) as well as the previously characterized PDH. A Ca(2+) dose-dependent dephosphorylation of MnSOD was associated with an approximately 2-fold maximum increase in activity; neither the dephosphorylation nor activity changes were induced by ROS production in the absence of Ca(2+). These data demonstrate the use of a phosphoproteome screen in determining mitochondrial signaling pathways and reveal new pathways for Ca(2+) modification of mitochondrial function at the level of MnSOD.
View details for DOI 10.1021/bi052475e
View details for Web of Science ID 000235792300008
View details for PubMedID 16489745