Dr. Robert Koegel is a Senior Research Scholar specializing in autism at Stanford University School of Medicine. He has trained many health care and special education leaders in the United States and abroad. He has published over 250 articles and books relating to the treatment and understanding of autism, and he is the founding editor of the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. Models of his procedures are used in public schools and in parent education programs throughout the world. His research is focused on language intervention, family support, and school integration. Robert and Lynn Koegel are the developers of Pivotal Response Treatment an empirically supported treatment for autism. They are the recipients of the first annual Children’s Television Workshop Sesame Street Award for “Brightening the Lives of Children," the first annual Autism Speaks award for “Science and Research,” and the International ABA award for “enduring programmatic contributions in behavior analysis.” The Koegels are current and past recipients of many federal, state, and private foundation grants and gifts for developing interventions and helping families with autism.

Current Role at Stanford

Senior Research Scholar. (1) Conducting and publishing research related to the education, understanding, and treatment of autism; (2) Training professionals and family members in Pivotal ResponseTreatment.

All Publications

  • Using Self-Management and Visual Cues to Improve Responses to Nonverbal Social Cues in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Behavior modification Cohen, S., Koegel, R., Koegel, L. K., Engstrom, E., Young, K., Quach, A. 2021: 145445520982558


    Many individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with social communication, including recognizing and responding to non-verbal cues. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of self-management combined with textual cues to teach adults with ASD to recognize and respond to nonverbal expressions of boredom and confusion during social conversation. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to assess the efficacy of this intervention for three participants. Results showed substantial gains across all participants in their recognition and responsiveness to the targeted nonverbal cues. Moreover, this skill maintained after the completion of intervention and generalized to novel conversation partners and settings with large effect sizes. The findings add to the literature base on interventions for adults with ASD, and further support the use of self-management and textual cues as effective intervention strategies for improving nonverbal communication.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0145445520982558

    View details for PubMedID 34293935

  • Using a Question Bank Intervention to Improve Socially Initiated Questions in Adolescents and Adults With Autism. Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR Koegel, L. K., Koplen, Z., Koegel, B., Koegel, R. L. 2021: 1–9


    Purpose Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty asking questions during social conversation, which can negatively impact their interactions with peers. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a question bank intervention would be effective in improving question asking during social conversation. Method In the context of a multiple-baseline experimental design, we implemented an intervention using prepractice with question banks designed to increase the number and diversity of questions asked by adolescents and adults with ASD during social conversations with their peers. Results Following intervention, all participants improved their use of questions in natural settings with their neurotypical peers. Generalization to novel questions occurred, and gains were maintained at follow-up. Finally, supplemental measures of social validity showed that similarly aged neurotypical peers who were naive to the experimental hypothesis rated two of the three participants with higher social desirability following intervention. Conclusion Individuals with ASD can improve their appropriate question asking during social conversation using a brief question bank intervention with generalization to their peers in natural settings.

    View details for DOI 10.1044/2021_JSLHR-20-00534

    View details for PubMedID 33820435

  • Improving Conversational Fluidity in Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Video-Feedback Intervention JOURNAL OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTIONS Tagavi, D., Koegel, L., Koegel, R., Vernon, T. 2020
  • Use of a Videoconferencing Intervention and Systematic Hierarchy to Teach Daily Living Skills to Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder JOURNAL OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTIONS Ford, K., Wang, M., Koegel, L., Koegel, R. L., Fedders, A. 2020
  • Targeting IEP Social Goals for Children with Autism in an Inclusive Summer Camp JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Koegel, L., Glugatch, L. B., Koegel, R. L., Castellon, F. A. 2019; 49 (6): 2426–36
  • Targeting IEP Social Goals for Children with Autism in an Inclusive Summer Camp. Journal of autism and developmental disorders Koegel, L. K., Glugatch, L. B., Koegel, R. L., Castellon, F. A. 2019


    Children with autism spectrum disorder demonstrate challenges in socialization that can interfere with their participation in common childhood activities and can persist or worsen if not addressed. The purpose of this study was to assess whether individualized education program (IEP) social goals could be targeted by a supervised paraprofessional during a short-term inclusive summer camp program. Data were collected using a concurrent multiple baseline design across four children. Results showed that following a 2-week summer camp program all participants made social improvements, reaching their year-long IEP goals, that maintained at follow-up in natural environments. Further, the paraprofessionals reached fidelity of implementation. Findings are discussed in terms of the value and feasibility of providing social interventions in inclusive summer camps.

    View details for PubMedID 30927180

  • Treatment for Higher-Order Restricted Repetitive Behaviors (H-RRB) in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Lin, C., Koegel, R. 2018; 48 (11): 3831–45


    Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRB) are one of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Evidence suggests that higher-order RRB (H-RRB) are particularly challenging and can negatively impact family functioning (e.g., insistence on sameness, following idiosyncratic routines). The study examined the effects of a parent-implemented behavior intervention using a multiple baseline single case experimental design in three young children with ASD. The intervention involved self-management procedures and included principles of pivotal response treatment during which parents provided bids for children to vary from H-RRB and children obtained points for engaging in these other interests and activities. Results showed improvements in child behavior, parent and child affect and interactions, children's engagement in family activities, and overall parent ratings of RRB.

    View details for PubMedID 29926293

  • The Impact of Prior Activity History on the Influence of Restricted Repetitive Behaviors on Socialization for Children With High-Functioning Autism BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Koegel, R. L., Oliver, K., Koegel, L. K. 2018; 42 (1): 34–57


    Research has demonstrated that incorporating restricted interests of an individual with autism into recess activities is effective at increasing socialization with typically developing peers. However, certain activity contexts may alter the reinforcing influence of the restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) depending on an individual's history in that activity. Using an alternating treatment design, this study examined whether an individual's history with an activity affected socialization. RRBs were embedded into activities with a reported positive history (i.e., prior history of positive experiences) and activities with a reported negative history (i.e., prior history of aversive experiences) for participants. Data indicated that socialization increased and remained above baseline levels when RRBs were introduced during activities with a positive history, whereas socialization was minimal when RRBs were introduced in activities with a negative history. Social significance and implications for designing activities that incorporate a child's RRBs are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0145445517706346

    View details for Web of Science ID 000417028100003

    View details for PubMedID 28578590

  • The Evolution of Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support JOURNAL OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTIONS Koegel, R. L. 2018; 20 (1): 4–5
  • Improving Functional Language and Social Motivation with a Parent-Mediated Intervention for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Bradshaw, J., Koegel, L., Koegel, R. L. 2017; 47 (8): 2443–58


    Recent research suggests that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may now be reliably identified in later infancy, highlighting the need for empirically-validated interventions for infants and toddlers with early symptoms of ASD. Using a multiple baseline design across 15- to 21-month-old toddlers, this study implemented a brief, parent-mediated, Pivotal Response Treatment program, focusing on improving expressive communication. The results indicated that verbal communication improved as a consequence of the intervention, with concomitant improvements in untreated areas for all participants. Following the intervention, symptoms of autism decreased and parents reported satisfaction with the program's ease of implementation and observed child gains. The results are discussed in terms of developing very early interventions to improve developmental trajectories for infants and toddlers.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-017-3155-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000405720900014

    View details for PubMedID 28536956

  • Increasing Social Integration for College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Behavioral development bulletin Ashbaugh, K., Koegel, R., Koegel, L. 2017; 22 (1): 183–96


    Increasing numbers of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are entering postsecondary education; however, many report feeling lonely and isolated. These difficulties with socialization have been found to impact students' academic success, involvement within the university, and overall well being. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess, within the context of a multiple-baseline across participants design, whether a structured social planning intervention would increase social integration for college students with ASD. The intervention consisted of weekly meetings to plan social activities around the student with ASD's interests, improve organizational skills, and target specific social skills. Additionally, each participant had a peer mentor for support during the social activities. The results showed that following intervention all participants increased their number of community-based social events, extracurricular activities, and peer interactions. Furthermore, participants improved in their academic performance and satisfaction with their college experience. Results are discussed in regards to developing specialized programs to assist college students with ASD.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/bdb0000057

    View details for PubMedID 28642808

  • Improving Empathic Communication Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Koegel, L., Ashbaugh, K., Navab, A., Koegel, R. L. 2016; 46 (3): 921–33


    The literature suggests that many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with recognizing and describing emotions in others, which may result in difficulties with the verbal expression of empathy during communication. Thus, there is a need for intervention techniques targeting this area. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, this study examined the effectiveness of a video-feedback intervention with a visual framework component to improve verbal empathetic statements and questions during conversation for adults with ASD. Following intervention, all participants improved in verbal expression of empathetic statements and empathetic questions during conversation with generalization and maintenance of gains. Furthermore, supplemental assessments indicated that each participant improved in their general level of empathy and confidence in communication skills.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-015-2633-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372281600016

    View details for PubMedID 26520148

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4747683

  • Training Paraprofessionals to Improve Socialization in Students with ASD JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Koegel, R. L., Kim, S., Koegel, L. 2014; 44 (9): 2197–2208


    An important line of research relates to whether school personnel, such as paraprofessionals, who are present during unstructured social periods, such as lunch-recess, could successfully implement interventions to improve socialization between students with ASD and their typical peers in a group setting. Therefore, within the context of a multiple baseline across participants design, we assessed whether training paraprofessionals to provide social interventions would enhance social development in students with ASD in a group setting. Results showed that paraprofessionals who were not providing any social opportunities during baseline were able to meet fidelity of implementation following a brief training. Consequently, the children with ASD increased their levels of engagement and rates of initiation with typically developing peers following intervention. Implications for training paraprofessionals to implement effective social interventions for students with ASD are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-014-2094-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340549400010

    View details for PubMedID 24671749

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4134413

  • Using Self-Management to Improve the Reciprocal Social Conversation of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Koegel, L., Park, M. N., Koegel, R. L. 2014; 44 (5): 1055–63


    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit difficulties with reciprocal social conversation, engaging in limited verbal exchanges, even when language structures are intact. This study employed a multiple baseline design to examine the effectiveness of a self-management intervention targeting (1) on-topic responsiveness to a conversational partner; (2) expansion of the conversational topic; and (3) on-topic question asking. Results demonstrated improved reciprocal social conversation through elaborated responses and on-topic question asking, which generalized and maintained. Social validity measures by naïve observers indicated that the intervention led to meaningful improvements during conversation, including interest, naturalness, and desirability as a conversational partner.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-013-1956-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336330200006

    View details for PubMedID 24127164

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3981935

  • Assessing and Improving Early Social Engagement in Infants JOURNAL OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTIONS Koegel, L., Singh, A. K., Koegel, R. L., Hollingsworth, J. R., Bradshaw, J. 2014; 16 (2): 69–80


    Empirical studies have documented a variety of social abnormalities in infancy that indicate risk for later social and behavioral difficulties. There is very little research illustrating the presence of such behavioral vulnerabilities with frequent repeated measures, and the feasibility of designing interventions for improving social engagement in infants under one year of age. In the context of a multiple baseline research design, three young infants, ages 4, 7, and 9 months referred for concerns about social engagement were assessed for affect, social interest, eye contact avoidance, and response to name. Additionally, the feasibility of implementing an intervention to target social behaviors was examined. Results demonstrated that: (1) consistently low or erratic levels of social behavior were evident throughout the baseline assessment period; (2) these patterns could be improved with a brief intervention (a modified Pivotal Response Treatment) showing an immediate increase and stability of social engagement; and (3) social engagement remained at a stable and high level at follow-up. The results are discussed in terms of implications of early assessment and intervention for clinical populations, including infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1098300713482977

    View details for Web of Science ID 000333533100002

    View details for PubMedID 25313271

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4193383

  • Improving Question-Asking Initiations in Young Children with Autism Using Pivotal Response Treatment JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Koegel, R. L., Bradshaw, J. L., Ashbaugh, K., Koegel, L. 2014; 44 (4): 816–27


    Social initiations make up a core deficit for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, initiated questions during social interactions are often minimal or absent in this population. In the context of a multiple baseline design, the efficacy of using the motivational procedures of Pivotal Response Treatment to increase social question-asking for three young children with autism was assessed. Results indicated that participants initiated a greater number of targeted questions following intervention. Additionally, all children exhibited increases in initiation of untargeted questions during social interaction in novel settings. Furthermore, post intervention data revealed collateral gains in communication and adaptive behavior. Theoretical implications of incorporating motivational strategies into intervention to improve social initiations in young children with ASD are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-013-1932-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332688900008

    View details for PubMedID 24014174

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3949143

  • The importance of early identification and intervention for children with or at risk for autism spectrum disorders INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY Koegel, L., Koegel, R. L., Ashbaugh, K., Bradshaw, J. 2014; 16 (1): 50–56


    There has been a dramatic rise in the number of children being diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which has led to increased attention paid to assessment and intervention issues. This manuscript agrees with Camarata (2014) that the evidence base for early assessment and intervention should be expanded. However, it disagrees with Warren et al.'s (2011) assumption that there are not empirically validated early interventions. Reliable diagnosis has been documented during infancy and toddlerhood, and evidence suggests that the earlier the onset of intervention, the greater likelihood of an improved developmental trajectory. It is argued that early intervention is more cost and time efficient than a "wait and see" approach. With regard to published studies, the large amount of heterogeneity in the ASD population supports the use of rigorous single case experimental design research. It is an error to limit empirical evidence for treatments to only randomized clinical trials, which have the weakness of masking individual differences. Single case experimental designs examine the effects of intervention beyond typical maturation by allowing for clear estimations of developmental trajectories prior to the onset of intervention, followed by evaluation of the impact of the intervention. This commentary discusses the short- and long-term benefits of early diagnosis and intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/17549507.2013.861511

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329826900009

    View details for PubMedID 24328352

  • Improving Socialization for High School Students with ASD by Using Their Preferred Interests JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Koegel, R., Kim, S., Koegel, L., Schwartzman, B. 2013; 43 (9): 2121–34


    There has been a paucity of research on effective social interventions for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in inclusive high school settings. The literature, however, suggests that incorporating the student with ASD's special interests into activities may help improve their socialization with typical peers. Within the context of a multiple baseline across participants design, we implemented lunchtime activities incorporating the adolescent with ASD's preferred interests that were similar to ongoing activities already available at the schools. Results showed this increased both level of engagement and their rate of initiations made to typical peers. Social validation measures suggest that both adolescents with ASD and typical peers enjoyed participating in these activities and that the results generalized to other similar activities.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-013-1765-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323253100012

    View details for PubMedID 23361918

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3672252

  • Acquisition of Multiple Questions in the Context of Social Conversation in Children with Autism JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Doggett, R. A., Krasno, A. M., Koegel, L., Koegel, R. L. 2013; 43 (9): 2015–25


    Verbal initiations, such as questions, are essential components of social conversation often lacking in children with autism. Building on research showing that single questions can be taught in isolation, this study used a multiple baseline design to investigate whether a self-management intervention was effective for teaching concurrent acquisition and discrimination of three social questions in the context of conversation. Following intervention, participants rapidly increased their appropriate use of all three questions in a conversational context and maintained these gains over time. The participants also used questions appropriately with partners uninvolved in treatment. Additionally, the occasional presence of appropriate questions during baseline coupled with rapid improvement during intervention support theories that a lack of question-asking may be motivation-based rather than ability-based.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-012-1749-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323253100003

    View details for PubMedID 23292139

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3631576

  • Is Medication Information for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Monitored and Coordinated Across Professionals? Findings from a Teacher Survey SCHOOL MENTAL HEALTH Koegel, L. K., Krasno, A. M., Taras, H., Koegel, R. L., Frea, W. 2013; 5 (1): 48–57


    Prescription medications are commonly used for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, there is little research regarding how the effect of medication is monitored across settings once prescribed. The present study addressed this issue for children with ASD in school by administering a questionnaire to teachers of students with ASD who were and were not being given medication. Specifically, the questionnaire assessed the teachers' knowledge about whether the child was being given medication, and whether behavior changes or side effects were being communicated in any way to the child's family and prescribing physician. The results showed that for children who were being given medication, fewer than half of the teachers reported knowing the child was being given medication. For those children who were not being given medication, only 53% of the teachers reported correct information for their students. Of the teachers who knew their students were being given medication, all reported that they were not conferring with the child's prescribing physician regarding behavioral observations or side effects. Whether teachers are blind to the medication types and dosage the students are being given or not, some type of communication to physicians about the children's behavior at school is important. Given the importance of monitoring medication for children with ASD, implications for system change, for professionals and for funding agencies are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12310-012-9098-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331733100006

    View details for PubMedID 23526921

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3603705

  • An Early Social Engagement Intervention for Young Children with Autism and their Parents JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Vernon, T. W., Koegel, R. L., Dauterman, H., Stolen, K. 2012; 42 (12): 2702–17


    The social vulnerabilities associated with young children with autism are recognized as important intervention targets due to their influence on subsequent development. Current research suggests that interventions that combine motivational and social components can create meaningful changes in social functioning. Simultaneously, it is hypothesized that parent delivery of such strategies can invoke increases in these core social behaviors and parent engagement. This study examined the effects of teaching parents to implement a social engagement intervention with their children. The results indicated that the use of this parent-delivered social intervention led to (a) increases in their children's use of eye contact, directed positive affect, and verbal initiations, (b) increases in parent positive affect and synchronous engagement, and (c) generalized increases in parent and child behaviors.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-012-1535-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310746300016

    View details for PubMedID 22527708

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3791600

  • Improving Social Engagement and Initiations Between Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Peers in Inclusive Settings JOURNAL OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTIONS Koegel, L. K., Vernon, T. W., Koegel, R. L., Koegel, B. L., Paullin, A. W. 2012; 14 (4): 220–27


    Children with Asperger's Disorder often have difficulty with peer relationships and socialization. The current study assessed whether peer social interactions would improve in school settings if an intervention was designed that incorporated the children with Asperger's interests. Three children who were fully-included in regular education classes but did not interact with peers prior to intervention participated in this research. Social lunch clubs, open to both the study participants and their typical peers, were implemented twice weekly during regular lunchtime periods. Results showed that all three children increased their time engaged with peers as a result of the clubs. While their initiations greatly improved over baseline levels and approximated their peers, they were often initiating below the level of most of their peers. Implications for improving peer social interactions for children with Asperger's Disorder are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1098300712437042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308413400004

    View details for PubMedID 25328380

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4199304

  • Using Individualized Reinforcers and Hierarchical Exposure to Increase Food Flexibility in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Koegel, R. L., Bharoocha, A. A., Ribnick, C. B., Ribnick, R. C., Bucio, M. O., Fredeen, R. M., Koegel, L. 2012; 42 (8): 1574–81


    Inflexibility is a major characteristic of autism. In the present study we addressed inflexible mealtime behaviors and collected longitudinal data across 48 foods for 3 children, ages 6.4-7.8 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, for up to 22 weeks. Participants exhibited severe challenges with adherence to an extremely restricted repertoire of foods. We employed clinical replication and multiple baseline designs across participants to assess the effects of individualized reinforcement and hierarchical exposure to increase flexibility. Results showed that following intervention, all participants expanded their food repertoire and spontaneously requested new foods during follow up/generalization. Implications for clinical practice and directions for further research are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-011-1392-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306697600006

    View details for PubMedID 22042309

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3793013

  • Using Perseverative Interests to Improve Interactions Between Adolescents With Autism and Their Typical Peers in School Settings JOURNAL OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTIONS Koegel, R. L., Fredeen, R., Kim, S., Danial, J., Rubinstein, D., Koegel, L. 2012; 14 (3): 133–41


    The literature suggests that adolescents with ASD typically are not socially engaged during unstructured school activities and do not initiate social activities with typically developing peers. This study assessed whether implementing socialization opportunities in the form of lunch clubs based around aspects of the adolescents with ASD's perseverative interests would promote positive direct and generalized social interaction between the target adolescent and their typically developing peers. A repeated measures multiple baseline experimental design (with two reversals) was implemented across participants. During baseline measures, the participants did not show social engagement or initiations. During intervention, results showed large increases in both social engagement and initiations. Generalization measures also showed that the target adolescents improved their social engagements and initiations with typically developing peers throughout unstructured lunchtime activities. These results have implications for understanding variables related to social development in autism.

    View details for PubMedID 24163577

  • Improving Generalization of Peer Socialization Gains in Inclusive School Settings Using Initiations Training BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Koegel, L. K., Kuriakose, S., Singh, A. K., Koegel, R. L. 2012; 36 (3): 361–77


    Social engagement by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in unstructured school settings generally occurs at very low levels, if at all. Although many interventions improve peer socialization, generalization and maintenance of such gains when interventions are faded are typically low. The present study employed a multiple baseline design across participants to target generalization in the absence of interventionists in elementary school children with ASD at recess. Teaching initiations has been suggested as one method to increase generalization. The results of the present study showed that when initiations were targeted during intervention for social play, the participants demonstrated generalized peer social engagement, increases in unprompted peer-directed initiations, and more positive affect during peer interactions. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical and applied implications of incorporating initiations training into social interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0145445512445609

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305418500006

    View details for PubMedID 22645399

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3761387

  • Improving Motivation for Academics in Children with Autism JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Koegel, L., Singh, A. K., Koegel, R. L. 2010; 40 (9): 1057–66


    Many children with autism show very little interest in academic assignments and exhibit disruptive behavior when assignments are presented. Research indicates that incorporating specific motivational variables such as choice, interspersal of maintenance tasks, and natural reinforcers during intervention leads to improvements in core symptoms of autism and may possibly be effective in academic areas. Using a multiple baseline across children and behaviors design with four pre- and elementary school children with autism, we assessed whether the above variables could be incorporated into academic tasks to improve performance and interest. Results indicated that the intervention decreased the children's latency to begin academic tasks, improved their rate of performance and interest, and decreased their disruptive behavior. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-010-0962-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280908900002

    View details for PubMedID 20221791

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2926912

  • A Descriptive, Multiyear Examination of Positive Behavior Support BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS Dunlap, G., Carr, E. G., Horner, R. H., Koegel, R. L., Sailor, W., Clarke, S., Koegel, L. K., Albin, R. W., Vaughn, B. J., McLaughlin, D. M., James, K. M., Todd, A. W., Newton, J. S., Lucyshyn, J., Griggs, P., Bohanon, H., Choi, J. H., Vismara, L., Minjarez, M. B., Buschbacher, P., Fox, L. 2010; 35 (4): 259-279
  • Using Individualized Orienting Cues to Facilitate First-Word Acquisition in Non-Responders with Autism JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Koegel, R. L., Shirotova, L., Koegel, L. K. 2009; 39 (11): 1587–92


    Though considerable progress has been made in developing techniques for improving the acquisition of expressive verbal communication in children with autism, research has documented that 10-25% still fail to develop speech. One possible technique that could be significant in facilitating responding for this nonverbal subgroup of children is the use of orienting cues. Using a multiple baseline design, this study examined whether individualized orienting cues could be identified, and whether their presentation would result in verbal expressive words. The results suggest that using individualized orienting cues can increase correct responding to verbal models as well as subsequent word use. Theoretical and applied implications of orienting cues as they relate to individualized programming for children with autism are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-009-0765-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270669300010

    View details for PubMedID 19488847

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2759868

  • Improving Social Initiations in Young Children with Autism Using Reinforcers with Embedded Social Interactions JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Koegel, R. L., Vernon, T. W., Koegel, L. K. 2009; 39 (9): 1240–51


    Children with autism often exhibit low levels of social engagement, decreased levels of eye contact, and low social affect. However, both the literature and our direct clinical observations suggest that some components of intervention procedures may result in improvement in child-initiated social areas. Using an ABAB research design with three children with autism, this study systematically assessed whether embedding social interactions into reinforcers, delivered during language intervention, would lead to increased levels of child-initiated social behaviors. We compared this condition with a language intervention condition that did not embed social interactions into the reinforcers. Results indicated that embedding social interactions into the reinforcers resulted in increases in child-initiated social engagement during communication, improved nonverbal dyadic orienting, and improvements in general child affect. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-009-0732-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269012200002

    View details for PubMedID 19357942

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2727363

  • Priming as a method of coordinating educational services for students with autism LANGUAGE SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Frea, W., Green-Hopkins 2003; 34 (3): 228–35


    The importance of coordination of educational services has been well documented in the literature. For students with disabilities, coordinated programs result in more rapid acquisition of targeted behaviors and the increased likelihood of long-term maintenance of gains. The purpose of this study was to assess whether "priming" or exposing students with autism and disruptive behaviors to school assignments before their presentation in class would affect academic performance and problem behaviors.Two students diagnosed with autism who attended general education classrooms, both of whom exhibited numerous disruptive behaviors and low academic performance, participated in this study. A repeated reversals design was used to monitor student progress.The results demonstrated decreases in problem behavior and increases in academic responding when priming sessions occurred.Application is discussed in terms of a mechanism for speech-language pathologists to assist classroom teachers with a systematic educational coordination plan that can quickly produce improved school performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1044/0161-1461(2003/019)

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188816800007

    View details for PubMedID 27764324

  • Increasing speech intelligibility in children with autism JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Koegel, R. L., Camarata, S., Koegel, L. K., Ben-Tall, A., Smith, A. E. 1998; 28 (3): 241–51


    Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, reliably influence the effectiveness of language teaching interactions for children with autism. However, the effectiveness of this approach has not yet been assessed with respect to improving speech intelligibility. The purpose of this study was to systematically compare two intervention conditions, a Naturalistic approach (which incorporated motivational variables) vs. an Analog (more traditional, structured) approach, with developmentally similar speech sounds equated within and across conditions for each child. Data indicate that although both methods effectively increased correct production of the target sounds under some conditions, functional use of the target sounds in conversation occurred only when the naturalistic procedures were used during intervention. Results are discussed in terms of pivotal variables that may produce improvements in speech sounds during conversational speech.

    View details for DOI 10.1023/A:1026073522897

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074478600009

    View details for PubMedID 9656136

  • Setting generalization of question-asking by children with autism AMERICAN JOURNAL ON MENTAL RETARDATION Koegel, L. K., Camarata, S. M., Valdez-Menchaca, M., Koegel, R. L. 1998; 102 (4): 346–57


    We examined whether motivational procedures incorporated into teaching question-asking to children with autism, who lack verbal initiations, would result in generalization without additional teaching, prompting, or reinforcement in other settings. Specifically, we assessed whether such children could learn to use questions and whether the spontaneous use of question-asking would generalize across stimuli, settings, and people. All children learned to use questions in relation to items they had previously been unable to label and demonstrated generalization of spontaneous question-asking to new items and to their home environments with their mothers, with concomitant gains in expressive vocabulary. Results were discussed in terms of teaching response strategies, such as question-asking, to promote spontaneous child-initiated social interactions and expressive language development.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071731400003

    View details for PubMedID 9475943

  • Pivotal responses and the natural language teaching paradigm. Seminars in speech and language Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Carter, C. M. 1998; 19 (4): 355–424


    This article discusses the identification of pivotal behaviors for maximizing the impact of intervention for children with autism. Language deficits are not likely to make sufficient improvement unless pivotal variables, such as motivation, are addressed in the design of intervention programs. Pivotal target behaviors related to such children's motivation to engage in social communication are discussed, and their integration into a Natural Language Teaching Paradigm is described. Of particular interest are variables related to child choice, the use of natural reinforcers, the interspersal of maintenance trials to build behavioral momentum, and reinforcing communicative attempts. When used in combination to motivate the children to engage in and initiate communicative interactions, the impact on development can be considerable in terms of rate of acquisition, generalization of gains, and normalization of language development.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-2008-1064054

    View details for PubMedID 9857392

  • Variables related to differences in standardized test outcomes for children with autism JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Smith, A. 1997; 27 (3): 233–43


    The purpose of this experiment was to assess whether manipulation of variables related to motivation and attention in children with autism would influence performance on standardized tests. Two different testing conditions were compared: One consisted of the usual standardized testing procedures; during the other, specific variables that were hypothesized to relate to each child's responsiveness to task stimuli were manipulated. Data were collected in the context of a repeated reversals experimental design with condition order varied within and across children. Six children participated in a total of 44 separate testing sessions, controlled for order of conditions, number of sessions, and type of test. Results showed consistent differences between the two conditions, suggesting that improving motivation and attention in children with autism may considerably influence test performance and interpretation. Findings are discussed in relation to the difficulty in administering and interpreting changes in performance on standardized tests with this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1023/A:1025894213424

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XC90400002

    View details for PubMedID 9229256

  • Collateral effects of parent training on family interactions JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Koegel, R. L., Bimbela, A., Schreibman, L. 1996; 26 (3): 347–59


    Recent research suggests that using naturalistic teaching paradigms leads to therapeutic gains in clinic settings for children with autism and related disorders. More recent studies are demonstrating that implementing these strategies within a parent training format may produce collateral effects in other areas of family life. The present experiment assessed collateral effects of two very different parent training paradigms during unstructured dinnertime interactions in the family setting. One paradigm focused on teaching individual target behaviors (ITB) serially, and the other focused on a recently developed naturalistic paradigm that teaches the pivotal responses (PRT) of motivation and responsivity to multiple cues. Two groups of families were randomly assigned to each of the parent training conditions. Pretraining and post-parent-training videotapes of dinnertime interactions were scored in a random order across four interactional scales (level of happiness, interest, stress, and style of communication). Results obtained for the four interactional scales showed that the families in both conditions initially scored in the neutral range, and the ITB training paradigm produced no significant influence on the interactions from pretraining to posttraining. In contrast, however the PRT parent training paradigm resulted in the families showing positive interactions on all four scales, with the parent-child interactions rated as happier, the parents more interested in the interaction, the interaction less stressful, and the communication style as more positive.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/BF02172479

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UP76200006

    View details for PubMedID 8792265



    Stress profiles in 18 mothers vs 12 fathers of children with autism were compared on three measures, the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress, the Coping Health Inventory for Parents, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Mothers showed significantly more stress than fathers on each inventory, with a pattern suggesting stress may be related to the differing responsibility assigned to child rearing for each parent.

    View details for DOI 10.2466/PR0.71.8.1272-1274

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992KE16800045

    View details for PubMedID 1480714