Clinical Focus

  • Family Medicine

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Medical Education: New York Medical College Registrar (2002) NY
  • Board Certification: American Board of Family Medicine, Family Medicine (2005)
  • Residency: O'Connor Hospital (2005) CA

All Publications

  • Teaching transgender cultural competency with standardised patients MEDICAL EDUCATION Mukund, A. X., Jia, J. L., Nedelman, M., Rydel, T. A., Bajra, R., Srinivasan, M., Schillinger, E., Laniakea, B. H. 2024

    View details for DOI 10.1111/medu.15325

    View details for Web of Science ID 001161460300001

    View details for PubMedID 38348701

  • Training future clinicians in telehealth competencies: outcomes of a telehealth curriculum and teleOSCEs at an academic medical center. Frontiers in medicine Bajra, R., Srinivasan, M., Torres, E. C., Rydel, T., Schillinger, E. 2023; 10: 1222181


    This study describes the program and learning outcomes of a telehealth skills curriculum based on the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) telehealth competencies for clerkship-level medical students.A total of 133 third- and fourth-year medical students in a required family medicine clerkship at Stanford University School of Medicine participated in a telehealth curriculum, including a telehealth workshop, site-specific telehealth clinical encounters, and telemedicine objective structured clinical examinations (teleOSCEs) between July 2020 and August 2021. Their workshop communication and physical examination competencies were assessed in two teleOSCEs utilizing a novel telehealth assessment tool. Students' attitudes, skills, and self-efficacy were assessed through voluntary pre-clerkship, post-workshop, and post-OSCE surveys.Most learners reported low confidence in their telehealth physical examinations [n = 79, mean = 1.6 (scale 0-5, 5 = very confident, SD = 1.0)], which improved post-workshop [n = 69, 3.3 (0.9), p < 0.001]; almost all (97%, 70/72) felt the workshop prepared them to see patients in the clinic. In formative OSCEs, learners demonstrated appropriate "webside manner" (communication scores 94-99%, four items) but did not confirm confidentiality (21%) or review limitations of the visit (35%). In a low back pain OSCE, most learners assessed pain location (90%) and range of motion (87%); nearly half (48%) omitted strength testing.Our telehealth curriculum demonstrated that telehealth competencies can be taught and assessed in medical student education. Improvement in self-efficacy scores suggests that an 80-min workshop can prepare students to see patients in the clinical setting. Assessment of OSCE data informs opportunities for growth for further development in the curriculum, including addressing visit limitations and confidentiality in telehealth visits.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fmed.2023.1222181

    View details for PubMedID 37849494

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10577422

  • START: A COLLEGIATE PROGRAM TO BRIDGE THE DIGITAL TELEHEALTH DIVIDE Doueiri, Z. N., Bajra, R., Schillinger, E., Srinivasan, M., Cuan, N. L. SPRINGER. 2023: S205
  • Telemedicine Competencies in Family Medicine Clerkships: A CERA Study. Family medicine Bajra, R., Lin, S., Theobald, M., Antoun, J. 2023; 55 (6): 405-410


    While the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) designated cross-disciplinary telemedicine competencies, curricular implementation is at disparate stages across medical schools and with significant curricular gaps. We investigated factors associated with the presence of telemedicine curriculum in family medicine clerkships.Data were evaluated as part of the 2022 CERA survey of family medicine clerkship directors (CD). Participants answered questions about telemedicine curriculum in their clerkship, including whether it was required or optional, whether telemedicine competencies were assessed, the availability of faculty expertise, volume of visits, student autonomy in visits, CD's attitude about the importance of telemedicine education, and awareness of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine's (STFM) Telemedicine Curriculum.Ninety-four of 159 CDs (59.1%) responded to the survey. Over one-third of FM clerkships (38, 41.3%) did not teach telemedicine and most CDs (59, 62.8%) did not assess competencies. The presence of telemedicine curriculum was positively associated with CDs' awareness of STFM's Telemedicine Curriculum (P=.032), attitude of CDs toward importance of telemedicine teaching (P=.007), higher level of learner autonomy in telemedicine visits (P=.035), and private medical schools (P=.020).Almost two-thirds of clerkships (62.8%) did not assess telemedicine competencies, and fewer than one-third of CDs (28.6%) considered telemedicine education as important as other clerkship topics. CDs' attitudes were a significant determinant of whether teaching of telemedicine skills occurred. Awareness of telemedicine education resources and higher learner autonomy in telemedicine encounters may promote integration into clerkship curriculum.

    View details for DOI 10.22454/FamMed.2023.242006

    View details for PubMedID 37307393

  • Feasibility and Acceptability of a US National Telemedicine Curriculum for Medical Students and Residents: Multi-institutional Cross-sectional Study. JMIR medical education Bajra, R., Frazier, W., Graves, L., Jacobson, K., Rodriguez, A., Theobald, M., Lin, S. 2023; 9: e43190


    Telemedicine use increased as a response to health care delivery changes necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, lack of standardized curricular content creates gaps and inconsistencies in effectively integrating telemedicine training at both the undergraduate medical education and graduate medical education levels.This study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a web-based national telemedicine curriculum developed by the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine for medical students and family medicine (FM) residents. Based on the Association of American Medical Colleges telehealth competencies, the asynchronous curriculum featured 5 self-paced modules; covered topics include evidence-based telehealth uses, best practices in communication and remote physical examinations, technology requirements and documentation, access and equity in telehealth delivery, and the promise and potential perils of emerging technologies.A total of 17 medical schools and 17 FM residency programs implemented the curriculum between September 1 and December 31, 2021. Participating sites represented 25 states in all 4 US census regions with balanced urban, suburban, and rural settings. A total of 1203 learners, including 844 (70%) medical students and 359 (30%) FM residents, participated. Outcomes were measured through self-reported 5-point Likert scale responses.A total of 92% (1101/1203) of learners completed the entire curriculum. Across the modules, 78% (SD 3%) of participants agreed or strongly agreed that they gained new knowledge, skills, or attitudes that will help them in their training or career; 87% (SD 4%) reported that the information presented was at the right level for them; 80% (SD 2%) reported that the structure of the modules was effective; and 78% (SD 3%) agreed or strongly agreed that they were satisfied. Overall experience using the national telemedicine curriculum did not differ significantly between medical students and FM residents on binary analysis. No consistent statistically significant relationships were found between participants' responses and their institution's geographic region, setting, or previous experience with a telemedicine curriculum.Both undergraduate medical education and graduate medical education learners, represented by diverse geographic regions and institutions, indicated that the curriculum was broadly acceptable and effective.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/43190

    View details for PubMedID 37155241

  • Hands Off Yet All In: A Virtual Clerkship Pilot in the Ambulatory Setting During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Rydel, T. A., Bajra, R., Schillinger, E. 2021


    PROBLEM: There is a paucity of guidance regarding implementation of telemedicine curricula at the clerkship level, particularly with students actively engaged in video and telephone encounters. The COVID-19 pandemic caused rapid shifts in the delivery of medical education to clerkship-level students. This article describes the successful pilot of a direct patient care, virtual health curriculum at the clerkship level and discusses lessons learned.APPROACH: All 18 preceptors and 5 students at Stanford University School of Medicine, California, enrolled in the required 4-week family medicine clerkship in April 2020 were connected as virtual partners via a commercial video platform. The combined use of both this video program and Epic electronic health record (EHR) software as modes for teaching and patient care led to technical challenges and logistical hurdles. As part of an iterative process, clerkship leadership identified problems via preceptor and student interviews and integrated that feedback in order to create a model for delivering high-quality, clerkship-level clinical instruction during the COVID-19 shelter in place order.OUTCOMES: Of those who completed an evaluation, the majority of preceptors (n = 16; 89%) and students (n = 4; 100%, 1 student did not respond) expressed satisfaction with the virtual, remote teaching model conducted over 37 clinic visits. A detailed 14-step process list resulted from identifying and addressing both audio and video technical challenges and is provided for use by other institutions that wish to implement this workflow.NEXT STEPS: Future directions include assessing patient perspectives on the involvement of students in virtual visits, soliciting patient input for a more robust patient-physician-student virtual experience, and integrating a multi-party platform, when available, via the EHR to afford greater student autonomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000004127

    View details for PubMedID 33883401

  • Qualitative Assessment of Rapid System Transformation to Primary Care Video Visits at an Academic Medical Center. Annals of internal medicine Srinivasan, M. n., Asch, S. n., Vilendrer, S. n., Thomas, S. C., Bajra, R. n., Barman, L. n., Edwards, L. M., Filipowicz, H. n., Giang, L. n., Jee, O. n., Mahoney, M. n., Nelligan, I. n., Phadke, A. J., Torres, E. n., Artandi, M. n. 2020


    The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic spurred health systems across the world to quickly shift from in-person visits to safer video visits.To seek stakeholder perspectives on video visits' acceptability and effect 3 weeks after near-total transition to video visits.Semistructured qualitative interviews.6 Stanford general primary care and express care clinics at 6 northern California sites, with 81 providers, 123 staff, and 97 614 patient visits in 2019.Fifty-three program participants (overlapping roles as medical providers [n = 20], medical assistants [n = 16], nurses [n = 4], technologists [n = 4], and administrators [n = 13]) were interviewed about video visit transition and challenges.In 3 weeks, express care and primary care video visits increased from less than 10% to greater than 80% and from less than 10% to greater than 75%, respectively. New video visit providers received video visit training and care quality feedback. New system workflows were created to accommodate the new visit method.Nine faculty, trained in qualitative research methods, conducted 53 stakeholder interviews in 4 days using purposeful (administrators and technologists) and convenience (medical assistant, nurses, and providers) sampling. A rapid qualitative analytic approach for thematic analysis was used.The analysis revealed 12 themes, including Pandemic as Catalyst; Joy in Medicine; Safety in Medicine; Slipping Through the Cracks; My Role, Redefined; and The New Normal. Themes were analyzed using the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework to identify critical issues for continued program utilization.Evaluation was done immediately after deployment. Although viewpoints may have evolved later, immediate evaluation allowed for prompt program changes and identified broader issues to address for program sustainability.After pandemic-related systems transformation at Stanford, critical issues to sustain video visit long-term viability were identified. Specifically, technology ease of use must improve and support multiparty videoconferencing. Providers should be able to care for their patients, regardless of geography. Providers need decision-making support with virtual examination training and home-based patient diagnostics. Finally, ongoing video visit reimbursement should be commensurate with value to the patients' health and well-being.Stanford Department of Medicine and Stanford Health Care.

    View details for DOI 10.7326/M20-1814

    View details for PubMedID 32628536