Clinical Focus

  • Occupational Medicine

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Preventive Medicine, Occupational Medicine (2003)
  • Residency: Harvard School of Public Health (2002) MA
  • MPH, Harvard School of Public Health, Occupational Health (2001)
  • Internship: Brown University Hospitals (2000) RI
  • Medical Education: Tufts University (1999) MA


  • Musculoskeletal Medicine Primer for the Non-Orthopedist, Stanford University, Center for Continuing Medical Education

    Online CME addressing treatment of musculoskeletal injuries


    Stanford, CA


    • Sakti Srivastava, Associate Professor (Teaching) of Surgery (Anatomy) and, by courtesy, of Bioengineering, Stanford School of Medicine

All Publications

  • Anti-nucleocapsid antibody levels and pulmonary comorbid conditions are linked to post-COVID-19 syndrome. JCI insight Jia, X., Cao, S., Lee, A. S., Manohar, M., Sindher, S. B., Ahuja, N., Artandi, M., Blish, C. A., Blomkalns, A. L., Chang, I., Collins, W. J., Desai, M., Din, H. N., Do, E., Fernandes, A., Geng, L. N., Rosenberg-Hasson, Y., Mahoney, M. R., Glascock, A. L., Chan, L. Y., Fong, S. Y., Phelps, M., Raeber, O., Purington, N., Röltgen, K., Rogers, A. J., Snow, T., Wang, T. T., Solis, D., Vaughan, L., Verghese, M., Maecker, H., Wittman, R., Puri, R., Kistler, A., Yang, S., Boyd, S. D., Pinsky, B. A., Chinthrajah, S., Nadeau, K. C. 2022; 7 (13)


    BACKGROUNDProlonged symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection are well documented. However, which factors influence development of long-term symptoms, how symptoms vary across ethnic groups, and whether long-term symptoms correlate with biomarkers are points that remain elusive.METHODSAdult SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription PCR-positive (RT-PCR-positive) patients were recruited at Stanford from March 2020 to February 2021. Study participants were seen for in-person visits at diagnosis and every 1-3 months for up to 1 year after diagnosis; they completed symptom surveys and underwent blood draws and nasal swab collections at each visit.RESULTSOur cohort (n = 617) ranged from asymptomatic to critical COVID-19 infections. In total, 40% of participants reported at least 1 symptom associated with COVID-19 six months after diagnosis. Median time from diagnosis to first resolution of all symptoms was 44 days; median time from diagnosis to sustained symptom resolution with no recurring symptoms for 1 month or longer was 214 days. Anti-nucleocapsid IgG level in the first week after positive RT-PCR test and history of lung disease were associated with time to sustained symptom resolution. COVID-19 disease severity, ethnicity, age, sex, and remdesivir use did not affect time to sustained symptom resolution.CONCLUSIONWe found that all disease severities had a similar risk of developing post-COVID-19 syndrome in an ethnically diverse population. Comorbid lung disease and lower levels of initial IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were associated with longer symptom duration.TRIAL, NCT04373148.FUNDINGNIH UL1TR003142 CTSA grant, NIH U54CA260517 grant, NIEHS R21 ES03304901, Sean N Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research at Stanford University, Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, Sunshine Foundation, Crown Foundation, and Parker Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/jci.insight.156713

    View details for PubMedID 35801588

  • New-onset IgG autoantibodies in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Nature communications Chang, S. E., Feng, A., Meng, W., Apostolidis, S. A., Mack, E., Artandi, M., Barman, L., Bennett, K., Chakraborty, S., Chang, I., Cheung, P., Chinthrajah, S., Dhingra, S., Do, E., Finck, A., Gaano, A., GeSSner, R., Giannini, H. M., Gonzalez, J., Greib, S., Gundisch, M., Hsu, A. R., Kuo, A., Manohar, M., Mao, R., Neeli, I., Neubauer, A., Oniyide, O., Powell, A. E., Puri, R., Renz, H., Schapiro, J., Weidenbacher, P. A., Wittman, R., Ahuja, N., Chung, H., Jagannathan, P., James, J. A., Kim, P. S., Meyer, N. J., Nadeau, K. C., Radic, M., Robinson, W. H., Singh, U., Wang, T. T., Wherry, E. J., Skevaki, C., Luning Prak, E. T., Utz, P. J. 2021; 12 (1): 5417


    COVID-19 is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations, including autoimmune features and autoantibody production. Here we develop three protein arrays to measure IgG autoantibodies associated with connective tissue diseases, anti-cytokine antibodies, and anti-viral antibody responses in serum from 147 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Autoantibodies are identified in approximately 50% of patients but in less than 15% of healthy controls. When present, autoantibodies largely target autoantigens associated with rare disorders such as myositis, systemic sclerosis and overlap syndromes. A subset of autoantibodies targeting traditional autoantigens or cytokines develop de novo following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Autoantibodies track with longitudinal development of IgG antibodies recognizing SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and a subset of non-structural proteins, but not proteins from influenza, seasonal coronaviruses or other pathogenic viruses. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 causes development of new-onset IgG autoantibodies in a significant proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and are positively correlated with immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-021-25509-3

    View details for PubMedID 34521836

  • Asthma phenotypes, associated comorbidities, and long-term symptoms in COVID-19. Allergy Eggert, L. E., He, Z., Collins, W., Lee, A. S., Dhondalay, G., Jiang, S. Y., Fitzpatrick, J., Snow, T. T., Pinsky, B. A., Artandi, M., Barman, L., Puri, R., Wittman, R., Ahuja, N., Blomkalns, A., O'Hara, R., Cao, S., Desai, M., Sindher, S. B., Nadeau, K., Chinthrajah, R. S. 2021


    BACKGROUND: It is unclear if asthma and its allergic phenotype are risk factors for hospitalization or severe disease from SARS-CoV-2.METHODS: All patients over 28 days oldtesting positive for SARS-CoV-2 between March 1 and September 30, 2020, were retrospectively identified and characterized through electronic analysis at Stanford. A sub-cohort was followed prospectively to evaluate long-term COVID-19 symptoms.RESULTS: 168,190 patients underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing, and 6,976 (4.15%) tested positive. In a multivariate analysis, asthma was not an independent risk factor for hospitalization (OR 1.12 [95% CI 0.86, 1.45], p=0.40). Among SARS-CoV-2 positive asthmatics, allergic asthma lowered the risk of hospitalization and had a protective effect compared to non-allergic asthma (OR 0.52 (0.28, 0.91), p=0.026); there was no association between baseline medication use as characterized by GINA and hospitalization risk. Patients with severe COVID-19 disease had lower eosinophil levels during hospitalization compared to patients with mild or asymptomatic disease, independent of asthma status (p=0.0014). In a patient sub-cohort followed longitudinally, asthmatics and non-asthmatics had similar time to resolution of COVID-19 symptoms, particularly lower respiratory symptoms.CONCLUSIONS: Asthma is not a risk factor for more severe COVID-19 disease. Allergic asthmatics were half as likely to be hospitalized with COVID-19 compared to non-allergic asthmatics. Lower levels of eosinophil counts (allergic biomarkers) were associated with a more severe COVID-19 disease trajectory. Recovery was similar among asthmatics and non-asthmatics with over 50% of patients reporting ongoing lower respiratory symptoms three months post-infection.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/all.14972

    View details for PubMedID 34080210

  • Asthma phenotypes, associated comorbidities, and long-term symptoms in COVID-19 European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Eggert, L. E., He, Z., Collins, W., Lee, A. S., Nadeau, K., Chinthrajah, R. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1111/all.14972

  • Building-Related Illness Current Diagnosis and Treatment, Occupational and Environmental Medicine edited by LaDou, J. McGraw Hill Lange. 2021; 6: 842-852
  • Introduction to Biostatistic Concepts Epidemiology and Biostatistic Secrets Wittman R, Kim S 2006
  • Neurologic issues with solvents. Clinics in occupational and environmental medicine Rutchik, J. S., Wittman, R. I. 2004; 4 (4): 621-?


    Reports of injury began after the introduction of chlorinated solvents in the 1920s. In 1987, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health reported that 9.8 million workers were exposed to organic solvents in occupational settings, with most of these exposures being to mixtures of solvents. Although solvent mixtures have been noted to be responsible for neuropathy, seizures, and encephalopathy, identifying the culpable agent has been difficult, because the associations between many solvents and their biologic effects have not been well defined, and solvent interaction in mixtures have not been well or easily characterized. In some cases, these exposures have been estimated to be below levels designated in regulations as acceptable for workers.

    View details for PubMedID 15465472

  • Cadmium exposure and nephropathy in a 28-year-old female metals worker ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES Wittman, R., Hu, H. 2002; 110 (12): 1261-1266


    A 28-year-old female presented for evaluation of left flank pain and polyuria after having been exposed to cadmium in the jewelry manufacturing industry for approximately 3 years. This patient possessed both elevated 24-hr urinary ss2-microglobulin and elevated blood cadmium levels. Approximately 6 months after initial presentation, the patient resigned from her job due to shortness of breath, chest pain, and anxiety. Exposure to cadmium in the jewelry industry is a significant source of occupational cadmium exposure. Other occupational sources include the manufacture of nickel-cadmium batteries, metal plating, zinc and lead refining, smelting of cadmium and lead, and production of plastics. Cadmium is also an environmental pollutant that accumulates in leafy vegetables and plants, including tobacco. Major toxicities anticipated from cadmium exposure involve the renal, pulmonary, and, to a lesser extent, gastrointestinal systems. These include the development of renal proximal tubular dysfunction, glomerular damage with progressive renal disease, and respiratory symptoms including pneumonitis and emphysema. Low-level cadmium exposure has also been associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and direct bone toxicity, effects that recent research suggests may result in the development of osteoporosis. The body burden of cadmium, over half of which may reside in the kidneys, is most often measured through the use of urinary cadmium levels. Blood cadmium measurements generally reflect current or recent exposure and are especially useful in cases with a short exposure period and only minimal accumulation of cadmium in the kidneys. Both ss2-microglobulin and alpha1-microglobulin serve as organ-specific, early-effect biomarkers of tubular proteinuria and thus play a role in identifying early signs of cadmium-induced renal damage in those with potential exposures. In addition to ensuring workplace compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration-mandated monitoring and screening measures, it is prudent for those with cadmium exposure to maintain adequate intake of both iron and calcium, appropriate measures even in the absence of exposure.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179810600031

    View details for PubMedID 12460807

  • Fire Fighter Dies at Three-Alarm Structure Fire - New York NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality and Investigation Program Baldwin T, Wittman R 2002; F2001 (32)


    Current treatment strategies for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) emphasize the inhalation route, yet patients often misuse metered-dose inhalers (MDI). To address this problem, patient education by medical personnel has been recommended and a variety of alternate inhaler devices have been developed.We surveyed medical personnel to assess their knowledge of and ability to use three widely used inhaler devices; MDI, MDI with a spacing chamber (Aerochamber, Trudell Medical, Canada), and a breath-actuated multidose dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler, Astra Pharmacy, Inc., Conada). Thirty respiratory therapists (RT), 30 registered nurses (RN), and 30 medical house staff physicians (MD) were asked to demonstrate the use of each device using placebo inhalers and to answer 11 clinically relevant questions related to the use and maintenance of the tested devices.The RT's percent mean knowledge score (67 +/- 5 percent) was significantly higher than those achieved by either the RNs (39 +/- 7 percent) or the MDs (48 +/- 7 percent) (for all p < 0.0001). Similarly, percent mean demonstration scores for each device were significantly higher for RTs than either RN or MD groups; for MDI, 97 +/- 3 percent versus 82 +/- 13 percent and 69 +/- 24 percent, respectively (p < 0.0001); for the Aerochamber, 98 +/- 2 percent versus 78 +/- 20 percent and 57 +/- 31 percent (p < 0.0001); and for the Turbuhaler, 60 +/- 30 percent versus 12 +/- 23 percent and 21 +/- 30 percent (p < 0.0001). Knowledge of and practical skills with the devices were roughly proportional to the length of time the device had been in clinical use, Turbuhaler demonstration scores being lower than either MDI or Aerochamber scores (p = 0.05 and p = 0.09, respectively). More RTs (77 percent) had received formal instruction on the use of devices at school than either RNs (30 percent) or MDS (43 percent) (p < 0.05).We conclude that (1) many medical personnel responsible for monitoring and instructing patients in optimal inhaler use lack rudimentary skills with these devices, (2) nurses and physicians seldom receive formal training in the use of inhaling devices, and (3) newer inhaling devices designed to obviate problems of technique are at present less likely to be used well by medical personnel soon after their introduction.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MQ72100027

    View details for PubMedID 8275720