Member, Maternal & Child Health Research Institute (MCHRI)
Doctor of Philosophy, University of California Davis, Integrative Genetics and Genomics (2017)
Bachelor of Science, University of California Davis, Genetics (2011)
Placental DNA methylation levels at CYP2E1 and IRS2 are associated with child outcome in a prospective autism study.
Human molecular genetics
DNA methylation acts at the interface of genetic and environmental factors relevant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Placenta, normally discarded at birth, is a potentially rich source of DNA methylation patterns predictive of ASD in the child. Here, we performed whole methylome analyses of placentas from a prospective study MARBLES (Markers of Autism Risk in Babies-Learning Early Signs) of high-risk pregnancies. 400 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) discriminated placentas stored from children later diagnosed with ASD compared to typically developing controls. These ASD DMRs were significantly enriched at promoters, mapped to 596 genes functionally enriched in neuronal development, and overlapped genetic ASD risk. ASD DMRs at CYP2E1 and IRS2 reached genome-wide significance, replicated by pyrosequencing, and correlated with expression differences in brain. Methylation at CYP2E1 associated with both ASD diagnosis and genotype within the DMR. In contrast, methylation at IRS2 was unaffected by within DMR genotype, but modified by preconceptional maternal prenatal vitamin use. This study therefore identified two potentially useful early epigenetic markers for ASD in placenta.
View details for DOI 10.1093/hmg/ddz084
View details for PubMedID 31009952
Epigenomic Convergence of Neural-Immune Risk Factors in Neurodevelopmental Disorder Cortex.
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) affect 7-14% of all children in developed countries and are one of the leading causes of lifelong disability. Epigenetic modifications are poised at the interface between genes and environment and are predicted to reveal insight into NDD etiology. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing was used to examine DNA cytosine methylation in 49 human cortex samples from 3 different NDDs (autism spectrum disorder, Rett syndrome, and Dup15q syndrome) and matched controls. Integration of methylation changes across NDDs with relevant genomic and genetic datasets revealed differentially methylated regions (DMRs) unique to each type of NDD but with shared regulatory functions in neurons and microglia. NDD DMRs were enriched within promoter regions and for transcription factor binding sites with identified methylation sensitivity. DMRs from all 3 disorders were enriched for ontologies related to nervous system development and genes with disrupted expression in brain from neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorders. Genes associated with NDD DMRs showed expression patterns indicating an important role for altered microglial function during brain development. These findings demonstrate an NDD epigenomic signature in human cortex that will aid in defining therapeutic targets and early biomarkers at the interface of genetic and environmental NDD risk factors.
View details for DOI 10.1093/cercor/bhz115
View details for PubMedID 31240313
Cognitive deficits in the Snord116 deletion mouse model for Prader-Willi syndrome.
Neurobiology of learning and memory
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is an imprinted neurodevelopmental disease caused by a loss of paternal genes on chromosome 15q11-q13. It is characterized by cognitive impairments, developmental delay, sleep abnormalities, and hyperphagia often leading to obesity. Clinical research has shown that a lack of expression of SNORD116, a paternally expressed imprinted gene cluster that encodes multiple copies of a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) in both humans and mice, is most likely responsible for many PWS symptoms seen in humans. The majority of previous research using PWS preclinical models focused on characterization of the hyperphagic and metabolic phenotypes. However, a crucial understudied clinical phenotype is cognitive impairments and thus we investigated the learning and memory abilities using a model of PWS, with a heterozygous deletion in Snord116. We utilized the novel object recognition task, which doesn't require external motivation, or exhaustive swim training. Automated findings were further confirmed with manual scoring by a highly trained blinded investigator. We discovered deficits in Snord116+/- mutant mice in the novel object recognition, location memory and tone cue fear conditioning assays when compared to age-, sex- matched, littermate control Snord116+/+ mice. Further, we confirmed that despite physical neo-natal developmental delays, Snord116+/- mice had normal exploratory and motor abilities. These results show that the Snord116+/- deletion murine model is a valuable preclinical model for investigating learning and memory impairments in individuals with PWS without common confounding phenotypes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nlm.2018.05.011
View details for PubMedID 29800646
Snord116-dependent diurnal rhythm of DNA methylation in mouse cortex
2018; 9: 1616
Rhythmic oscillations of physiological processes depend on integrating the circadian clock and diurnal environment. DNA methylation is epigenetically responsive to daily rhythms, as a subset of CpG dinucleotides in brain exhibit diurnal rhythmic methylation. Here, we show a major genetic effect on rhythmic methylation in a mouse Snord116 deletion model of the imprinted disorder Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). More than 23,000 diurnally rhythmic CpGs are identified in wild-type cortex, with nearly all lost or phase-shifted in PWS. Circadian dysregulation of a second imprinted Snord cluster at the Temple/Kagami-Ogata syndrome locus is observed at the level of methylation, transcription, and chromatin, providing mechanistic evidence of cross-talk. Genes identified by diurnal epigenetic changes in PWS mice overlapped rhythmic and PWS-specific genes in human brain and are enriched for PWS-relevant phenotypes and pathways. These results support the proposed evolutionary relationship between imprinting and sleep, and suggest possible chronotherapy in the treatment of PWS and related disorders.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-018-03676-0
View details for Web of Science ID 000430674000005
View details for PubMedID 29691382
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5915486
Epigenetics of Circadian Rhythms in Imprinted Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
Progress in molecular biology and translational science
2018; 157: 67–92
DNA sequence information alone cannot account for the immense variability between chromosomal alleles within diverse cell types in the brain, whether these differences are observed across time, cell type, or parental origin. The complex control and maintenance of gene expression and modulation are regulated by a multitude of molecular and cellular mechanisms that layer on top of the genetic code. The integration of genetic and environmental signals required for regulating brain development and function is achieved in part by a dynamic epigenetic landscape that includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs. These epigenetic mechanisms establish and maintain core biological processes, including genomic imprinting and entrainment of circadian rhythms. This chapter will focus on how the epigenetic layers of DNA methylation and long, noncoding RNAs interact with circadian rhythms at specific imprinted chromosomal loci associated with the human neurodevelopmental disorders Prader-Willi, Angelman, Kagami-Ogata, and Temple syndromes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2017.11.023
View details for PubMedID 29933957
Prader-Willi locus Snord116 RNA processing requires an active endogenous allele and neuron-specific splicing by Rbfox3/NeuN.
Human molecular genetics
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), an imprinted neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by metabolic, sleep, and neuropsychiatric features, is caused by the loss of paternal SNORD116, containing only noncoding RNAs. The primary SNORD116 transcript is processed into small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), which localize to nucleoli, and their spliced host gene 116HG, which is retained at its site of transcription. While functional complementation of the SNORD116 noncoding RNAs is a desirable goal for treating PWS, the mechanistic requirements of SNORD116 RNA processing are poorly understood. Here we developed and tested a novel transgenic mouse which ubiquitously expresses Snord116 on both a wild-type and Snord116 paternal deletion (Snord116+/-) background. Interestingly, while the Snord116 transgene was ubiquitously expressed in multiple tissues, splicing of the transgene and production of snoRNAs was limited to brain tissues. Knockdown of Rbfox3, encoding neuron-specific splicing factor NeuN, in Snord116+/--derived neurons reduced splicing of the transgene in neurons. RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization for 116HG revealed a single significantly larger signal in transgenic mice, demonstrating colocalization of transgenic and endogenous 116HG RNAs. Similarly, significantly increased snoRNA levels were detected in transgenic neuronal nucleoli, indicating that transgenic Snord116 snoRNAs were effectively processed and localized. In contrast, neither transgenic 116HG nor snoRNAs were detectable in either non-neuronal tissues or Snord116+/- neurons. Together, these results demonstrate that exogenous expression and neuron-specific splicing of the Snord116 locus are insufficient to rescue the genetic deficiency of Snord116 paternal deletion. Elucidating the mechanisms regulating Snord116 processing and localization are essential to develop effective gene replacement therapies for PWS.
View details for DOI 10.1093/hmg/ddy296
View details for PubMedID 30124848
Experience-dependent neuroplasticity of the developing hypothalamus: integrative epigenomic approaches
2018; 13 (3): 318–30
Augmented maternal care during the first postnatal week promotes life-long stress resilience and improved memory compared with the outcome of routine rearing conditions. Recent evidence suggests that this programming commences with altered synaptic connectivity of stress sensitive hypothalamic neurons. However, the epigenomic basis of the long-lived consequences is not well understood. Here, we employed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS), RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), and a multiplex microRNA (miRNA) assay to examine the effects of augmented maternal care on DNA cytosine methylation, gene expression, and miRNA expression. A total of 9,439 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with augmented maternal care were identified in male offspring hypothalamus, as well as a modest but significant decrease in global DNA methylation. Differentially methylated and expressed genes were enriched for functions in neurotransmission, neurodevelopment, protein synthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation, as well as known stress response genes. Twenty prioritized genes were identified as highly relevant to the stress resiliency phenotype. This combined unbiased approach enabled the discovery of novel genes and gene pathways that advance our understanding of the epigenomic mechanisms underlying the effects of maternal care on the developing brain.
View details for DOI 10.1080/15592294.2018.1451720
View details for Web of Science ID 000434326600011
View details for PubMedID 29613827
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5997166
Cumulative Impact of Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Large Chromosomal Duplications on DNA Methylation, Chromatin, and Expression of Autism Candidate Genes.
2016; 17 (11): 3035–48
Rare variants enriched for functions in chromatin regulation and neuronal synapses have been linked to autism. How chromatin and DNA methylation interact with environmental exposures at synaptic genes in autism etiologies is currently unclear. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing in brain tissue and a neuronal cell culture model carrying a 15q11.2-q13.3 maternal duplication, we find that significant global DNA hypomethylation is enriched over autism candidate genes and affects gene expression. The cumulative effect of multiple chromosomal duplications and exposure to the pervasive persistent organic pollutant PCB 95 altered methylation of more than 1,000 genes. Hypomethylated genes were enriched for H2A.Z, increased maternal UBE3A in Dup15q corresponded to reduced levels of RING1B, and bivalently modified H2A.Z was altered by PCB 95 and duplication. These results demonstrate the compounding effects of genetic and environmental insults on the neuronal methylome that converge upon dysregulation of chromatin and synaptic genes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.11.058
View details for PubMedID 27974215
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5206988
A PraderWilli locus lncRNA cloud modulates diurnal genes and energy expenditure
HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS
2013; 22 (21): 4318–28
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a genetic disorder of obesity, intellectual disability and sleep abnormalities, is caused by loss of non-coding RNAs on paternal chromosome 15q11-q13. The imprinted minimal PWS locus encompasses a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcript processed into multiple SNORD116 small nucleolar RNAs and the spliced exons of the host gene, 116HG. However, both the molecular function and the disease relevance of the spliced lncRNA 116HG are unknown. Here, we show that 116HG forms a subnuclear RNA cloud that co-purifies with the transcriptional activator RBBP5 and active metabolic genes, remains tethered to the site of its transcription and increases in size in post-natal neurons and during sleep. Snord116del mice lacking 116HG exhibited increased energy expenditure corresponding to the dysregulation of diurnally expressed Mtor and circadian genes Clock, Cry1 and Per2. These combined genomic and metabolic analyses demonstrate that 116HG regulates the diurnal energy expenditure of the brain. These novel molecular insights into the energy imbalance in PWS should lead to improved therapies and understanding of lncRNA roles in complex neurodevelopmental and metabolic disorders.
View details for DOI 10.1093/hmg/ddt281
View details for Web of Science ID 000325771500007
View details for PubMedID 23771028
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3792690
R-loop formation at Snord116 mediates topotecan inhibition of Ube3a-antisense and allele-specific chromatin decondensation
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2013; 110 (34): 13938–43
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are oppositely imprinted autism-spectrum disorders with known genetic bases, but complex epigenetic mechanisms underlie their pathogenesis. The PWS/AS locus on 15q11-q13 is regulated by an imprinting control region that is maternally methylated and silenced. The PWS imprinting control region is the promoter for a one megabase paternal transcript encoding the ubiquitous protein-coding Snrpn gene and multiple neuron-specific noncoding RNAs, including the PWS-related Snord116 repetitive locus of small nucleolar RNAs and host genes, and the antisense transcript to AS-causing ubiquitin ligase encoding Ube3a (Ube3a-ATS). Neuron-specific transcriptional progression through Ube3a-ATS correlates with paternal Ube3a silencing and chromatin decondensation. Interestingly, topoisomerase inhibitors, including topotecan, were recently identified in an unbiased drug screen for compounds that could reverse the silent paternal allele of Ube3a in neurons, but the mechanism of topotecan action on the PWS/AS locus is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that topotecan treatment stabilizes the formation of RNA:DNA hybrids (R loops) at G-skewed repeat elements within paternal Snord116, corresponding to increased chromatin decondensation and inhibition of Ube3a-ATS expression. Neural precursor cells from paternal Snord116 deletion mice exhibit increased Ube3a-ATS levels in differentiated neurons and show a reduced effect of topotecan compared with wild-type neurons. These results demonstrate that the AS candidate drug topotecan acts predominantly through stabilizing R loops and chromatin decondensation at the paternally expressed PWS Snord116 locus. Our study holds promise for targeted therapies to the Snord116 locus for both AS and PWS.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1305426110
View details for Web of Science ID 000323271400061
View details for PubMedID 23918391
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3752217
Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Dogs Enables Identification of the Homeobox Gene, NKX2-8, as a Genetic Component of Neural Tube Defects in Humans
2013; 9 (7): e1003646
Neural tube defects (NTDs) is a general term for central nervous system malformations secondary to a failure of closure or development of the neural tube. The resulting pathologies may involve the brain, spinal cord and/or vertebral column, in addition to associated structures such as soft tissue or skin. The condition is reported among the more common birth defects in humans, leading to significant infant morbidity and mortality. The etiology remains poorly understood but genetic, nutritional, environmental factors, or a combination of these, are known to play a role in the development of NTDs. The variable conditions associated with NTDs occur naturally in dogs, and have been previously reported in the Weimaraner breed. Taking advantage of the strong linkage-disequilibrium within dog breeds we performed genome-wide association analysis and mapped a genomic region for spinal dysraphism, a presumed NTD, using 4 affected and 96 unaffected Weimaraners. The associated region on canine chromosome 8 (pgenome =3.0 × 10(-5)), after 100,000 permutations, encodes 18 genes, including NKX2-8, a homeobox gene which is expressed in the developing neural tube. Sequencing NKX2-8 in affected Weimaraners revealed a G to AA frameshift mutation within exon 2 of the gene, resulting in a premature stop codon that is predicted to produce a truncated protein. The exons of NKX2-8 were sequenced in human patients with spina bifida and rare variants (rs61755040 and rs10135525) were found to be significantly over-represented (p=0.036). This is the first documentation of a potential role for NKX2-8 in the etiology of NTDs, made possible by investigating the molecular basis of naturally occurring mutations in dogs.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003646
View details for Web of Science ID 000322321100044
View details for PubMedID 23874236
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3715436