I grew up in the east bay area and have had type 1 diabetes for 30+ years. I studied electrical engineering and computer science at U.C. Berkeley (Go Bears!) with the hope of applying my knowledge to diabetes technology. The significance of clinical practice became clear to me after my siblings also developed diabetes. I am devoting my life to advancing the care of diabetes in people of all ages.

Clinical Focus

  • Endocrinology
  • Diabetes and Metabolism

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Member, Stanford Diabetes Research Center (2020 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Stephen Bechtel Endowed Fellow, Stanford Maternal and Child Health Research Institute (2017-2019)
  • Alpha Omega Alpha, National medical honor society (2017)
  • Outstanding Teaching as a House Officer, University of Southern California (2014)
  • Gold Humanism Honor Society, Gold Foundation (2011)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Consultant, Abbott Diabetes Care (2018 - Present)
  • Medical Advisory Board, Consultant, Tidepool (2018 - Present)
  • Medical Advisor, Biolinq (2019 - Present)
  • Medical Monitor, Capillary Biomedical (2020 - Present)
  • Advisory Board, Provention Bio (2021 - 2021)
  • Medical Advisor, Gluroo (2021 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology (2019)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism (2018)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Endocrinology Fellowship (2019) CA
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Pediatric Endocrinology Fellowship (2019) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2015)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2015)
  • Residency, Chief Residency, LAC+USC, Internal Medicine & Pediatrics (2015)
  • Medical Education: University of California Davis School of Medicine (2011) CA

Clinical Trials

  • Evaluating the Benefits of Physiologic Insulin Delivery Not Recruiting

    In normal physiology insulin is secreted by beta cells into the portal vein. There have been a number of purported benefits among long-term intraperitoneal insulin users. In the present study we will inject ultra-rapid acting insulin into the upper and lower peritoneum under ultrasound guidance and compare it to subcutaneous injection. We will measure glucose, insulin and glucagon following these injections, to assess for benefits in counter-regulatory hormone production and insulin pharmacokinetics.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Rayhan Lal, MD, 650-725-6549.

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  • Evaluation of Extended Wear Infusion Set With 670G Hybrid Closed-Loop Therapy Not Recruiting

    This is a randomized trial to determine if an extended wear infusion set can be worn for up to 7 days with a hybrid closed-loop system in adult with Type 1 Diabetes

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Liana Hsu, BS, 650-725-3939.

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2021-22 Courses

All Publications

  • Automated Insulin Dosing Systems: Advances After a Century of Insulin. Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association Thabit, H., Lal, R., Leelarathna, L. 2021: e14695


    The daily complexities of insulin therapy and glucose variability in type 1 diabetes still pose significant challenges, despite advancements in modern insulin analogues. Minimising hypoglycaemia and optimising time spent within target glucose range are recommended to reduce the risk of diabetes-related complications and distress. Access to structured education and adjuvant diabetes technologies such as insulin pumps and glucose sensors, are recommended by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to enable people with type 1 diabetes achieve their glycaemic goals. One hundred years after the discovery of insulin, automated insulin dosing (AID, a.k.a. closed-loop or artificial pancreas) systems are a reality with a number of systems available and being used in usual clinical practice. Evidence from randomised clinical trials and real-world prospective studies support efficacy, effectiveness and safety of AID systems. Qualitative evaluations reveal treatment satisfaction and positive effects on quality-of-life. Current insulin-only AID systems still require carbohydrate and activity announcement (hybrid closed-loop) due to the inherent pharmacokinetic limitations of rapid-acting insulin analogies. Ultra-rapid acting insulin, and adjunctive use of other therapies (e.g. glucagon, pramlitide) are being evaluated to achieve full closed-loop. Open-source AID (OS-AID) systems have been developed by the diabetes community, driven by a desire for safety and to accelerate technological advancement. In addition to effectiveness and safety, real-world prospective studies suggest that OS-AID systems fulfill unmet needs of commercially approved systems. The development, ongoing challenges and expectations of AID are outlined in this review.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/dme.14695

    View details for PubMedID 34547133

  • Ultra-Fast Insulin-Pramlintide Co-Formulation for Improved Glucose Management in Diabetic Rats. Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) Maikawa, C. L., Chen, P. C., Vuong, E. T., Nguyen, L. T., Mann, J. L., d'Aquino, A. I., Lal, R. A., Maahs, D. M., Buckingham, B. A., Appel, E. A. 2021: e2101575


    Dual-hormone replacement therapy with insulin and amylin in patients with type 1 diabetes has the potential to improve glucose management. Unfortunately, currently available formulations require burdensome separate injections at mealtimes and have disparate pharmacokinetics that do not mimic endogenous co-secretion. Here, amphiphilic acrylamide copolymers are used to create a stable co-formulation of monomeric insulin and amylin analogues (lispro and pramlintide) with synchronous pharmacokinetics and ultra-rapid action. The co-formulation is stable for over 16 h under stressed aging conditions, whereas commercial insulin lispro (Humalog) aggregates in 8 h. The faster pharmacokinetics of monomeric insulin in this co-formulation result in increased insulin-pramlintide overlap of 75 ± 6% compared to only 47 ± 7% for separate injections. The co-formulation results in similar delay in gastric emptying compared to pramlintide delivered separately. In a glucose challenge, in rats, the co-formulation reduces deviation from baseline glucose compared to insulin only, or separate insulin and pramlintide administrations. Further, comparison of interspecies pharmacokinetics of monomeric pramlintide suggests that pharmacokinetics observed for the co-formulation will be well preserved in future translation to humans. Together these results suggest that the co-formulation has the potential to improve mealtime glucose management and reduce patient burden in the treatment of diabetes.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/advs.202101575

    View details for PubMedID 34499434

  • Democratizing type 1 diabetes specialty care in the primary care setting to reduce health disparities: project extension for community healthcare outcomes (ECHO) T1D. BMJ open diabetes research & care Walker, A. F., Cuttriss, N., Haller, M. J., Hood, K. K., Gurka, M. J., Filipp, S. L., Anez-Zabala, C., Yabut, K., Roque, X., Wong, J. J., Baer, L., Figg, L., Bernier, A., Westen, S., Lewit, E., Sheehan, E., Basina, M., Lal, R., Maizel, J., Maahs, D. M. 2021; 9 (1)


    INTRODUCTION: Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) is a tele-education outreach model that seeks to democratize specialty knowledge to reduce disparities and improve health outcomes. Limited utilization of endocrinologists forces many primary care providers (PCPs) to care for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) without specialty support. Accordingly, an ECHO T1D program was developed and piloted in Florida and California. Our goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECHO program focused on T1D and improve PCPs' abilities to manage patients with T1D.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Health centers (ie, spokes) were recruited into the ECHO T1D pilot through an innovative approach, focusing on Federally Qualified Health Centers and through identification of high-need catchment areas using the Neighborhood Deprivation Index and provider geocoding. Participating spokes received weekly tele-education provided by the University of Florida and Stanford University hub specialty team through virtual ECHO clinics, real-time support with complex T1D medical decision-making, access to a diabetes support coach, and access to an online repository of diabetes care resources. Participating PCPs completed pre/post-tests assessing diabetes knowledge and confidence and an exit survey gleaning feedback about overall ECHO T1D program experiences.RESULTS: In Florida, 12 spoke sites enrolled with 67 clinics serving >1000 patients with T1D. In California, 11 spoke sites enrolled with 37 clinics serving >900 patients with T1D. During the 6-month intervention, 27 tele-education clinics were offered and n=70 PCPs (22 from Florida, 48 from California) from participating spoke sites completed pre/post-test surveys assessing diabetes care knowledge and confidence in diabetes care. There was statistically significant improvement in diabetes knowledge (p≤0.01) as well as in diabetes confidence (p≤0.01).CONCLUSIONS: The ECHO T1D pilot demonstrated proof of concept for a T1D-specific ECHO program and represents a viable model to reach medically underserved communities which do not use specialists.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002262

    View details for PubMedID 34244218

  • Insulin Delivery Hardware: Pumps and Pens. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Lal, R. A., Leelarathna, L. 2021; 23 (S2): S32-S45

    View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2021.2503

    View details for PubMedID 34061635

  • Longevity of the Novel ConvaTec Infusion Set with Lantern Technology. Diabetes, obesity & metabolism Lal, R. A., Hsu, L., Zhang, J., Schondorff, P. K., Heschel, M., Buckingham, B. 2021


    Current insulin infusion sets are approved for only 2-3days. The novel ConvaTec infusion set with Lantern Technology is designed to extend infusion set wear time. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate duration of wear for this set. This was a pilot safety study in adults with type 1 diabetes using tethered insulin pumps. Participants inserted the set and wore it for 10days or until failure. Among 24 participants, 2 were excluded. 45% of the sets lasted 10days. Median wear time was 9.1 (7.1,10.0) days. Among 12 premature failures: 6 (50%) involved adhesive failures, 4 (33%) hyperglycemia unresponsive to correction, 1 (8%) hyperglycemia with ketones and 1 (8%) infection. Average CGM glucose per day of infusion set wear demonstrated a statistically significant increase over time, while total daily insulin over the same period did not change. In this pilot study the duration of wear for the novel infusion set exceeded previously reported commercial sets (p<0.001). This extended wear technology may eventually allow for a combined glucose sensor and infusion set. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/dom.14395

    View details for PubMedID 33822472

  • Full closed loop open-source algorithm performance comparison in pigs with diabetes. Clinical and translational medicine Lal, R. A., Maikawa, C. L., Lewis, D., Baker, S. W., Smith, A. A., Roth, G. A., Gale, E. C., Stapleton, L. M., Mann, J. L., Yu, A. C., Correa, S., Grosskopf, A. K., Liong, C. S., Meis, C. M., Chan, D., Garner, J. P., Maahs, D. M., Buckingham, B. A., Appel, E. A. 2021; 11 (4): e387


    Understanding how automated insulin delivery (AID) algorithm features impact glucose control under full closed loop delivery represents a critical step toward reducing patient burden by eliminating the need for carbohydrate entries at mealtimes. Here, we use a pig model of diabetes to compare AndroidAPS and Loop open-source AID systems without meal announcements. Overall time-in-range (70-180mg/dl) for AndroidAPS was 58% ± 5%, while time-in-range for Loop was 35% ± 5%. The effect of the algorithms on time-in-range differed between meals and overnight. During the overnight monitoring period, pigs had an average time-in-range of 90% ± 7% when on AndroidAPS compared to 22% ± 8% on Loop. Time-in-hypoglycemia also differed significantly during the lunch meal, whereby pigs running AndroidAPS spent an average of 1.4% (+0.4/-0.8)% in hypoglycemia compared to 10% (+3/-6)% for those using Loop. As algorithm design for closed loop systems continues to develop, the strategies employed in the OpenAPS algorithm (known as oref1) as implemented in AndroidAPS for unannounced meals may result in a better overall control for full closed loop systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ctm2.387

    View details for PubMedID 33931977

  • Feasibility of Spotlight Consultations Tool in Routine Care: Real-World Evidence. Journal of diabetes science and technology Barnard-Kelly, K., Kelly, R. C., Chernavvsky, D., Lal, R., Cohen, L., Ali, A. 2021: 1932296821994088


    BACKGROUND: Burnout in people with diabetes and healthcare professionals (HCPs) is at an all-time high. Spotlight AQ, a novel "smart" adaptive patient questionnaire, is designed to improve consultations by rapidly identifying patient priorities and presenting these in the context of best-practice care pathways to aid consultations. We aimed to determine Spotlight AQ's feasibility in routine care.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Spotlight prototype tool was trialed at three centers: two UK primary care centers and one US specialist center (June-September 2020). Participants with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) completed the questionnaire prior to their routine consultations. Results were immediately available and formed the basis of the clinical discussion and decision-making within the clinic visit.RESULTS: A convenience sample of 49 adults took part, n=31 T1D, (n=18 female); and n=18 T2D (n=10 male, n=4 female, n=4 gender unreported). Each identified two priority concerns. "Psychological burden of diabetes" was the most common priority concern (T1D n = 27, 87.1%) followed by "gaining more skills about particular aspects of diabetes" (T1D n=19, 61.3%), "improving support around me" (n=8, 25.8%) and "diabetes-related treatment issues" (n=8, 25.8%). Burden of diabetes was widespread as was lack of confidence around self-management. Similarly, psychological burden of diabetes was the primary concern for participants with T2D (n=18,100%) followed by "gaining more skills about aspects of diabetes" (n=7, 38.9%), "improving support around me" (n=7, 38.9%) and "diabetes-related treatment issues" (n=4; 22.2%).CONCLUSIONS: Spotlight AQ is acceptable and feasible for use in routine care. Gaining more skills and addressing the psychological burden of diabetes are high-priority areas that must be addressed to reduce high levels of distress.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1932296821994088

    View details for PubMedID 33709795

  • Health-Related Quality of Life and Treatment Satisfaction in Parents and Children with Type 1 Diabetes Using Closed-Loop Control. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Cobry, E., Kanapka, L., Cengiz, E., Carria, L., Ekhlaspour, L., Buckingham, B. A., Hood, K., Hsu, L. J., Messer, L., Schoelwer, M., Emory, E., Ruedy, K. J., Beck, R. W., Wadwa, R. P. 2021


    INTRODUCTION: Hybrid closed-loop systems increase time-in-range and reduce glycemic variability. Person-reported outcomes (PROs) are essential to assess the utility of new devices and their impact on quality of life. This manuscript focuses on the PROs for pediatric participants (ages 6-13 yrs) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their parents during a trial using the Tandem Control-IQ system, which was shown to increase time-in-range and improve other glycemic metrics.METHODS: One-hundred-one children 6 to 13 years old with T1D were randomly assigned to closed-loop control (CLC) or sensor augmented pump (SAP) in a 16-week randomized clinical trial with extension to 28 weeks during which the SAP group crossed over to CLC. Health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction measures were obtained from children and their parents at baseline, 16 weeks, and 28 weeks.RESULTS: Neither the children in the CLC group nor their parents had statistically significant changes in PRO outcomes compared with the SAP group at the end of the 16-week RCT and the 28-week extension. Parents in the CLC group reported non-significant improvements in some PRO scores when compared with the SAP group at 16 weeks, which were sustained at 28 weeks. Sleep scores for parents improved from "poor sleep quality" to "adequate sleep quality" between baseline and 16 weeks, however, the change in scores was not statistically different between groups.CONCLUSIONS: Children with T1D who used the Control-IQ system did not experience increased burden compared with those using SAP based on person-reported outcomes from the children and their parents.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2020.0532

    View details for PubMedID 33404325

  • Predictors of Time-in-Range (70-180 mg/dL) Achieved Using a Closed-Loop Control System. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Schoelwer, M. J., Kanapka, L. G., Wadwa, R. P., Breton, M. D., Ruedy, K. J., Ekhlaspour, L. n., Forlenza, G. P., Cobry, E. C., Messer, L. H., Cengiz, E. n., Jost, E. n., Carria, L. n., Emory, E. n., Hsu, L. J., Weinzimer, S. A., Buckingham, B. A., Lal, R. A., Oliveri, M. C., Kollman, C. C., Dokken, B. B., Cherñavvsky, D. R., Beck, R. W., DeBoer, M. D. 2021


    Background: Studies of closed-loop control (CLC) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) consistently demonstrate improvements in glycemic control as measured by increased time-in-range (TIR) 70-180 mg/dL. However, clinical predictors of TIR in users of CLC systems are needed. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from 100 children aged 6-13 years with T1D using the Tandem Control-IQ CLC system during a randomized trial or subsequent extension phase. Continuous glucose monitor data were collected at baseline and during 12-16 weeks of CLC use. Participants were stratified into quartiles of TIR on CLC to compare clinical characteristics. Results: TIR for those in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles was 54%, 65%, 71%, and 78%, respectively. Lower baseline TIR was associated with lower TIR on CLC (r = 0.69, P < 0.001). However, lower baseline TIR was also associated with greater improvement in TIR on CLC (r = -0.81, P < 0.001). During CLC, participants in the highest versus lowest TIR-quartile administered more user-initiated boluses daily (8.5 ± 2.8 vs. 5.8 ± 2.6, P < 0.001) and received fewer automated boluses (3.5 ± 1.0 vs. 6.0 ± 1.6, P < 0.001). Participants in the lowest (vs. the highest) TIR-quartile received more insulin per body weight (1.13 ± 0.27 vs. 0.87 ± 0.20 U/kg/d, P = 0.008). However, in a multivariate model adjusting for baseline TIR, user-initiated boluses and insulin-per-body-weight were no longer significant. Conclusions: Higher baseline TIR is the strongest predictor of TIR on CLC in children with T1D. However, lower baseline TIR is associated with the greatest improvement in TIR. As with open-loop systems, user engagement is important for optimal glycemic control.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2020.0646

    View details for PubMedID 33689454

  • Engineering biopharmaceutical formulations to improve diabetes management. Science translational medicine Maikawa, C. L., d'Aquino, A. I., Lal, R. A., Buckingham, B. A., Appel, E. A. 2021; 13 (578)


    Insulin was first isolated almost a century ago, yet commercial formulations of insulin and its analogs for hormone replacement therapy still fall short of appropriately mimicking endogenous glycemic control. Moreover, the controlled delivery of complementary hormones (such as amylin or glucagon) is complicated by instability of the pharmacologic agents and complexity of maintaining multiple infusions. In this review, we highlight the advantages and limitations of recent advances in drug formulation that improve protein stability and pharmacokinetics, prolong drug delivery, or enable alternative dosage forms for the management of diabetes. With controlled delivery, these formulations could improve closed-loop glycemic control.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.abd6726

    View details for PubMedID 33504649

  • A Real-World Prospective Study of the Safety and Effectiveness of the Loop Open Source Automated Insulin Delivery System. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Lum, J., Bailey, R., Barnes-Lomen, V., Naranjo, D., Hood, K., Lal, R. A., Arbiter, B., Brown, A., DeSalvo, D. J., Pettus, J., Calhoun, P., Beck, R. W. 2020


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Loop Do-It-Yourself (DIY) automated insulin delivery system.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective real-world observational study was conducted, which included 558 adults and children (age range 1 to 71 years, mean HbA1c 6.8±1.0%) who initiated Loop either on their own or with community-developed resources and provided data for 6 months.RESULTS: Mean time-in-range 70-180 mg/dL (TIR) increased from 67±16% at baseline (prior to starting Loop) to 73±13% during the 6 months (mean change from baseline 6.6%, 95% confidence interval 5.9% to 7.4%; P<0.001). TIR increased in both adults and children, across the full range of baseline HbA1c, and in participants with both high and moderate income levels. Median time <54 mg/dL was 0.40% at baseline and changed by -0.05% (95% confidence interval -0.09% to -0.03%, P<0.001). Mean HbA1c was 6.8±1.0% at baseline and decreased to 6.5±0.8% after 6 months (mean difference= -0.33%, 95% confidence interval -0.40% to -0.26%, P<0.001). The incidence rate of reported severe hypoglycemia events was 18.7 per 100 person-years, a reduction from the incidence rate of 181 per 100 person-years during the 3 months prior to the study. Among the 481 users providing Loop data at 6 months, median CGM use was 96% (interquartile range 91% to 98%) and median time Loop was modulating basal insulin was at least 83% (interquartile range 73% to 88%).CONCLUSIONS: The Loop open source system can be initiated with community-developed resources and used safely and effectively by adults and children with T1D.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2020.0535

    View details for PubMedID 33226840

  • A Randomized Trial of Closed-Loop Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes. The New England journal of medicine Breton, M. D., Kanapka, L. G., Beck, R. W., Ekhlaspour, L., Forlenza, G. P., Cengiz, E., Schoelwer, M., Ruedy, K. J., Jost, E., Carria, L., Emory, E., Hsu, L. J., Oliveri, M., Kollman, C. C., Dokken, B. B., Weinzimer, S. A., DeBoer, M. D., Buckingham, B. A., Chernavvsky, D., Wadwa, R. P., iDCL Trial Research Group, Schoelwer, M., Breton, M., DeBoer, M., Gonder-Frederick, L., Chernavvsky, D., Robic, J., Emory, E., Voelmle, M., Conschafter, K., Morris, K., Barnett, C., Carr, K., Hellmann, J., Kime, M., Oliveri, M., Wadwa, R. P., Forlenza, G., Alonso, G. T., Slover, R., Messer, L., Cobry, E., Jost, E., Berget, C., Towers, L., Lange, S., Buckingham, B., Maahs, D., Lal, R., Ekhlaspour, L., Norlander, L., Hood, K., Town, M., Weir, C., Smith, K., Hsu, L., Shinksy, D., Viana, J., Cengiz, E., Weinzimer, S., Weyman, K., Carria, L., Zgorski, M., Ruedy, K., Beck, R., Borgman, S., Rusnak, J., Kanapka, L., Kollman, C., Murphy, C., Arreza-Rubin, G., Green, N., Kovatchev, B., Brown, S., Anderson, S., Laffel, L., Pinsker, J., Levy, C., Kudva, Y. C., Doyle, F. 3., Renard, E., Cobelli, C., Reznik, Y., Lum, J., Janicek, R., Gabrielson, D. 2020; 383 (9): 836–45


    BACKGROUND: A closed-loop system of insulin delivery (also called an artificial pancreas) may improve glycemic outcomes in children with type 1 diabetes.METHODS: In a 16-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial, we assigned, in a 3:1 ratio, children 6 to 13 years of age who had type 1 diabetes to receive treatment with the use of either a closed-loop system of insulin delivery (closed-loop group) or a sensor-augmented insulin pump (control group). The primary outcome was the percentage of time that the glucose level was in the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter, as measured by continuous glucose monitoring.RESULTS: A total of 101 children underwent randomization (78 to the closed-loop group and 23 to the control group); the glycated hemoglobin levels at baseline ranged from 5.7 to 10.1%. The mean (±SD) percentage of time that the glucose level was in the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter increased from 53±17% at baseline to 67±10% (the mean over 16 weeks of treatment) in the closed-loop group and from 51±16% to 55±13% in the control group (mean adjusted difference, 11 percentage points [equivalent to 2.6 hours per day]; 95% confidence interval, 7 to 14; P<0.001). In both groups, the median percentage of time that the glucose level was below 70 mg per deciliter was low (1.6% in the closed-loop group and 1.8% in the control group). In the closed-loop group, the median percentage of time that the system was in the closed-loop mode was 93% (interquartile range, 91 to 95). No episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis or severe hypoglycemia occurred in either group.CONCLUSIONS: In this 16-week trial involving children with type 1 diabetes, the glucose level was in the target range for a greater percentage of time with the use of a closed-loop system than with the use of a sensor-augmented insulin pump. (Funded by Tandem Diabetes Care and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; number, NCT03844789.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa2004736

    View details for PubMedID 32846062

  • Novel De Novo INS P.T97P Variant Presenting with Severe Neonatal DKA Lal, R., Moeller, H. P., Freeman, R., Prahalad, P., Annes, J. P. AMER DIABETES ASSOC. 2020
  • An Intolerable Burden: Suicide, Intended Self-Injury and Diabetes. Canadian journal of diabetes Barnard-Kelly, K. D., Naranjo, D., Majidi, S., Akturk, H. K., Breton, M., Courtet, P., Olie, E., Lal, R. A., Johnson, N., Atkinson, M., Renard, E. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcjd.2020.01.008

    View details for PubMedID 32305294

  • Insulin Pumps. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Lal, R. n., Leelarathna, L. n. 2020; 22 (S1): S17–S31

    View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2020.2502

    View details for PubMedID 32069156

  • Primary Care Providers in California and Florida Report Low Confidence in Providing Type 1 Diabetes Care. Clinical diabetes : a publication of the American Diabetes Association Lal, R. A., Cuttriss, N. n., Haller, M. J., Yabut, K. n., Anez-Zabala, C. n., Hood, K. K., Sheehan, E. n., Basina, M. n., Bernier, A. n., Baer, L. G., Filipp, S. L., Wang, C. J., Town, M. A., Gurka, M. J., Maahs, D. M., Walker, A. F. 2020; 38 (2): 159–65


    People with type 1 diabetes may receive a significant portion of their care from primary care providers (PCPs). To understand the involvement of PCPs in delivering type 1 diabetes care, we performed surveys in California and Florida, two of the most populous and diverse states in the United States. PCPs fill insulin prescriptions but report low confidence in providing type 1 diabetes care and difficulty accessing specialty referrals to endocrinologists.

    View details for DOI 10.2337/cd19-0060

    View details for PubMedID 32327888

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7164993

  • THE GUIDED TRANSFER OF CARE IMPROVES ADULT CLINIC SHOW RATE. Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Lal, R. A., Maahs, D. M., Dosiou, C. n., Aye, T. n., Basina, M. n. 2020


    Objective Every year 500,000 youths in the U.S. with chronic disease turn 18 and eventually require transfer to adult subspecialty care. Evidence-based interventions on the organization of transfer of care are limited, although engagement and retention in adult clinic are considered appropriate outcomes. Sustained continuity of care improves patient satisfaction and reduces hospitalization. Methods We conducted a prospective non-randomized cohort study of patients with pediatric endocrine conditions, age 16-26 years, enrolled upon referral to the adult endocrine clinic of a physician trained in both adult and pediatric endocrinology (Med+Peds Endocrinologist). Patients differed based on whether their referral originated from another pediatric endocrinologist (traditional transfer) or if the Med+Peds Endocrinologist previously saw the patient in his pediatric endocrine clinic (guided transfer). Rather than relying on arbitrary age criteria, guided transfer to adult clinic occurred when physician and patient considered it appropriate. The primary outcome was show rate at the first and second adult visits. Results Of 36 patients, 21 were referred by another pediatric endocrinologist and 15 underwent guided transfer. For traditional transfer, show rate to the first and second visit was 38% compared to 100% in the guided transfer group (p = 0.0001). Subgroup analysis of 27 patients with diabetes revealed that both groups had similar initial HbA1c (p = 0.38) and the guided transfer group maintained HbA1c. Conclusions Most traditional transfers were unsuccessful. Guided transfer was significantly more effective, with every patient successfully transferring, and could be implemented with adult endocrinologists willing to see patients in the pediatric clinic.

    View details for DOI 10.4158/EP-2019-0470

    View details for PubMedID 32045296

  • Fast-Acting Insulin Aspart Use with the MiniMed™ 670G System. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Hsu, L. J., Buckingham, B. A., Basina, M. n., Ekhlaspour, L. n., von Eyben, R. n., Wang, J. n., Lal, R. A. 2020


    BACKGROUND This study assessed the efficacy and safety of ultra-rapid insulin Fiasp® in the hybrid closed-loop MiniMed™ 670G system. METHODS This was a pilot randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study among established MiniMed™ 670G users comparing percent time in range (TIR) and hypoglycemia for Novolog® and Fiasp®. Following two weeks optimization with their home insulin, participants were randomized to receive Novolog® or Fiasp® for two weeks, followed by the other insulin for the next two weeks. Data from the second week of blinded insulin use was analyzed to allow one week for 670G adaptation. During the second week, individuals were asked to eat the same breakfast for three days to assess differences in meal pharmacodynamics. RESULTS Nineteen adults were recruited with mean age of 40±18 years, diabetes duration of 27±12 years and median HbA1c of 7.1 (6.9,7.5)%, using 0.72 (0.4,1.2) units/kg/day. For Novolog® and Fiasp® respectively the %TIR (70-180mg/dL) was 75.3±9.5 and 78.4 ±9.3; %time <70mg/dL was 3.1±2.1 and 2.3±2.0; %time >180mg/dL was 21.6±9.0 and 19.3±8.9; mean glucose was 147±12 and 146±12mg/dL; coefficient of variation was 28.6±4.5% and 26.8±4.4%; %time in Auto Mode 86.4±9.2 and 84.4±9.2. All comparisons were non-significant for insulin type. Total daily dose (Novolog® 48.8±28.4 vs. Fiasp® 52.4±31.7 units; p=0.01) and daily basal (Novolog® 17.6 (15.5,33.8) vs. Fiasp® 19.1 (15.3,38.5) units; p=0.07) correlated with TIR and %time >180mg/dL. For insulin delivery in Auto Mode there was no statistical difference in total daily dose or daily basal between arms. Paired analysis for matched breakfast meals revealed no significant differences in time to maximum glucose, peak glucose or glucose excursion. CONCLUSIONS In this pilot study the use of either Novolog® or Fiasp® in a commercially available MiniMed™ 670G system operating in Auto Mode resulted in clinically similar glycemic outcomes, with a slight increase in daily insulin requirements using Fiasp®.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2020.0083

    View details for PubMedID 32520594

  • Suicide and Self-inflicted Injury in Diabetes: A Balancing Act. Journal of diabetes science and technology Barnard-Kelly, K. D., Naranjo, D., Majidi, S., Akturk, H. K., Breton, M., Courtet, P., Olie, E., Lal, R. A., Johnson, N., Renard, E. 2019: 1932296819891136


    Glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remains a challenge for many, despite the availability of modern diabetes technology. While technologies have proven glycemic benefits and may reduce excess mortality in some populations, both mortality and complication rates remain significantly higher in T1DM than the general population. Diabetes technology can reduce some burdens of diabetes self-management, however, it may also increase anxiety, stress, and diabetes-related distress. Additional workload associated with diabetes technologies and the dominant focus on metabolic control may be at the expense of quality-of-life. Diabetes is associated with significantly increased risk of suicidal ideation, self-harm, and suicide. The risk increases for those with diabetes and comorbid mood disorder. For example, the prevalence of depression is significantly higher in people with diabetes than the general population, and thus, people with diabetes are at even higher risk of suicide. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported a 24% rise in US national suicide rates between 1999 and 2014, the highest in 30 years. In the United Kingdom, 6000 suicides occur annually. Rates of preventable self-injury mortality stand at 29.1 per 100 000 population. Individuals with diabetes have an increased risk of suicide, being three to four times more likely to attempt suicide than the general population. Furthermore, adolescents aged 15 to 19 are most likely to present at emergency departments for self-inflicted injuries (9.6 per 1000 visits), with accidents, alcohol-related injuries, and self-harm being the strongest risk factors for suicide, the second leading cause of death among 10 to 24 year olds. While we have developed tools to improve glycemic control, we must be cognizant that the psychological burden of chronic disease is a significant problem for this vulnerable population. It is crucial to determine the psychosocial and behavioral predictors to uptake and continued use of technology in order to aid the identification of those individuals most likely to realize benefits of any intervention as well as those individuals who may require more support to succeed with technology.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1932296819891136

    View details for PubMedID 31801353

  • Perspectives on long-acting growth hormone therapy in children and adults. Archives of endocrinology and metabolism Lal, R. A., Hoffman, A. R. 2019; 63 (6): 601–7


    Growth hormone therapy with daily injections of recombinant human growth hormone has been available since 1985, and is shown to be safe and effective treatment for short stature in children and for adult growth hormone deficiency. In an effort to produce a product that would improve patient adherence, there has been a strong effort from industry to create a long acting form of growth hormone to ease the burden of use. Technologies used to increase half-life include depot formulations, PEGylated formulations, pro-drug formulations, non-covalent albumin binding growth hormone and growth hormone fusion proteins. At present, two long acting formulations are on the market in China and South Korea, and several more promising agents are under clinical investigation at various stages of development throughout the world. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):601-7.

    View details for DOI 10.20945/2359-3997000000190

    View details for PubMedID 31939485

  • Optimizing Basal Insulin Dosing. The Journal of pediatrics Lal, R. A., Maahs, D. M. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.07.030

    View details for PubMedID 31383469

  • Realizing a Closed-Loop (Artificial Pancreas) System for the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes. Endocrine reviews Lal, R. A., Ekhlaspour, L., Hood, K., Buckingham, B. 2019


    Recent, rapid changes in the treatment of type 1 diabetes have allowed for commercialization of an "artificial pancreas" which is better described as a closed-loop controller of insulin delivery. This review presents the current state of closed-loop control systems and expected future developments with a discussion of the human factor issues in allowing automation of glucose control. The goal of these systems is to minimize or prevent both short and long-term complications from diabetes and to decrease the daily burden of managing diabetes. The closed-loop systems are generally very effective and safe at night, have allowed for improved sleep and have decreased the burden of diabetes management overnight. However, there are still significant barriers to achieving excellent daytime glucose control while simultaneously decreasing the burden of daytime diabetes management. These systems utilize a subcutaneous continuous glucose sensor, an algorithm that accounts for the current glucose and rate of change of the glucose, and the amount of insulin which has already been delivered in order to safely deliver insulin to control hyperglycemia, while minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia. The future challenge will be to allow for full closed-loop control with minimal burden on the patient during the day alleviating meal announcements, carbohydrate counting, alerts and maintenance. The human factors involved with interfacing with a closed-loop system and allowing the system to take control of diabetes management are significant. It is important to find a balance between enthusiasm and realistic expectations and experiences with closed loop.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/er.2018-00174

    View details for PubMedID 31276160

  • 670G Clinical Experience Lal, R., Basina, M., Maahs, D. M., Buckingham, B. A., Hood, K. K., Conrad, B. P., Leverenz, J., Chmielewski, A., Peterson, K., Wilson, D. AMER DIABETES ASSOC. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.2337/db19-80-OR

    View details for Web of Science ID 000501366900157

  • The Guided Transition of Care Lal, R., Maahs, D. M., Dosiou, C., Aye, T., Basina, M. AMER DIABETES ASSOC. 2019
  • Diabetes Technology and Therapy in the Pediatric Age Group. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Maahs, D. M., Lal, R., Shalitin, S. 2019; 21 (S1): S123–S137

    View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2019.2510

    View details for PubMedID 30785328

  • Fluoroscopic-assisted laparoscopic retrieval of retained glucose sensor wire from the omentum. Clinical case reports Sang, A. X., Lal, R. n., August, A. n., Danzer, E. n., Buckingham, B. n., Mueller, C. M. 2019; 7 (9): 1717–20


    We describe a case in which retained wires from a continuous glucose monitor were removed from the abdominal wall and peritoneum of a 6-year-old boy. We highlight a concern for continuous glucose monitor use in children and discuss surgical techniques used to retrieve tiny, mobile objects from complex body cavities.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ccr3.2348

    View details for PubMedID 31534734

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6745354

  • One Year Clinical Experience of the First Commercial Hybrid Closed-Loop. Diabetes care Lal, R. A., Basina, M. n., Maahs, D. M., Hood, K. n., Buckingham, B. n., Wilson, D. M. 2019


    In September 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the Medtronic 670G "hybrid" closed-loop system. In Auto Mode, this system automatically controls basal insulin delivery based on continuous glucose monitoring data, but requires users enter carbohydrates and blood glucose for boluses. To track real-world experience with this first commercial closed-loop device, we prospectively followed pediatric and adult patients starting the 670G system.This was a 1-year prospective observational study of patients with type 1 diabetes starting the 670G system between May 2017 and May 2018 in clinic.A total of 84 patients received 670G and consented, 5 never returned for follow-up, with 79 (aged 9-61 years) providing data at 1 week and 3, 6, 9, and/or 12 months after Auto Mode initiation. For the 86% (68 out of 79) with 1-week data, 99% (67 out of 68) successfully started. By 3 months, at least 28% (22 out of 79) stopped using Auto Mode; at 6 months, 34% (27 out of 79); at 9 months, 35% (28 out of 79); and by 12 months, 33% (26 out of 79). The primary reason for continuing Auto Mode was desire for increased time in range. Reasons for discontinuation included sensor issues in 62% (16 out of 26), problems obtaining supplies in 12% (3 out of 26), hypoglycemia fear in 12% (3 out of 26), multiple daily injection preference in 8% (2 out of 26), and sports in 8% (2 out of 26). At all visits, there was a significant correlation between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and Auto Mode utilization.While Auto Mode utilization correlates with improved glycemic control, a focus on usability and human factors is necessary to ensure use of Auto Mode. Alarms and sensor calibration are a major patient concern, which future technology should alleviate.

    View details for DOI 10.2337/dc19-0855

    View details for PubMedID 31548247

  • Long-Acting Growth Hormone Preparations in the Treatment of Children. Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER Lal, R. A., Hoffman, A. R. 2018; 16 (Suppl 1): 162–67


    Human growth hormone (hGH), which had been in use since 1958, was supplanted by recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in 1985 for those with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Adherence to daily subcutaneous growth hormone is challenging for patients. Thus, several companies have pursued the creation of long acting rhGH. These agents can be divided broadly into depot formulations, PEGylated formulations, pro-drug formulations, non-covalent albumin binding GH and GH fusion proteins. Nutropin Depot is the only long acting rhGH ever approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and it was removed from the market in 2004. Of the approximately seventeen candidate drugs, only a handful remain under active clinical investigation or are commercially available.

    View details for PubMedID 30378794

  • Advances in Care for Insulin-Requiring Patients Without Closed Loop. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Lal, R. A., Buckingham, B., Maahs, D. M. 2018; 20 (S2): S285–S291

    View details for PubMedID 29916743

  • Advances in Care for Insulin-Requiring Patients Without Closed Loop DIABETES TECHNOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS Lal, R. A., Buckingham, B., Maahs, D. M. 2018; 20: 85–91
  • Postmenopausal Hyperandrogenism. Journal of women's health care Lal, R. A., Basina, M. 2018; 7 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.4172/2167-0420.1000e132

    View details for PubMedID 32284912

  • A Case Report of Hypoglycemia and Hypogammaglobulinemia: DAVID syndrome in a patient with a novel NFKB2 mutation. journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Lal, R. A., Bachrach, L. K., Hoffman, A. R., Inlora, J., Rego, S., Snyder, M. P., Lewis, D. B. 2017


    DAVID syndrome (Deficient Anterior pituitary with Variable Immune Deficiency) is a rare disorder in which children present with symptomatic ACTH deficiency preceded by hypogammaglobulinemia from B-cell dysfunction with recurrent infections, termed common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Subsequent whole exome sequencing studies have revealed germline heterozygous C-terminal mutations of NFKB2 as either a cause of DAVID syndrome or of CVID without clinical hypopituitarism. However, to the best of our knowledge there have been no cases in which the endocrinopathy has presented in the absence of a prior clinical history of CVID.A previously healthy 7 year-old boy with no history of clinical immunodeficiency, presented with profound hypoglycemia and seizures. He was found to have secondary adrenal insufficiency and was started on glucocorticoid replacement. An evaluation for autoimmune disease, including for anti-pituitary antibodies, was negative. Evaluation unexpectedly revealed hypogammaglobulinemia (decreased IgG, IgM, and IgA). He had moderately reduced serotype-specific IgG responses following pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Subsequently, he was found to have growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Six years after initial presentation, whole exome sequencing revealed a novel de novo heterozygous NFKB2 missense mutation c.2596A>C (p.Ser866Arg) in the C-terminal region predicted to abrogate the processing of the p100 NFKB2 protein to its active p52 form.Isolated early-onset ACTH deficiency is rare and C-terminal region NFKB2 mutations should be considered as an etiology even in the absence of a clinical history of CVID. Early immunologic evaluation is indicated in the diagnosis and management of isolated ACTH deficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/jc.2017-00341

    View details for PubMedID 28472507

  • Clinical Use of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Pediatrics. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Lal, R. A., Maahs, D. M. 2017; 19 (S2): S37-S43

    View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2017.0013

    View details for PubMedID 28541138

  • An unusual cause of hyperglycemia JOURNAL OF POSTGRADUATE MEDICINE Lal, R., Loomba-Albrecht, L. A., Bremer, A. A. 2011; 57 (4): 343–46

    View details for DOI 10.4103/0022-3859.90092

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298626200018

    View details for PubMedID 22120869

  • Amyloid-beta and Glucose Metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE Furst, A. J., Lal, R. A. 2011; 26: 105-116


    This study used PET with the amyloid-β (Aβ) imaging agent 11 C Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB) and the glucose metabolic tracer 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to map the relationship of Aβ deposition to regional glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Comparison of 13 AD patients' FDG scans with 11 healthy controls confirmed a typical temporo-parietal hypometabolic pattern in AD. In contrast, PIB distribution-volume-ratios showed a distinct pattern of specific tracer retention in fronto-temporo-parietal regions and striatum in AD with peaks in left frontal cortex, precuneus, temporal cortex, striatum and right posterior cingulate. There were no region-to-region or within region correlations between FDG and PIB uptake in PIB positive AD patients but when the impact of Aβ load on glucose metabolism was assessed via probabilistic maps, increased amyloid burden was coupled with decreased metabolism in temporo-parietal regions and the posterior cingulate. However, importantly, severe Aβ burden was not associated with comparable metabolic decreases in large parts of the frontal lobes, the striatum and the thalamus.

    View details for DOI 10.3233/JAD-2011-0066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297842800008

    View details for PubMedID 21971455

  • Amyloid-beta and Glucose Metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease HANDBOOK OF IMAGING THE ALZHEIMER BRAIN Furst, A. J., Lal, R. A., Ashford, J. W., Rosen, A., Adamson, M., Bayley, P., Sabri, O., Furst, A., Black, S. E., Weiner, M. 2011; 2: 235–46
  • Striatal Dopamine and Working Memory CEREBRAL CORTEX Landau, S. M., Lal, R., O'Neil, J. P., Baker, S., Jagust, W. J. 2009; 19 (2): 445-454


    Recent studies have emphasized the importance of dopamine projections to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) for working memory (WM) function, although this system has rarely been studied in humans in vivo. However, dopamine and PFC activity can be directly measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), respectively. In this study, we examined WM capacity, dopamine, and PFC function in healthy older participants in order to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between these 3 factors. We used the PET tracer 6-[18F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine to measure dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum (caudate, putamen), and event-related fMRI to measure brain activation during different epochs (cue, delay, probe) of a WM task. Caudate (but not putamen) dopamine correlated positively with WM capacity, whereas putamen (but not caudate) dopamine correlated positively with motor speed. In addition, delay-related fMRI activation in a left inferior prefrontal region was related to both caudate dopamine and task accuracy, suggesting that this may be a critical site for the integration of WM maintenance processes. These results provide new evidence that striatal dopaminergic function is related to PFC-dependent functions, particularly brain activation and behavioral performance during WM tasks.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cercor/bhn095

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262518800019

    View details for PubMedID 18550595

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2733326

  • A beta Amyloid and Glucose Metabolism in Three Variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY Rabinovici, G. D., Jagust, W. J., Furst, A. J., Ogar, J. M., Racine, C. A., Mormino, E. C., O'Neil, J. P., Lal, R. A., Dronkers, N. F., Miller, B. L., Gorno-Tempini, M. L. 2008; 64 (4): 388-401


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is found at autopsy in up to one third of patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), but clinical features that predict AD pathology in PPA are not well defined. We studied the relationships between language presentation, Abeta amyloidosis, and glucose metabolism in three PPA variants using [11C]-Pittsburgh compound B ([11C]PIB) and [18F]-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET).Patients meeting PPA criteria (N = 15) were classified as logopenic aphasia (LPA), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), or semantic dementia (SD) based on language testing. [11C]PIB distribution volume ratios were calculated using Logan graphical analysis (cerebellar reference). [18F]FDG images were normalized to pons. Partial volume correction was applied.Elevated cortical PIB (by visual inspection) was more common in LPA (4/4 patients) than in PNFA (1/6) and SD (1/5) (p < 0.02). In PIB-positive PPA, PIB uptake was diffuse and indistinguishable from the pattern in matched AD patients (n = 10). FDG patterns were focal and varied by PPA subtype, with left temporoparietal hypometabolism in LPA, left frontal hypometabolism in PNFA, and left anterior temporal hypometabolism in SD. FDG uptake was significant asymmetric (favoring left hypometabolism) in PPA (p < 0.005) but not in AD.LPA is associated with Abeta amyloidosis, suggesting that subclassification of PPA based on language features can help predict the likelihood of AD pathology. Language phenotype in PPA is closely related to metabolic changes that are focal and anatomically distinct between subtypes, but not to amyloid deposition patterns that are diffuse and similar to AD.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ana.21451

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260845000007

    View details for PubMedID 18991338

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2648510