Academic Appointments


  • Emeritus (Active) Professor, Organizational Behavior

All Publications


  • To Become or Not to Become? Existential Courage and the Quest for Identity HANDBOOK OF HEROISM AND HEROIC LEADERSHIP Kramer, R. M., Allison, S. T., Goethals, G. R., Kramer, R. M. 2017: 262-282
  • Introduction Setting the Scene The Rise and Coalescence of Heroism Science HANDBOOK OF HEROISM AND HEROIC LEADERSHIP Allison, S. T., Goethals, G. R., Kramer, R. M., Allison, S. T., Goethals, G. R., Kramer, R. M. 2017: 1-16
  • Science for the sustainable use of ecosystem services. F1000Research Bennett, E. M., Chaplin-Kramer, R. 2016; 5: 2622-?

    Abstract

    Sustainability is a key challenge for humanity in the 21st century. Ecosystem services-the benefits that people derive from nature and natural capital-is a concept often used to help explain human reliance on nature and frame the decisions we make in terms of the ongoing value of nature to human wellbeing. Yet ecosystem service science has not always lived up to the promise of its potential. Despite advances in the scientific literature, ecosystem service science has not yet answered some of the most critical questions posed by decision-makers in the realm of sustainability. Here, we explore the history of ecosystem service science, discuss advances in conceptualization and measurement, and point toward further work needed to improve the use of ecosystem service in decisions about sustainable development.

    View details for PubMedID 27853527

  • Pursuing ecological validity in trust research: merits of multi-method research HANDBOOK OF RESEARCH METHODS ON TRUST, 2ND EDITION Kramer, R. M., Lyon, F., Mollering, G., Saunders, M. N. 2015: 25-35
  • Creating more trusting and trustworthy organizations: exploring the foundations and benefits of presumptive trust PUBLIC TRUST IN BUSINESS Kramer, R., Harris, J. D., Moriarty, B. T., Wicks, A. C. 2014: 203-235
  • Moving between laboratory and field: a multi-method approach for studying trust judgments HANDBOOK OF RESEARCH METHODS ON TRUST Kramer, R. M., Lyon, F., Mollering, G., Saunders, M. N. 2012: 19-28
  • COOPERATION AND THE COMMONS Laboratory and Field Investigations of a Persistent Dilemma SOCIAL COGNITION, SOCIAL IDENTITY, AND INTERGROUP RELATIONS: A FESTSCHRIFT IN HONOR OF MARILYNN B. BREWER Kramer, R. M., Kramer, R. M., Leonardelli, G. J., Livingston, R. W. 2011: 297-317
  • Responsive Leaders: Cognitive and Behavioral Reactions to Identity Threats SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND ORGANIZATIONS Kramer, R. M., DeCremer, D., vanDick, R., Murnighan, J. K. 2011: 121-145
  • Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments: Touchpoints and Touchdowns in a Distinguished Scholarly Career SOCIAL DECISION MAKING: SOCIAL DILEMMAS, SOCIAL VALUES, AND ETHICAL JUDGMENTS Kramer, R. M., Tenbrunsel, A. E., Bazerman, M. H., Kramer, R. M., Tenbrunsel, A. E., Bazerman, M. H. 2011: 1-+
  • Dilemmas and Doubts: How Decision-Makers Cope With Interdependence and Uncertainty SOCIAL DECISION MAKING: SOCIAL DILEMMAS, SOCIAL VALUES, AND ETHICAL JUDGMENTS Kramer, R. M., Kramer, R. M., Tenbrunsel, A. E., Bazerman, M. H. 2011: 117-143
  • RIGOR WITH RELEVANCE The Many Legacies of Marilynn B-Brewer SOCIAL COGNITION, SOCIAL IDENTITY, AND INTERGROUP RELATIONS: A FESTSCHRIFT IN HONOR OF MARILYNN B. BREWER Livingston, R. W., Leonardelli, G. J., Kramer, R. M., Kramer, R. M., Leonardelli, G. J., Livingston, R. W. 2011: 1-6
  • Collective Trust within Organizations: Conceptual Foundations and Empirical Insights CORPORATE REPUTATION REVIEW Kramer, R. 2010; 13 (2): 82-97

    View details for DOI 10.1057/crr.2010.9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000211840600003

  • Repairing and Enhancing Trust: Approaches to Reducing Organizational Trust Deficits ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT ANNALS Kramer, R. M., Lewicki, R. J. 2010; 4: 245-277
  • WHEN THEORY MET PRACTICE: COOPERATION AT STANFORD STANFORD'S ORGANIZATION THEORY RENAISSANCE, 1970-2000 Kramer, R. M., Schoonhoven, C. B., Dobbin, F. 2010; 28: 207-219
  • Rethinking Trust HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW Kramer, R. M. 2009; 87 (6): 68-?

    Abstract

    Will we ever learn? We'd barely recovered from Enron and WorldCom before we faced the subprime mortgage meltdown and more scandals that shook our trust in businesspeople. Which raises the question: Do we trust too much? In this article, Stanford professor and social psychologist Kramer explores the reasons we trust so easily--and, often, so unwisely. He explains that genetics and childhood learning make us predisposed to trust and that it's been a good survival mechanism. That said, our willingness to trust makes us vulnerable. Our sense of trust kicks in on remarkably simple cues, such as when people look like us or are part of our social group. We also rely on third parties to verify the character of others, sometimes to our detriment (as the victims of Bernard Madoff learned). Add in our illusions of invulnerability and our tendencies to see what we want to see and to overestimate our own judgment, and the bottom line is that we're often easily fooled. We need to develop tempered trust. For those who trust too much, that means reading cues better; for the distrustful, it means developing more receptive behaviors. Everyone should start with small acts of trust that encourage reciprocity and build up. Having a hedge against potential abuses also helps. Hollywood scriptwriters, for instance, register their treatments with the Writers Guild of America to prevent their ideas from being stolen by the executives they pitch. To attract the right relationships, people must strongly signal their own honesty, proactively allay concerns, and, if their trust is abused, retaliate. Trusting individuals in certain roles, which essentially means trusting the system that selects and trains them, also works but isn't foolproof. And don't count on due diligence alone for protection; constant vigilance is needed to make sure the landscape hasn't changed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266153200019

    View details for PubMedID 19496472

  • Economics and social psychology: Brief flirtation or enduring marriage? (Book Review) ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW Book Review Authored by: Kramer, R. M. 2007; 32 (2): 668-671
  • Self-Defeating Leader Behavior: Why Leaders Misuse Their Power and Influence SCIENCE OF SOCIAL INFLUENCE: ADVANCES AND FUTURE PROGRESS Kramer, R. M., Pratkanis, A. R. 2007: 297-319
  • Patients' race, ethnicity, language, and trust in a physician JOURNAL OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR Stepanikova, I., Mollborn, S., Cook, K. S., Thom, D. H., Kramer, R. M. 2006; 47 (4): 390-405

    Abstract

    We examine whether racial/ethnic/language-based variation in measured levels of patients' trust in a physician depends on the survey items used to measure that trust. Survey items include: (1) a direct measure of patients' trust that the doctor will put the patient's medical needs above all other considerations, and (2) three indirect measures of trust asking about expectations for specific physician behaviors, including referring to a specialist, being influenced by insurance rules, and performing unnecessary tests. Using a national survey, we find lower scores on indirect measures of trust in a physician among minority users of health care services than among non-Hispanic white users. In contrast, the direct measure of trust does not differ among non-Hispanic whites and nonwhites once we control for potential confounding factors. The results indicate that racial/ethnic/language-based differences exist primarily in those aspects of patients' trust in a physician that reflect specific physician behaviors.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242750800006

    View details for PubMedID 17240927

  • The great intimidators HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW Kramer, R. M. 2006; 84 (2): 88-?

    Abstract

    After Disney's Michael Eisner, Miramax's Harvey Weinstein, and Hewlett-Packard's Carly Fiorina fell from their heights of power, the business media quickly proclaimed thatthe reign of abrasive, intimidating leaders was over. However, it's premature to proclaim their extinction. Many great intimidators have done fine for a long time and continue to thrive. Their modus operandi runs counter to a lot of preconceptions about what it takes to be a good leader. They're rough, loud, and in your face. Their tactics include invading others' personal space, staging tantrums, keeping people guessing, and possessing an indisputable command of facts. But make no mistake--great intimidators are not your typical bullies. They're driven by vision, not by sheer ego or malice. Beneath their tough exteriors and sharp edges are some genuine, deep insights into human motivation and organizational behavior. Indeed, these leaders possess political intelligence, which can make the difference between paralysis and successful--if sometimes wrenching--organizational change. Like socially intelligent leaders, politically intelligent leaders are adept at sizing up others, but they notice different things. Those with social intelligence assess people's strengths and figure out how to leverage them; those with political intelligence exploit people's weaknesses and insecurities. Despite all the obvious drawbacks of working under them, great intimidators often attract the best and brightest. And their appeal goes beyond their ability to inspire high performance. Many accomplished professionals who gravitate toward these leaders want to cultivate a little "inner intimidator" of their own. In the author's research, quite a few individuals reported having positive relationships with intimidating leaders. In fact, some described these relationships as profoundly educational and even transformational. So before we throw out all the great intimidators, the author argues, we should stop to consider what we would lose.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234908800006

    View details for PubMedID 16485807

  • Trust as situated cognition: an ecological perspective on trust decisions HANDBOOK OF TRUST RESEARCH Kramer, R. M., Bachmann, R., Zaheer, A. 2006: 68-84
  • SOCIAL CAPITAL AND COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOR IN THE WORKPLACE: A SOCIAL IDENTITY PERSPECTIVE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF THE WORKPLACE Kramer, R. M., Lawler, E., Thye 2006; 23: 1-30
  • The perception of conspiracy: Leader paranoia as adaptive cognition Conference on New Approaches to the Psychology of Leadership Kramer, R. M., Gavrieli, D. LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC PUBL. 2005: 241–274
  • The harder they fall HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW Kramer, R. M. 2003; 81 (10): 58-?

    Abstract

    The past decade may well be remembered as the era of the high-flying, aggressive leader. Corner-office titans like Kenneth Lay, Dennis Kozlowski, and Bernard Ebbers graced the covers of business magazines. They captured the public's fascination with their bold business moves and charismatic sound bites. Then scandal set in, and the stars fell to earth. In this article, social psychologist Roderick M. Kramer asks an important question: Why do so many leaders--not just in business, but also in politics, religion, and the media--display remarkable adeptness and ability while courting power, only to engage in even more remarkable bouts of folly once that power has been secured? Kramer, who has spent most of his career researching how leaders get to the top, says there is something about the process of becoming a leader that changes people in profound ways. The systems through which we select our leaders force executives to sacrifice the attitudes and behaviors that are essential to their survival once they have reached the top. Society has learned to consider risk taking and rule breaking as markers of good leadership. As a result, CEOs and other leaders lack the modesty and prudence needed to cope with the rewards and trappings of power. They come to believe that normal limits don't apply to them and that they are entitled to any spoils they can seize. The leaders who do remain grounded--who get to the top and stay there--exhibit five common psychological and behavioral habits: They simplify their lives, remaining humble and "awfully ordinary." They shine a light on their weaknesses instead of trying to cover them up. They float trial balloons to uncover the truth and prepare for the unexpected. They sweat the small stuff. And they reflect more, not less.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185445300012

    View details for PubMedID 14521098

  • Assessing creativity in Hollywood pitch meetings: Evidence for a dual-process model of creativity judgments ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL Elsbach, K. D., Kramer, R. M. 2003; 46 (3): 283-301
  • Organizational paranoia: Origins and dynamics RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, VOL 23 Kramer, R. M. 2001; 23: 1-42
  • Troubled talk and talking cures: From "smart talk" to wise conversations NEGOTIATION JOURNAL Kramer, R. M. 2000; 16 (2): 143-156
  • Trust and distrust in organizations: Emerging perspectives, enduring questions ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY Kramer, R. M. 1999; 50: 569-598

    Abstract

    Scholarly interest in the study of trust and distrust in organizations has grown dramatically over the past five years. This interest has been fueled, at least in part, by accumulating evidence that trust has a number of important benefits for organizations and their members. A primary aim of this review is to assess the state of this rapidly growing literature. The review examines recent progress in conceptualizing trust and distrust in organizational theory, and also summarizes evidence regarding the myriad benefits of trust within organizational systems. The review also describes different forms of trust found in organizations, and the antecedent conditions that produce them. Although the benefits of trust are well-documented, creating and sustaining trust is often difficult. Accordingly, the chapter concludes by examining some of the psychological, social, and institutional barriers to the production of trust.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078701400022

    View details for PubMedID 15012464

  • Stalking the sinister attribution error - Paranoia inside the lab and out 8th Biannual Conference on Negotiation in Organizations Kramer, R. M. JAI PRESS INC. 1999: 59–91
  • Paranoid cognition in social systems: thinking and acting in the shadow of doubt. Personality and social psychology review Kramer, R. M. 1998; 2 (4): 251-275

    Abstract

    Distrust and suspicion are common and recurring problems at all levels of social organization, ranging from the interpersonal to the collective. Unfortunately, our understanding of the origins and dynamics of such distrust and suspicion remains far from complete. A primary aim of this research, accordingly, was to articulate a new framework for conceptualizing a form of exaggerated distrust and suspicion termed paranoid social cognition. Drawing on recent psychological theory and research, this framework identifies the social cognitive underpinnings of paranoid cognitions. It also specifies some of the situational determinants of such cognition and elaborates on the psychological, behavioral, and social dynamics that sustain them.

    View details for PubMedID 15647133

  • Positive illusions about oneself and one's group - Antecedents and consequences SMALL GROUP RESEARCH Polzer, J. T., Kramer, R. M., Neale, M. A. 1997; 28 (2): 243-266
  • Cooperation under uncertainty: What is new, what is true, and what is important AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW Bendor, J., Kramer, R., SWISTAK, P. 1996; 61 (2): 333-338
  • Ethical cognition and the framing of organizational dilemmas: Decision makers as intuitive lawyers Conference on Behavioral Research and Business Ethics Kramer, R. M., MESSICK, D. M. RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION. 1996: 59–85
  • TRUST AND DISTRUST - ITS PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL DIMENSIONS MOTIVATION AND EMOTION Kramer, R. M., Isen, A. M. 1994; 18 (2): 105-107
  • THE SINISTER ATTRIBUTION ERROR - PARANOID COGNITION AND COLLECTIVE DISTRUST IN ORGANIZATIONS MOTIVATION AND EMOTION Kramer, R. M. 1994; 18 (2): 199-230
  • SELF-ENHANCEMENT BIASES AND NEGOTIATOR JUDGMENT - EFFECTS OF SELF-ESTEEM AND MOOD ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES Kramer, R. M., Newton, E., Pommerenke, P. L. 1993; 56 (1): 110-133
  • WHEN IN DOUBT ... COOPERATION IN A NOISY PRISONERS-DILEMMA JOURNAL OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION Bendor, J., Kramer, R. M., Stout, S. 1991; 35 (4): 691-719
  • INTERGROUP RELATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONAL DILEMMAS - THE ROLE OF CATEGORIZATION PROCESSES RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Kramer, R. M. 1991; 13: 191-228
  • HOW MUCH IS ENOUGH - PSYCHOLOGICAL COMPONENTS OF GUNS VERSUS BUTTER DECISIONS IN A SECURITY DILEMMA JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Kramer, R. M., Meyerson, D., Davis, G. 1990; 58 (6): 984-993
  • CHILDRENS USE OF SOCIAL-COMPARISON STANDARDS IN JUDGING PERFORMANCE AND THEIR EFFECTS ON SELF-EVALUATION CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY KEIL, L. J., MCCLINTOCK, C. G., Kramer, R., Platow, M. J. 1990; 15 (1): 75-91
  • WINDOWS OF VULNERABILITY OR COGNITIVE ILLUSIONS - COGNITIVE-PROCESSES AND THE NUCLEAR ARMS-RACE JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Kramer, R. M. 1989; 25 (1): 79-100
  • SOCIAL VALUES AND COOPERATIVE RESPONSE TO A SIMULATED RESOURCE CONSERVATION CRISIS JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY Kramer, R. M., MCCLINTOCK, C. G., MESSICK, D. M. 1986; 54 (3): 576-592
  • CHOICE BEHAVIOR IN SOCIAL DILEMMAS - EFFECTS OF SOCIAL IDENTITY, GROUP-SIZE, AND DECISION FRAMING JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Brewer, M. B., Kramer, R. M. 1986; 50 (3): 543-549