Bio


Rod Ewing is the Frank Stanton Professor in Nuclear Security in the Center for International Security and Cooperation in the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and a Professor in the Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences in the School of Earth Sciences at Stanford University. He is also the Edward H. Kraus Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at the University of Michigan, where he as in three Departments: Earth & Environmental Sciences, Nuclear Engineering & Radiological Sciences, and Materials Science and Engineering. He is also a Regents' Emeritus Professor at the University of New Mexico.

Ewing received a B.S. degree in geology from Texas Christian University (1968, summa cum laude) and M.S. (l972) and Ph.D. (l974, with distinction) degrees from Stanford University where he held an NSF Fellowship. His graduate studies focused on an esoteric group of minerals, metamict Nb-Ta-Ti oxides, which are unusual because they have become amorphous due to radiation damage caused by the presence of radioactive elements. Over the past thirty years, the early study of these unusual minerals has blossomed into a broadly based research program on radiation effects in complex ceramic materials. This has led to the development of techniques to predict the long-term behavior of materials, such as those used in radioactive waste disposal. He is the author or co-author of over 700 research publications and the editor or co-editor of 18 monographs, proceedings volumes or special issues of journals. He has published widely in mineralogy, geochemistry, materials science, nuclear materials, physics and chemistry in over 100 different ISI journals. He has been granted a patent for the development of a highly durable material for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium. He is a founding Editor of the magazine, Elements, which is now supported by 17 earth science societies.

Ewing has received the Hawley Medal of the Mineralogical Association of Canada in 1997 and 2002, a Guggenheim Fellowship in 2002, the Dana Medal of the Mineralogical Society of America in 2006, the Lomonosov Gold Medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2006, a Honorary Doctorate from the Université Pierre et Marie Curie in 2007 and is a foreign Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. He is also a fellow of the Geological Society of America, Mineralogical Society of America, American Geophysical Union, Geochemical Society, American Ceramic Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Materials Research Society. He has been president of the Mineralogical Society of America (2002) and the International Union of Materials Research Societies (1997-1998). Ewing serves on the Board of Directors of the Geochemical Society, the Board of Governors of the Gemological Institute of America and is a member of the Science and Security Board of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

Professor Ewing is co-editor of and a contributing author of Radioactive Waste Forms for the Future (North-Holland Physics, Amsterdam, 1988) and Uncertainty Underground – Yucca Mountain and the Nation’s High-Level Nuclear Waste (MIT Press, 2006). He has served on eleven National Research Council committees for the National Academy of Sciences that have reviewed issues related to nuclear waste and nuclear weapons. In 2012, he was appointed by President Obama to Chair the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board.

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Roebling Medal, Mineralogical Society of America (2015)
  • Edward H. Kraus Distinguished University Professor Emeritus, University of Michigan (2014 - present)
  • Honorary Fellow, Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland (2013)
  • Ida Beam Distinguished Visiting Professorship, University of Iowa (2013)
  • Hallimond Lecture, Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland (2010)
  • Edward H. Kraus Distinguished University Professor, University of Michigan (2009 - 2013)
  • Fellow, Geochemical Society and the European Association for Geochemistry (2009)
  • Foreign Fellow, Royal Society of Canada (2009)
  • Fellow, American Ceramic Society (2008)
  • Fellow, Materials Research Society (2008)
  • Docteur Honoris Causa, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VII (2007)
  • Fellow, American Geophysical Union (2007)
  • Hamilton Visiting Scholar, Southern Methodist University (2007)
  • Dana Medal, Mineralogical Society of America (2006)
  • Lomonosov Great Gold Medal, Russian Academy of Sciences (2006)
  • Michel T. Halbouty Distinguished Lecturer, Geological Society of America (2006)
  • Umbgrove Lecture, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands (2006)
  • Zussman Lecture, University of Manchester (2005)
  • Distinguished Lecturer, Mineralogical Society of America (2004 - 2005)
  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (2004)
  • Fellowship, Guggenheim Foundation (2002)
  • Hawley Medal, Mineralogical Association of Canada (2002)
  • Regents' Professor Emeritus, University of New Mexico (1997 - present)
  • Fellowship, Yamada Foundation, University of Tokyo (1997)
  • Hawley Medal, Mineralogical Association of Canada (1997)
  • Regents' Professor, University of New Mexico (1993 - 1997)
  • Fellow, Geological Society of America (1985)
  • Fellow, Mineralogical Society of America (1983)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Executive Editor, Geochemical Perspectives Letters (2014 - Present)
  • Member, Editorial Board of Applied Physics Letters (2014 - Present)
  • Member, Science and Security Board of the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists (2013 - Present)
  • Chairman, Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (2012 - Present)
  • Director, Board of Directors of the Geochemical Society (2012 - Present)
  • Principal Editor, Nano LIFE (2010 - Present)
  • Governor, Board of Governors of the Gemological Institute of America (2003 - Present)
  • Founding Editor, Elements magazine (2003 - 2004)
  • President, Mineralogical Society of America (2002 - 2003)
  • President, International Union of Materials Research Societies (1997 - 1998)

Professional Education


  • Ph.D., Stanford University, Mineralogy (1974)
  • M.S., Stanford University, Mineralogy (1972)
  • B.S., Texas Christian University, Geology (1968)

Journal Articles


  • Thermodynamic mixing properties of the UO2-HfO2 solid solution: Density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Yuan, K., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2015; 458: 296-303
  • Long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel. Nature materials Ewing, R. C. 2015; 14 (3): 252-257

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nmat4226

    View details for PubMedID 25698421

  • Role of vein-phases in nanoscale sequestration of U, Nb, Ti, and Pb during the alteration of pyrochlore GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Deditius, A. P., Smith, F. N., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C. 2015; 150: 226-252
  • Redox response of actinide materials to highly ionizing radiation NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Tracy, C. L., Lang, M., Pray, J. M., Zhang, F., Popov, D., Park, C., Trautmann, C., Bender, M., Severin, D., Skuratov, V. A., Ewing, R. C. 2015; 6

    Abstract

    Energetic radiation can cause dramatic changes in the physical and chemical properties of actinide materials, degrading their performance in fission-based energy systems. As advanced nuclear fuels and wasteforms are developed, fundamental understanding of the processes controlling radiation damage accumulation is necessary. Here we report oxidation state reduction of actinide and analogue elements caused by high-energy, heavy ion irradiation and demonstrate coupling of this redox behaviour with structural modifications. ThO2, in which thorium is stable only in a tetravalent state, exhibits damage accumulation processes distinct from those of multivalent cation compounds CeO2 (Ce(3+) and Ce(4+)) and UO3 (U(4+), U(5+) and U(6+)). The radiation tolerance of these materials depends on the efficiency of this redox reaction, such that damage can be inhibited by altering grain size and cation valence variability. Thus, the redox behaviour of actinide materials is important for the design of nuclear fuels and the prediction of their performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms7133

    View details for Web of Science ID 000348832300004

    View details for PubMedID 25626111

  • Photothermal effects and toxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles via near infrared laser irradiation for cancer therapy MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING C-MATERIALS FOR BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Dunn, A. W., Ehsan, S. M., Mast, D., Pauletti, G. M., Xu, H., Zhang, J., Ewing, R. C., Shi, D. 2015; 46: 97-102

    Abstract

    The photothermal effect of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles was characterized by photonic absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region. Upon laser irradiation at 785 nm, the Fe3O4 nanoparticles generate localized hyperthermia in tumorous lesions, which is an effective strategy for cancer therapy; however, uncoated magnetite possesses an innate toxicity which can lead to drawbacks in the clinical setting. To reduce innate toxicity, a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating on the nanoparticles was investigated in order to determine the alterations to stability and the degree of toxicity in an attempt to create a higher utility vector. It was found that the PAA coating significantly reduced the innate toxicity of the uncoated magnetite. Furthermore, the efficacy of PAA-coated magnetite nanoparticles (PAA-Fe3O4) was investigated for treating MDA-MB-231 (human mammary gland adenocarcinoma) cultures in viable concentration ranges (0.1-0.5mg/ml). An appropriate PAA-Fe3O4 concentration range was then established for inducing significant cell death by hyperthermic ablation, but not through innate toxicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.msec.2014.09.043

    View details for Web of Science ID 000347757100012

    View details for PubMedID 25491964

  • Carbonate orientational order and superlattice structure in vaterite JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH Wang, J., Zhang, F., Zhang, J., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U., Cai, Z. 2014; 407: 78-86
  • Incorporation of uranium in pyrochlore oxides and pressure-induced phase transitions JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Zhang, F. X., Lang, M., Tracy, C., Ewing, R. C., Gregg, D. J., Lumpkin, G. R. 2014; 219: 49-54
  • Thermodynamics of thorium substitution in yttrium iron garnet: comparison of experimental and theoretical results JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A Guo, X., Rak, Z., Tavakoli, A. H., Becker, U., Ewing, R. C., Navrotsky, A. 2014; 2 (40): 16945-16954

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c4ta03683b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343072300019

  • Swift heavy ion track formation in Gd2Zr2-xTixO7 pyrochlore: Effect of electronic energy loss NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Lang, M., Toulemonde, M., Zhang, J., Zhang, F., Tracy, C. L., Lian, J., Wang, Z., Weber, W. J., Severin, D., Bender, M., Trautmann, C., Ewing, R. C. 2014; 336: 102-115
  • Effect of spatial confinement on magnetic hyperthermia via dipolar interactions in Fe3O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications Sadat, M. E., Patel, R., Sookoor, J., Bud'ko, S. L., Ewing, R. C., Zhang, J., Xu, H., Wang, Y., Pauletti, G. M., Mast, D. B., Shi, D. 2014; 42: 52-63

    Abstract

    In this work, the effect of nanoparticle confinement on the magnetic relaxation of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NP) was investigated by measuring the hyperthermia heating behavior in high frequency alternating magnetic field. Three different Fe3O4 nanoparticle systems having distinct nanoparticle configurations were studied in terms of magnetic hyperthermia heating rate and DC magnetization. All magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) systems were constructed using equivalent ~10nm diameter NP that were structured differently in terms of configuration, physical confinement, and interparticle spacing. The spatial confinement was achieved by embedding the Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the matrices of the polystyrene spheres of 100nm, while the unconfined was the free Fe3O4 nanoparticles well-dispersed in the liquid via PAA surface coating. Assuming the identical core MNPs in each system, the heating behavior was analyzed in terms of particle freedom (or confinement), interparticle spacing, and magnetic coupling (or dipole-dipole interaction). DC magnetization data were correlated to the heating behavior with different material properties. Analysis of DC magnetization measurements showed deviation from classical Langevin behavior near saturation due to dipole interaction modification of the MNPs resulting in a high magnetic anisotropy. It was found that the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of the unconfined nanoparticle systems were significantly higher than those of confined (the MNPs embedded in the polystyrene matrix). This increase of SAR was found to be attributable to high Néel relaxation rate and hysteresis loss of the unconfined MNPs. It was also found that the dipole-dipole interactions can significantly reduce the global magnetic response of the MNPs and thereby decrease the SAR of the nanoparticle systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.msec.2014.04.064

    View details for PubMedID 25063092

  • Photoluminescence and photothermal effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles for medical imaging and therapy APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Sadat, M. E., Baghbador, M. K., Dunn, A. W., Wagner, H. P., Ewing, R. C., Zhang, J., Xu, H., Pauletti, G. M., Mast, D. B., Shi, D. 2014; 105 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4895133

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342749800017

  • The coupled geochemistry of Au and As in pyrite from hydrothermal ore deposits GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Deditius, A. P., Reich, M., Kesler, S. E., Utsunomiya, S., Chryssoulis, S. L., Walshe, J., Ewing, R. C. 2014; 140: 644-670
  • Dipole-interaction mediated hyperthermia heating mechanism of nanostructured Fe3O4 composites MATERIALS LETTERS Sadat, M. E., Patel, R., Bud'ko, S. L., Ewing, R. C., Zhang, J., Xue, H., Mast, D. B., Shi, D. 2014; 129: 57-60
  • Bulk Iodoapatite Ceramic Densified by Spark Plasma Sintering with Exceptional Thermal Stability JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY Yao, T., Lu, F., Sun, H., Wang, J., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2014; 97 (8): 2409-2412

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jace.13101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340529200017

  • Effect of orientation on ion track formation in apatite and zircon AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Li, W., Kluth, P., Schauries, D., Rodriguez, M. D., Lang, M., Zhang, F., Zdorovets, M., Trautmann, C., Ewing, R. C. 2014; 99 (5-6): 1127-1132
  • Presentation of the Distinguished Public Service Award for 2013 of the Mineralogical Society of America to Pierrette Tremblay AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Ewing, R. C. 2014; 99 (5-6): 1185-1185
  • The shape of ion tracks in natural apatite NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Schauries, D., Afra, B., Bierschenk, T., Lang, M., Rodriguez, M. D., Trautmann, C., Li, W., Ewing, R. C., Kluth, P. 2014; 326: 117-120
  • Swift heavy ion-induced phase transformation in Gd2O3 NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Lang, M., Zhang, F., Zhang, J., Tracy, C. L., Cusick, A. B., VonEhr, J., Chen, Z., Trautmann, C., Ewing, R. C. 2014; 326: 121-125
  • High-pressure U3O8 with the fluorite-type structure JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Zhang, F. X., Lang, M., Wang, J. W., Li, W. X., Sun, K., Prakapenka, V., Ewing, R. C. 2014; 213: 110-115
  • Defect accumulation in ThO2 irradiated with swift heavy ions NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Tracy, C. L., Pray, J. M., Lang, M., Popov, D., Park, C., Trautmann, C., Ewing, R. C. 2014; 326: 169-173
  • SAXS and TEM investigation of ion tracks in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Rodriguez, M. D., Li, W. X., Chen, F., Trautmann, C., Bierschenk, T., Afra, B., Schauries, D., Ewing, R. C., Mudie, S. T., Kluth, P. 2014; 326: 150-153
  • Annealing behaviour of ion tracks in olivine, apatite and britholite NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Afra, B., Lang, M., Bierschenk, T., Rodriguez, M. D., Weber, W. J., Trautmann, C., Ewing, R. C., Kirby, N., Kluth, P. 2014; 326: 126-130
  • Swift heavy ion irradiation-induced amorphization of La2Ti2O7 NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Park, S., Lang, M., Tracy, C. L., Zhang, J., Zhang, F., Trautmann, C., Kluth, P., Rodriguez, M. D., Ewing, R. C. 2014; 326: 145-149
  • Average structure and local configuration of excess oxygen in UO2+x SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Wang, J., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2014; 4

    Abstract

    Determination of the local configuration of interacting defects in a crystalline, periodic solid is problematic because defects typically do not have a long-range periodicity. Uranium dioxide, the primary fuel for fission reactors, exists in hyperstoichiometric form, UO(2+x). Those excess oxygen atoms occur as interstitial defects, and these defects are not random but rather partially ordered. The widely-accepted model to date, the Willis cluster based on neutron diffraction, cannot be reconciled with the first-principles molecular dynamics simulations present here. We demonstrate that the Willis cluster is a fair representation of the numerical ratio of different interstitial O atoms; however, the model does not represent the actual local configuration. The simulations show that the average structure of UO(2+x) involves a combination of defect structures including split di-interstitial, di-interstitial, mono-interstitial, and the Willis cluster, and the latter is a transition state that provides for the fast diffusion of the defect cluster. The results provide new insights in differentiating the average structure from the local configuration of defects in a solid and the transport properties of UO(2+x).

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep04216

    View details for Web of Science ID 000333017000001

    View details for PubMedID 24642875

  • Three New Silver Uranyl Diphosphonates: Structures and Properties INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Nelson, A. D., Rak, Z., Abrecht-Schmitt, T. E., Becker, U., Ewing, R. C. 2014; 53 (6): 2787-2796

    Abstract

    The hydrothermal reaction of uranium trioxide and methylenediphosphonic acid in the presence of silver nitrate resulted in the formation of three new uranyl coordination polymers: AgUO2[CH2(PO3)(PO3H)] (Ag-1), [Ag2(H2O)1.5]{(UO2)2[CH2(PO3)2]F2}·(H2O)0.5 (Ag-2), and Ag2UO2[CH2(PO3)2] (Ag-3). All consist of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that form two-dimensional layered structures. Ag-1 and Ag-3 possess the same structural building unit, but the structures are different; Ag-3 is formed through edge-sharing of F atoms to form UO5F2 dimers. The pH and silver cation have significant effects on the structure that is synthesized. Raman spectra of single crystals of Ag-1, Ag-2, and Ag-3 reveal v1 UO2(2+) symmetric stretches of 816 and 829, 822, and 802 cm(-1), respectively. Electronic structure calculations were performed using the projector augmented wave (PAW) method with density functional theory (DFT) to gain insight into the nature of bonding and electronic characteristics of the synthesized compounds. Herein, we report the syntheses, crystal structures, Raman spectroscopy, and luminescent behavior of these three compounds.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ic401897n

    View details for Web of Science ID 000333142800008

    View details for PubMedID 24524249

  • Molten salts activated by high-energy milling: A useful, low-temperature route for the synthesis of multiferroic compounds JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS Hernandez-Ramirez, A., Martinez-Luevanos, A., Fuentes, A. F., Nelson, A. D., Ewing, R. C., Montemayor, S. M. 2014; 584: 93-100
  • Nano-porosity in GaSb induced by swift heavy ion irradiation APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Kluth, P., Sullivan, J., Li, W., Weed, R., Schnohr, C. S., Giulian, R., Araujo, L. L., Lei, W., Rodriguez, M. D., Afra, B., Bierschenk, T., Ewing, R. C., Ridgway, M. C. 2014; 104 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4861747

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330431000093

  • Facile low temperature solid state synthesis of iodoapatite by high-energy ball milling RSC ADVANCES Lu, F., Yao, T., Xu, J., Wang, J., Scott, S., Dong, Z., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2014; 4 (73): 38718-38725

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c4ra05320f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000341776900031

  • Electronic structure and thermodynamic stability of uranium-doped yttrium iron garnet JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Rak, Z., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2013; 25 (49)

    Abstract

    The electronic and thermodynamic properties of yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12, YIG), as a possible uranium-bearing phase, have been investigated using first-principles and semi-empirical methods. The electronic structures of pure and U-doped YIG were calculated and compared in order to obtain a fundamental understanding of the incorporation mechanism and stability of U in a YIG matrix. Uranium at the A-site is in 4 +  oxidation state, acting as a single donor and introducing a localized defect state in the band gap. The ionic relaxations show U at the A-site is an off-center impurity. At the B-site, uranium is in 5 +  oxidation state giving rise to two localized defect states in the middle of the band gap. At thermodynamic equilibrium the incorporation of U is limited by (i) the relatively narrow stability domain of the host YIG and (ii) the precipitation of uranium oxides as secondary phases. Under Y-rich growth conditions, YIG is unstable with respect to competing phases such as the iron oxides, Y2O3 and YFeO3. Under O-rich conditions, the incorporation U is obstructed by the formation of uranium-oxide precipitates. Under Fe-rich growth conditions, the formation energies of UY (U at the A-site) and UFe (U at the B-site) become negative for 0 ≤ EF ≤ 0.62 eV and 0 ≤ EF ≤ 0.77 eV, respectively, indicating that U might be incorporated in p-type YIG.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0953-8984/25/49/495502

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327181400007

    View details for PubMedID 24184778

  • Temperature dependence of ion track formation in quartz and apatite JOURNAL OF APPLIED CRYSTALLOGRAPHY Schauries, D., Lang, M., Pakarinen, O. H., Botis, S., Afra, B., Rodriguez, M. D., Djurabekova, F., Nordlund, K., Severin, D., Bender, M., Li, W. X., Trautmann, C., Ewing, R. C., Kirby, N., Kluth, P. 2013; 46: 1558-1563
  • A self-consistent model describing the thermodynamics of Eu(III) adsorption onto hematite GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Estes, S. L., Arai, Y., Becker, U., Fernando, S., Yuan, K., Ewing, R. C., Zhang, J., Shibata, T., Powell, B. A. 2013; 122: 430-447
  • Structure and properties of rare earth silicates with the apatite structure at high pressure PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF MINERALS Zhang, F. X., Xiao, H. Y., Lang, M., ZHANG, J. M., Zhang, Y., Weber, W. J., Ewing, R. C. 2013; 40 (10): 817-825
  • The energetics and kinetics of uranyl reduction on pyrite, hematite, and magnetite surfaces: A powder microelectrode study GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Renock, D., Mueller, M., Yuan, K., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2013; 118: 56-71
  • Sb2Se3 under pressure SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Efthimiopoulos, I., Zhang, J., Kucway, M., Park, C., Ewing, R. C., Wang, Y. 2013; 3

    Abstract

    Selected members of the A₂B₃ (A = Sb, Bi; B = Se, Te) family are topological insulators. The Sb₂Se₃ compound does not exhibit any topological properties at ambient conditions; a recent high-pressure study, however, indicated that pressure transforms Sb₂Se₃ from a band insulator into a topological insulator above ~2 GPa; in addition, three structural transitions were proposed to occur up to 25 GPa. Partly motivated by these results, we have performed x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy investigations on Sb₂Se₃ under pressure up to 65 GPa. We have identified only one reversible structural transition: the initial Pnma structure transforms into a disordered cubic bcc alloy above 51 GPa. On the other hand, our high-pressure Raman study did not reproduce the previous results; we attribute the discrepancies to the effects of the different pressure transmitting media used in the high-pressure experiments. We discuss the structural behavior of Sb₂Se₃ within the A₂B₃ (A = Sb, Bi; B = Se, Te) series.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep02665

    View details for Web of Science ID 000324536400001

    View details for PubMedID 24045363

  • The CRAPome: a contaminant repository for affinity purification-mass spectrometry data NATURE METHODS Mellacheruvu, D., Wright, Z., Couzens, A. L., Lambert, J., St-Denis, N. A., Li, T., Miteva, Y. V., Hauri, S., Sardiu, M. E., Low, T. Y., Halim, V. A., Bagshaw, R. D., Hubner, N. C., Al-Hakim, A., Bouchard, A., Faubert, D., Fermin, D., Dunham, W. H., Goudreault, M., Lin, Z., Badillo, B. G., Pawson, T., Durocher, D., Coulombe, B., Aebersold, R., Superti-Furga, G., Colinge, J., Heck, A. J., Choi, H., Gstaiger, M., Mohammed, S., Cristea, I. M., Bennett, K. L., Washburn, M. P., Raught, B., Ewing, R. M., Gingras, A., Nesvizhskii, A. I. 2013; 10 (8): 730-?

    Abstract

    Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is a widely used approach for the identification of protein-protein interactions. However, for any given protein of interest, determining which of the identified polypeptides represent bona fide interactors versus those that are background contaminants (for example, proteins that interact with the solid-phase support, affinity reagent or epitope tag) is a challenging task. The standard approach is to identify nonspecific interactions using one or more negative-control purifications, but many small-scale AP-MS studies do not capture a complete, accurate background protein set when available controls are limited. Fortunately, negative controls are largely bait independent. Hence, aggregating negative controls from multiple AP-MS studies can increase coverage and improve the characterization of background associated with a given experimental protocol. Here we present the contaminant repository for affinity purification (the CRAPome) and describe its use for scoring protein-protein interactions. The repository (currently available for Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and computational tools are freely accessible at http://www.crapome.org/.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nmeth.2557

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322453600019

    View details for PubMedID 23921808

  • Electronic structure and stability of hyperstoichiometric UO2+x under pressure PHYSICAL REVIEW B Wang, J., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2013; 88 (2)
  • Dual Surface-Functionalized Janus Nanocomposites of Polystyrene/Fe3O4@SiO2 for Simultaneous Tumor Cell Targeting and Stimulus-Induced Drug Release ADVANCED MATERIALS Wang, F., Pauletti, G. M., Wang, J., Zhang, J., Ewing, R. C., Wang, Y., Shi, D. 2013; 25 (25): 3485-3489
  • Ion-irradiation-induced structural transitions in orthorhombic Ln(2)TiO(5) ACTA MATERIALIA Zhang, J., Zhang, F., Lang, M., Lu, F., Lian, J., Ewing, R. C. 2013; 61 (11): 4191-4199
  • Ferric garnet matrices for immobilization of actinides JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Rak, Z., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2013; 436 (1-3): 1-7
  • Size dependence of radiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization of synthetic nanostructured CePO4 monazite ACTA MATERIALIA Lu, F., Shen, Y., Sun, X., Dong, Z., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2013; 61 (8): 2984-2992
  • Effect of doping on the radiation response of conductive Nb-SrTiO3 NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Li, W., Rodriguez, M. D., Kluth, P., Lang, M., Medvedev, N., Sorokin, M., Zhang, J., Afra, B., Bender, M., Severin, D., Trautmann, C., Ewing, R. C. 2013; 302: 40-47
  • Multi-scale simulation of structural heterogeneity of swift-heavy ion tracks in complex oxides JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Wang, J., Lang, M., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2013; 25 (13)
  • Hydrogen incorporation in crystalline zircon: Insight from ab initio calculations AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Botis, S. M., Pan, Y., Ewing, R. C. 2013; 98 (4): 745-751
  • Np-incorporation into uranyl phases: A quantum-mechanical evaluation JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Shuller, L. C., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2013; 434 (1-3): 440-450
  • Charge distribution and oxygen diffusion in hyperstoichiometric uranium dioxide UO2+x (x <= 0.25) JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Skomurski, F. N., Wang, J. W., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2013; 434 (1-3): 422-433
  • A Versatile Multicomponent Assembly via -cyclodextrin HostGuest Chemistry on Graphene for Biomedical Applications SMALL Dong, H., Li, Y., Yu, J., Song, Y., Cai, X., Liu, J., Zhang, J., Ewing, R. C., Shi, D. 2013; 9 (3): 446-456

    Abstract

    A multi-component nanosystem based on graphene and comprising individual cyclodextrins at its surface is assembled, creating hybrid structures enabling new and important functionalities: optical imaging, drug storage, and cell targeting for medical diagnosis and treatment. These nanohybrids are part of a universal system of interchangeable units, capable of mutilple functionalities. The surface components, made of individual β-cyclodextrin molecules, are the "hosts" for functional units, which may be used as imaging agents, for anti-cancer drug delivery, and as tumor-specific ligands. Specifically, individual β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), with a known capability to host various molecules, is considered a module unit that is assembled onto graphene nanosheet (GNS). The cyclodextrin-functionalized graphene nanosheet (GNS/β-CD) enables "host-guest" chemistry between the nanohybrid and functional "payloads". The structure, composition, and morphology of the graphene nanosheet hybrid have been investigated. The nanohybrid, GNS/β-CD, is highly dispersive in various physiological solutions, reflecting the high biostability of cyclodextrin. Regarding the host capability, the nanohybrid is fully capable of selectively accommodating various biological and functional agents in a controlled fashion, including the antivirus drug amantadine, fluorescent dye [5(6)-carboxyfluorescein], and Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide-targeting ligands assisted by an adamantine linker. The loading ratio of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein is as high as 110% with a drug concentration of 0.45 mg mL(-1). The cyclic RGD-functionalized nanohybrid exhibits remarkable targeting for HeLa cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/smll.201201003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314547200016

    View details for PubMedID 23047287

  • Hydroxylation-induced surface stability of AnO(2) (An = U, Np, Pu) from first-principles SURFACE SCIENCE Rak, Z., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2013; 608: 180-187
  • Uranium diphosphonates templated by interlayer organic amines JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Nelson, A. D., Alekseev, E. V., Albrecht-Schmitt, T. E., Ewing, R. C. 2013; 198: 270-278
  • Multilayered YSZ/GZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS Li, B., Zhang, J., Kaspar, T., Shutthanandan, V., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2013; 15 (4): 1296-1301

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c2cp42964k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312462400029

  • Atomistic calculations of the thermodynamic properties of mixing for tetravalent metal dioxide solid solutions: (Zr, Th, Ce)O-2 JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Shuller-Nickles, L. C., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2013; 197: 550-559
  • Tailoring the radiation tolerance of vanadate-phosphate fluorapatites by chemical composition control RSC ADVANCES Lu, F., Dong, Z., Zhang, J., White, T., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2013; 3 (35): 15178-15184

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3ra42246a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323132100040

  • He diffusion and closure temperatures in apatite and zircon: A density functional theory investigation (vol 86, pg 228, 2012) GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Bengtson, A., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2012; 98: 202-202
  • Enhanced Energy Metabolism Contributes to the Extended Life Span of Calorie-restricted Caenorhabditis elegans JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Yuan, Y., Kadiyala, C. S., Ching, T., Hakimi, P., Saha, S., Xu, H., Yuan, C., Mullangi, V., Wang, L., Fivenson, E., Hanson, R. W., Ewing, R., Hsu, A., Miyagi, M., Feng, Z. 2012; 287 (37): 31414-31426

    Abstract

    Caloric restriction (CR) markedly extends life span and improves the health of a broad number of species. Energy metabolism fundamentally contributes to the beneficial effects of CR, but the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for this effect remain enigmatic. A multidisciplinary approach that involves quantitative proteomics, immunochemistry, metabolic quantification, and life span analysis was used to determine how CR, which occurs in the Caenorhabditis elegans eat-2 mutants, modifies energy metabolism of the worm, and whether the observed modifications contribute to the CR-mediated physiological responses. A switch to fatty acid metabolism as an energy source and an enhanced rate of energy metabolism by eat-2 mutant nematodes were detected. Life span analyses validated the important role of these previously unknown alterations of energy metabolism in the CR-mediated longevity of nematodes. As observed in mice, the overexpression of the gene for the nematode analog of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase caused a marked extension of the life span in C. elegans, presumably by enhancing energy metabolism via an altered rate of cataplerosis of tricarboxylic acid cycle anions. We conclude that an increase, not a decrease in fuel consumption, via an accelerated oxidation of fuels in the TCA cycle is involved in life span regulation; this mechanism may be conserved across phylogeny.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M112.377275

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308791300052

    View details for PubMedID 22810224

  • Swift heavy ion irradiation of diamond powder NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Zhang, F., Lang, M., Zhang, J., Ewing, R. C. 2012; 286: 262-265
  • Swift heavy ion-induced amorphization of CaZrO3 perovskite NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Lang, M., Zhang, F., Li, W., Severin, D., Bender, M., Klaumuenzer, S., Trautmann, C., Ewing, R. C. 2012; 286: 271-276
  • SAXS study of ion tracks in San Carlos olivine and Durango apatite NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Afra, B., Rodriguez, M. D., Lang, M., Ewing, R. C., Kirby, N., Trautmann, C., Kluth, P. 2012; 286: 243-246
  • First principles investigation of structural, electronic, elastic and thermal properties of rare-earth-doped titanate Ln(2)TiO(5) AIP ADVANCES Niu, H., Gou, H., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2012; 2 (3)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4739276

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309388800014

  • ZrSi formation at ZrN/Si interface induced by ballistic and ionizing radiations NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Lu, F., Lang, M., Huang, M., Namavar, F., Trautmann, C., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2012; 286: 266-270
  • Barium uranyl diphosphonates JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Nelson, A. D., Alekseev, E. V., Ewing, R. C., Albrecht-Schmitt, T. E. 2012; 192: 153-160
  • Displacive radiation-induced structural contraction in nanocrystalline ZrN APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Lu, F., Huang, M., Yaqoob, F., Lang, M., Namavar, F., Trautmann, C., Sun, H., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2012; 101 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4738772

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306944700027

  • Lead in zircon at the atomic scale AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Kogawa, M., Watson, E. B., Ewing, R. C., Utsunomiya, S. 2012; 97 (7): 1094-1102
  • Phase transition and abnormal compressibility of lanthanide silicate with the apatite structure PHYSICAL REVIEW B Zhang, F. X., Lang, M., ZHANG, J. M., Cheng, Z. Q., Liu, Z. X., Lian, J., Ewing, R. C. 2012; 85 (21)
  • Human Biomarker Discovery and Predictive Models for Disease Progression for Idiopathic Pneumonia Syndrome Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation MOLECULAR & CELLULAR PROTEOMICS Schlatzer, D. M., Dazard, J., Ewing, R. M., Ilchenko, S., Tomcheko, S. E., Eid, S., Ho, V., Yanik, G., Chance, M. R., Cooke, K. R. 2012; 11 (6)

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the only curative therapy for many malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a frequently fatal complication that limits successful outcomes. Preclinical models suggest that IPS represents an immune mediated attack on the lung involving elements of both the adaptive and the innate immune system. However, the etiology of IPS in humans is less well understood. To explore the disease pathway and uncover potential biomarkers of disease, we performed two separate label-free, proteomics experiments defining the plasma protein profiles of allogeneic SCT patients with IPS. Samples obtained from SCT recipients without complications served as controls. The initial discovery study, intended to explore the disease pathway in humans, identified a set of 81 IPS-associated proteins. These data revealed similarities between the known IPS pathways in mice and the condition in humans, in particular in the acute phase response. In addition, pattern recognition pathways were judged to be significant as a function of development of IPS, and from this pathway we chose the lipopolysaccaharide-binding protein (LBP) protein as a candidate molecular diagnostic for IPS, and verified its increase as a function of disease using an ELISA assay. In a separately designed study, we identified protein-based classifiers that could predict, at day 0 of SCT, patients who: 1) progress to IPS and 2) respond to cytokine neutralization therapy. Using cross-validation strategies, we built highly predictive classifier models of both disease progression and therapeutic response. In sum, data generated in this report confirm previous clinical and experimental findings, provide new insights into the pathophysiology of IPS, identify potential molecular classifiers of the condition, and uncover a set of markers potentially of interest for patient stratification as a basis for individualized therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/mcp.M111.015479

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306408500033

    View details for PubMedID 22337588

  • Fukushima Daiichi: More Than One Year Later ELEMENTS Ewing, R. C., Murakami, T. 2012; 8 (3): 181-182
  • He diffusion and closure temperatures in apatite and zircon: A density functional theory investigation GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Bengtson, A., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2012; 86: 228-238
  • Structural response of A(2)TiO(5) (A = La, Nd, Sm, Gd) to swift heavy ion irradiation ACTA MATERIALIA Tracy, C. L., Lang, M., Zhang, J., Zhang, F., Wang, Z., Ewing, R. C. 2012; 60 (11): 4477-4486
  • Time to bury plutonium NATURE von Hippel, F., Ewing, R., Garwin, R., Macfarlane, A. 2012; 485 (7397): 167-168
  • Effect of interstitial atoms on the stability and electronic structure of Re3Zn alloy: First-principles calculations INTERMETALLICS Gou, H., Li, J., Li, H., Zhang, H., Li, Z., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2012; 24: 95-98
  • Is nuclear fission a sustainable source of energy? MRS BULLETIN Englert, M., Krall, L., Ewing, R. C. 2012; 37 (4): 417-424

    View details for DOI 10.1557/mrs.2012.6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302472500015

  • Formation of nanoscale Th-coffinite AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Deditius, A. P., Pointeau, V., Zhang, J. M., Ewing, R. C. 2012; 97 (4): 681-693
  • Phase composition and radiation stability of matrices for isolation of REE-actinide waste DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES Laverov, N. P., Yudintsev, S. V., Stefanovsky, S. V., Ewing, R. C. 2012; 443 (2): 526-531
  • Unusual rigidity and ideal strength of CrB4 and MnB4 APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Gou, H., Li, Z., Niu, H., Gao, F., Zhang, J., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2012; 100 (11)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3692777

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302204900030

  • Nuclear Fuel in a Reactor Accident SCIENCE Burns, P. C., Ewing, R. C., Navrotsky, A. 2012; 335 (6073): 1184-1188

    Abstract

    Nuclear accidents that lead to melting of a reactor core create heterogeneous materials containing hundreds of radionuclides, many with short half-lives. The long-lived fission products and transuranium elements within damaged fuel remain a concern for millennia. Currently, accurate fundamental models for the prediction of release rates of radionuclides from fuel, especially in contact with water, after an accident remain limited. Relatively little is known about fuel corrosion and radionuclide release under the extreme chemical, radiation, and thermal conditions during and subsequent to a nuclear accident. We review the current understanding of nuclear fuel interactions with the environment, including studies over the relatively narrow range of geochemical, hydrological, and radiation environments relevant to geological repository performance, and discuss priorities for research needed to develop future predictive models.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1211285

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301225100034

    View details for PubMedID 22403382

  • Thermal annealing of unetched fission tracks in apatite EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS Li, W., Lang, M., Gleadow, A. J., Zdorovets, M. V., Ewing, R. C. 2012; 321: 121-127
  • Origin of the rigidity in tetragonal MB (M = Cr, Mo and W) and softening of defective WB: First-principles investigations COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE Gou, H., Li, Z., Zhang, J., Niu, H., Gao, F., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2012; 53 (1): 460-463
  • Controlling the Structure and Size of Au Nanocrystals by Annealing and Ion Sputtering LANGMUIR Li, W., Chen, Y., Zhang, J., Wang, L., Ewing, R. C. 2012; 28 (1): 51-55

    Abstract

    In situ thermal annealing was used for the first time to observe directly that Au nanoparticles, which were originally fully embedded in the near-surface region of TiO(2), can be tailored into hemispheres exposed at the surface at elevated temperature. Precise control of the size of the Au hemispheres was achieved by subsequent low-energy ion sputtering. This method can be used to control the structure and size of a wide variety of nanoparticles in a matrix where surface structure and particle size are required to obtain specific material properties.

    View details for DOI 10.1012/la204016v

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298904900011

    View details for PubMedID 22142251

  • In situ AFM and XPS Investigation of U6+ Reduction by Fe2+ on Hematite and Pyrite ACTINIDES AND NUCLEAR ENERGY MATERIALS Niu, J., Becker, U., Ewing, R. 2012; 1444: 243-248
  • Amorphization of nanocrystalline monoclinic ZrO2 by swift heavy ion irradiation PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS Lu, F., Wang, J., Lang, M., Toulemonde, M., Namavar, F., Trautmann, C., Zhang, J., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2012; 14 (35): 12295-12300

    Abstract

    Bulk ZrO(2) polymorphs generally have an extremely high amorphization tolerance upon low energy ion and swift heavy ion irradiation in which ballistic interaction and ionization radiation dominate the ion-solid interaction, respectively. However, under very high-energy irradiation by 1.33 GeV U-238, nanocrystalline (40-50 nm) monoclinic ZrO(2) can be amorphized. A computational simulation based on a thermal spike model reveals that the strong ionizing radiation from swift heavy ions with a very high electronic energy loss of 52.2 keV nm(-1) can induce transient zones with temperatures well above the ZrO(2) melting point. The extreme electronic energy loss, coupled with the high energy state of the nanostructured materials and a high thermal confinement due to the less effective heat transport within the transient hot zone, may eventually be responsible for the ionizing radiation-induced amorphization without transforming to the tetragonal polymorph. The amorphization of nanocrystalline zirconia was also confirmed by 1.69 GeV Au ion irradiation with the electronic energy loss of 40 keV nm(-1). These results suggest that highly radiation tolerant materials in bulk forms, such as ZrO(2), may be radiation sensitive with the reduced length scale down to the nano-metered regime upon irradiation above a threshold value of electronic energy loss.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c2cp41553d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307648700031

    View details for PubMedID 22858872

  • Nanosized Rutile (TiO2) Thin Film upon Ion Irradiation and Thermal Annealing JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Zhang, J., Lian, J., Namavar, F., Wang, J., Haider, H., Garvin, K., Ewing, R. C. 2011; 115 (46): 22755-22760

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp2056283

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297001000009

  • Electronic structure and energetics of tetragonal SrCuO2 and its high-pressure superstructure phase JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Wang, J., Rak, Z., Zhang, F., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2011; 23 (46)

    Abstract

    First-principles calculations have been used to investigate the electronic structure and energetics of the simple tetragonal SrCuO₂ (P4=mmm) and its high-pressure tetragonal superstructure (P4=mmm). Based on the calculations, the high-pressure phase is metastable as compared with the low pressure tetragonal phase, with an energy difference of 0.13 eV per SrCuO₂ formula unit. The energy barrier to the transition from the superstructure to the simple tetragonal structure is 0.24 eV at 7 GPa; thus, high temperatures are required to synthesize the latter. Among the possible structural configurations resulting from the partially occupied oxygen site in the superstructure phase, the most stable structure has a space group PN4m2, reduced from that of the simple tetragonal structure P4=mmm. The detailed analysis of the electronic band structures of the simple tetragonal and superstructure phases suggests that the out-of-plane buckling of the O atoms in the superstructure leads to significant decrease in the O p-Cu d orbital overlap, allowing the energy of the system to be lowered, which is necessary for the structural stability. An understanding of the electronic structure and energetics of the high-pressure superstructure phase and its relation to the simple tetragonal phase provides a basis for exploring the physical properties of the infinite layer, high-TC superconductor.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0953-8984/23/46/465503

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296795400013

    View details for PubMedID 22056857

  • Phase stability of some actinides with brannerite structure at high pressures JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Zhang, F. X., Lang, M., Liu, Z., Ewing, R. C. 2011; 184 (11): 2834-2839
  • Trace metal nanoparticles in pyrite ORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS Deditius, A. P., Utsunomiya, S., Reich, M., Kesler, S. E., Ewing, R. C., Hough, R., Walshe, J. 2011; 42 (1): 32-46
  • Role of iron in the incorporation of uranium in ferric garnet matrices PHYSICAL REVIEW B Rak, Z., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2011; 84 (15)
  • Structural changes of (K,Gd)(2)Ta2O7 pyrochlore at high pressure JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Zhang, F. X., Lang, M., ZHANG, J. M., Ewing, R. C., Nyman, M. 2011; 184 (9): 2329-2332
  • Actinides and radiation effects: impact on the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE Ewing, R. C. 2011; 75 (4): 2359-2377
  • Thermodynamic properties of ThxU1-xO2 (0 < x < 1) based on quantum-mechanical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Shuller, L. C., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2011; 412 (1): 13-21
  • First-principles investigation of Ca-3(Ti, Zr, Hf, Sn)(2)Fe2SiO12 garnet structure for incorporation of actinides PHYSICAL REVIEW B Rak, Z., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2011; 83 (15)
  • Phase Transformation of Nanosized ZrO2 upon Thermal Annealing and Intense Radiation JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Lu, F., Zhang, J., Huang, M., Namavar, F., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2011; 115 (15): 7193-7201

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp109558s

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289403200006

  • Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Temperature on Uranyl Silicates: Soddyite (UO2)(2)(SiO4)(H2O)(2) and Uranophane Ca(UO2)(2)(SiO3OH)(2)center dot 5H(2)O ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Sureda, R., Casas, I., Gimenez, J., de Pablo, J., Quinones, J., Zhang, J., Ewing, R. C. 2011; 45 (6): 2510-2515

    Abstract

    The stability of soddyite under electron irradiation has been studied over the temperature range of 25-300 °C. At room temperature, soddyite undergoes a crystalline-to-amorphous transformation (amorphization) at a total dose of 6.38 × 10(8) Gy. The electron beam irradiation results suggest that the soddyite structure is susceptible to radiation-induced nanocrystallization of UO(2). The temperature dependence of amorphization dose increases linearly up to 300 °C. A thermogravimetric and calorimetric analysis (TGA-DSC) combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates that soddyite retains its water groups up to 400 °C, followed by the collapse of the structure. Based on thermal analysis of uranophane, the removal of some water groups at relatively low temperatures provokes the collapse of the uranophane structure. This structural change appears to be the reason for the increase of amorphization dose at 140 °C. According to the results obtained, radiation field of a nuclear waste repository, rather than temperature effects, may cause changes in the crystallinity of soddyite and affect its stability during long-term storage.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es1041496

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288146200067

    View details for PubMedID 21319815

  • Annealing kinetics of latent particle tracks in Durango apatite PHYSICAL REVIEW B Afra, B., Lang, M., Rodriguez, M. D., Zhang, J., Giulian, R., Kirby, N., Ewing, R. C., Trautmann, C., Toulemonde, M., Kluth, P. 2011; 83 (6)
  • Energetic stability, structural transition, and thermodynamic properties of ZnSnO3 APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Gou, H., Zhang, J., Li, Z., Wang, G., Gao, F., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2011; 98 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3562013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288026700026

  • Thermal annealing mechanisms of latent fission tracks: Apatite vs. zircon EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS Li, W., Wang, L., Lang, M., Trautmann, C., Ewing, R. C. 2011; 302 (1-2): 227-235
  • Energetics and concentration of defects in Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlore at high pressure ACTA MATERIALIA Wang, J., Zhang, F., Lian, J., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2011; 59 (4): 1607-1618
  • Safe management of actinides in the nuclear fuel cycle: Role of mineralogy COMPTES RENDUS GEOSCIENCE Ewing, R. C. 2011; 343 (2-3): 219-229
  • Role of arsenian pyrite in hydrothermal ore deposits: A history and update GREAT BASIN EVOLUTION AND METALLOGENY, VOLS I AND II Kesler, S. E., Ewing, R. C., Deditius, A., Reich, M. M., Utsunomiya, S., Chryssoulis, S. 2011: 233-245
  • Irradiation of synthetic garnet by heavy ions and alpha-decay of Cm-244 JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Zhang, J., Livshits, T. S., Lizin, A. A., Hu, Q., Ewing, R. C. 2010; 407 (3): 137-142
  • OH species, U ions, and CO/CO2 in thermally annealed metamict zircon (ZrSiO4) AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Zhang, M., Salje, E. K., Ewing, R. C. 2010; 95 (11-12): 1717-1724
  • Pressure-induced structural transformations in lanthanide titanates: La2TiO5 and Nd2TiO5 JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Zhang, F. X., Wang, J. W., Lang, M., ZHANG, J. M., Ewing, R. C. 2010; 183 (11): 2636-2643
  • The Association Between Community Physical Activity Settings and Youth Physical Activity, Obesity, and Body Mass Index JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Slater, S. J., Ewing, R., Powell, L. M., Chaloupka, F. J., Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M. 2010; 47 (5): 496-503

    Abstract

    This study examined the association between the level of physical activity (PA) friendliness of the built environment and adolescent PA and body mass index using a national sample of youth and data collected from the communities where they reside.Data on height, weight, and PA were taken from annual nationally representative cross-sectional Monitoring the Future surveys of 8th and 10th graders in schools, from 2001 through 2003. Measures of safety, outdoor and commercial PA settings, and urban sprawl were constructed using data collected from the communities in which the students reside. Multilevel models were run and controlled for youth and community demographic and socioeconomic characteristics.Increased levels of physical disorder were associated with decreased PA and higher weight. A greater number of commercial PA facilities was associated with increased PA. More compact communities were associated with lower weight and less sports participation.It is important to explore these associations to help guide future development patterns and land use policies to create more active neighborhoods.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.03.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283263100012

    View details for PubMedID 20970085

  • Time-response relationship of nano and micro particle induced lung inflammation. Quartz as reference compound HUMAN & EXPERIMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Roursgaard, M., Poulsen, S. S., Poulsen, L. K., Hammer, M., Jensen, K. A., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Balic-Zunic, T., Nielsen, G. D., Larsen, S. T. 2010; 29 (11): 915-933

    Abstract

    An increasing number of engineered particles, including nanoparticles, are being manufactured, increasing the need for simple low-dose toxicological screening methods. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics of biomarkers related to acute and sub-chronic particle-induced lung inflammation of quartz. Mice were intratracheal instilled with 50 µg of microsized or nanosized quartz. Acute inflammation was assessed 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 48 hours post exposure, whereas sub-chronic inflammation was investigated 3 months after exposure. Markers of acute inflammation in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were neutrophils (PMN), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), keratinocyte derived chemokine (KC) and total protein, which were all close to maximum 16 hours post instillation. No major differences were seen in the time-response profiles of nano- and micro-sized particles. The potency of the two samples cannot be compared; during the milling process, a substantial part of the quartz was converted to amorphous silica and contaminated with corundum. For screening, BALF PMN, either TNF-α or IL-1β at 16 hours post instillation may be useful. At 3 months post instillation, KC, PMN and macrophages were elevated. Histology showed no interstitial inflammation three months post instillation. For screening of sub-chronic effects, KC, PMN, macrophages and histopathology is considered sufficient.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0960327110363329

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283054100003

    View details for PubMedID 20237177

  • Environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle: Fate of actinides MRS BULLETIN Ewing, R. C., Runde, W., Albrecht-Schmitt, T. E. 2010; 35 (11): 859-866
  • Porous fission fragment tracks in fluorapatite PHYSICAL REVIEW B Li, W., Wang, L., Sun, K., Lang, M., Trautmann, C., Ewing, R. C. 2010; 82 (14)
  • Review of A(2)B(2)O(7) pyrochlore response to irradiation and pressure NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Lang, M., Zhang, F., Zhang, J., Wang, J., Lian, J., Weber, W. J., Schuster, B., Trautmann, C., Neumann, R., Ewing, R. C. 2010; 268 (19): 2951-2959
  • Fluorescent, Superparamagnetic Nanospheres for Drug Storage, Targeting, and Imaging: A Multifunctional Nanocarrier System for Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment ACS NANO Cho, H., Dong, Z., Pauletti, G. M., Zhang, J., Xu, H., Gu, H., Wang, L., Ewing, R. C., Huth, C., Wang, F., Shi, D. 2010; 4 (9): 5398-5404

    Abstract

    For early cancer diagnosis and treatment, a nanocarrier system is designed and developed with key components uniquely structured at nanoscale according to medical requirements. For imaging, quantum dots with emissions in the near-infrared range (∼800 nm) are conjugated onto the surface of a nanocomposite consisting of a spherical polystyrene matrix (∼150 nm) and the internally embedded, high fraction of superparamagnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (∼10 nm). For drug storage, the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX) is loaded onto the surfaces of these composite multifunctional nanocarriers by using a layer of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). A cell-based cytotoxicity assay is employed to verify successful loading of pharmacologically active drug. Cell viability of human, metastatic PC3mm2 prostate cancer cells is assessed in the presence and absence of various multifunctional nanocarrier populations using the MTT assay. PTX-loaded composite nanocarriers are synthesized by conjugating anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (anti-PSMA) for targeting. Specific detection studies of anti-PSMA-conjugated nanocarrier binding activity in LNCaP prostate cancer cells are carried out. LNCaP cells are targeted successfully in vitro by the conjugation of anti-PSMA on the nanocarrier surfaces. To further explore targeting, the nanocarriers conjugated with anti-PSMA are intravenously injected into tumor-bearing nude mice. Substantial differences in fluorescent signals are observed ex vivo between tumor regions treated with the targeted nanocarrier system and the nontargeted nanocarrier system, indicating considerable targeting effects due to anti-PSMA functionalization of the nanocarriers.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn101000e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282121000055

    View details for PubMedID 20707381

  • Quantum-mechanical evaluation of Np-incorporation into studtite AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Shuller, L. C., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2010; 95 (8-9): 1151-1160
  • Amorphization of rare earth aluminate garnets under ion irradiation and decay of Cm-244 admixture GEOLOGY OF ORE DEPOSITS Livshits, T. S., Lizin, A. A., ZHANG, J. M., Ewing, R. C. 2010; 52 (4): 267-278
  • Intrinsic Structural Disorder and Radiation Response of Nanocrystalline Gd-2(Ti0.65Zr0.35)(2)O-7 Pyrochlore JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Zhang, J., Lian, J., Zhang, F., Wang, J., Fuentes, A. F., Ewing, R. C. 2010; 114 (27): 11810-11815

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp103371j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279507900019

  • Nanoscale phase transitions under extreme conditions within an ion track JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Zhang, J., Lang, M., Ewing, R. C., Devanathan, R., Weber, W. J., Toulemonde, M. 2010; 25 (7): 1344-1351
  • Pressure-Induced Disordering and Anomalous Lattice Expansion in La2Zr2O7 Pyrochlore PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Zhang, F. X., Lang, M., Liu, Z., Ewing, R. C. 2010; 105 (1)

    Abstract

    Pressure-induced cation and anion disordering in La2Zr2O7 pyrochlore is quantitatively analyzed by Rietveld refinement of in situ x-ray diffraction patterns, Raman, and infrared measurements. An anomalous lattice expansion and obvious change of the pressure dependence of the vibrational modes occur at ∼10  GPa. The pressure-induced water incorporation in the La2Zr2O7 pyrochlore structure may be related to a previously noted photoelectrochemical effect.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.015503

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279392600001

    View details for PubMedID 20867461

  • Trace-metal nanoparticles in pyrite GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Deditius, A. P., Utsunomiya, S., Reich, M., Kesler, S. E., Ewing, R. C., Hough, R. M., Walshe, J. L. 2010; 74 (12): A216-A216
  • The influence of muscovite and orthoclase on the precipitation of CaCO3 polymorphs GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Hu, Q., Zhang, J., Teng, H., Ewing, R., Becker, U. 2010; 74 (12): A424-A424
  • Pb-incorporation into synthetic Pb-doped zircon GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Kogawa, M., Watson, E. B., Ewing, R. C., Utsunomiya, S. 2010; 74 (12): A526-A526
  • Electronic structure of Ti, Zr, Hf and Sn containing garnets - Materials for immobilization of actinides GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Rak, Z., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2010; 74 (12): A845-A845
  • Critical processes in the release and transport of radionuclides in the near-field GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Ewing, R. C. 2010; 74 (12): A274-A274
  • Ab initio calculations of He diffusion in apatite GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Bengtson, A. K., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2010; 74 (12): A77-A77
  • U and Th mineral evolution GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Hazen, R. M., Ewing, R. C., Sverjensky, D. A. 2010; 74 (12): A389-A389
  • Increased stability of nanocrystals of Gd-2(Ti0.65Zr0.35)(2)O-7 pyrochlore at high pressure JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS Zhang, F. X., Lian, J., ZHANG, J. M., Moreno, K. J., Fuentes, A. F., Wang, Z., Ewing, R. C. 2010; 494 (1-2): 34-39
  • Precipitation and alteration of coffinite (USiO4 center dot nH(2)O) in the presence of apatite EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MINERALOGY Deditius, A. P., Utsunomiya, S., Pointeau, V., Ewing, R. C. 2010; 22 (1): 75-88
  • Simulation of thermodynamic mixing properties of actinide-containing zircon solid solutions AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Ferriss, E. D., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2010; 95 (2-3): 229-241
  • Synthetic Minerals with the Pyrochlore and Garnet Structures for Immobilization of Actinide-Containing Wastes GEOCHEMISTRY INTERNATIONAL Laverov, N. P., Yudintsev, S. V., Livshits, T. S., Stefanovsky, S. V., Lukinykh, A. N., Ewing, R. C. 2010; 48 (1): 1-14
  • Zirconate pyrochlores under high pressure PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS Xiao, H. Y., Zhang, F. X., Gao, F., Lang, M., Ewing, R. C., Weber, W. J. 2010; 12 (39): 12472-12477

    Abstract

    Ab initio total-energy calculations and X-ray diffraction measurements have been combined to study the phase stability of zirconate pyrochlores (A(2)Zr(2)O(7); A = La, Nd and Sm) under pressures up to 50 GPa. Phase transformations to the defect-cotunnite structure are theoretically predicted at pressures of 22, 20 and 18 GPa, in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined values of 21, 22 and 18 GPa for La(2)Zr(2)O(7), Nd(2)Zr(2)O(7) and Sm(2)Zr(2)O(7), respectively. Analysis of the elastic properties indicates that elastic anisotropy may be one of the driving forces for the pressure-induced cubic-to-noncubic phase transformation.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c0cp00278j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282643900015

    View details for PubMedID 20721363

  • Political Pressure's Effect on Repository Sites Response SCIENCE Ewing, R. C., von Hippel, F. N. 2009; 326 (5959): 1480-1480
  • ELEMENTS' FIFTH ANNIVERSARY ELEMENTS Ewing, R. C. 2009; 5 (6): 343-343
  • Conjugation of quantum dots and Fe3O4 on carbon nanotubes for medical diagnosis and treatment APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Shi, D., Cho, H. S., Huth, C., Wang, F., Dong, Z., Pauletti, G. M., Lian, J., Wang, W., Liu, G., Bud'ko, S. L., Wang, L., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 95 (22)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3268469

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272627600083

  • High-pressure phase transitions of ScPO4 and YPO4 PHYSICAL REVIEW B Zhang, F. X., Wang, J. W., Lang, M., ZHANG, J. M., Ewing, R. C., Boatner, L. A. 2009; 80 (18)
  • Combined high pressure and heavy-ion irradiation: a novel approach JOURNAL OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION Lang, M., Zhang, F., Lian, J., Trautmann, C., Neumann, R., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 16: 773-777

    Abstract

    Swift heavy-ion irradiations of a wide variety of materials have been used to modify and manipulate the properties of solids at the nanoscale. Recently, these high-energy irradiations have been successfully combined with high-pressure experiments. Based on results obtained for zircon (ZrSiO(4)), this paper introduces this new experimental approach involving diamond anvil cells and large ion-accelerator facilities. This technique provides a wide spectrum of geoscience applications from nanoscale simulations of fission-track formation under crustal conditions to phase transitions of radiation-damaged minerals resulting from meteorite impact.

    View details for DOI 10.1107/S0909049509034384

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271091000013

    View details for PubMedID 19844013

  • Chemical and structural characterization of As immobilization by nanoparticles of mackinawite (FeSm) CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Renock, D., Gallegos, T., Utsunomiya, S., Hayes, K., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2009; 268 (1-2): 116-125
  • Nanoscale manipulation of the properties of solids at high pressure with relativistic heavy ions NATURE MATERIALS Lang, M., Zhang, F., Zhang, J., Wang, J., Schuster, B., Trautmann, C., Neumann, R., Becker, U., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 8 (10): 793-797

    Abstract

    High-pressure and high-temperature phases show unusual physical and chemical properties, but they are often difficult to 'quench' to ambient conditions. Here, we present a new approach, using bombardment with very high-energy, heavy ions accelerated to relativistic velocities, to stabilize a high-pressure phase. In this case, Gd(2)Zr(2)O(7), pressurized in a diamond-anvil cell up to 40 GPa, was irradiated with 20 GeV xenon or 45 GeV uranium ions, and the (previously unquenchable) cubic high-pressure phase was recovered after release of pressure. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a radiation-induced, nanocrystalline texture. Quantum-mechanical calculations confirm that the surface energy at the nanoscale is the cause of the remarkable stabilization of the high-pressure phase. The combined use of high pressure and high-energy ion irradiation provides a new means for manipulating and stabilizing new materials to ambient conditions that otherwise could not be recovered.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT2528

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270075600012

    View details for PubMedID 19734884

  • Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Hazen, R. M., Ewing, R. C., Sverjensky, D. A. 2009; 94 (10): 1293-1311
  • Synthesis and characterization of coffinite JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Pointeau, V., Deditius, A. P., Miserque, F., Renock, D., Becker, U., Zhang, J., Clavier, N., Dacheux, N., Poinssot, C., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 393 (3): 449-458
  • Response of synthetic coffinite to energetic ion beam irradiation JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Lian, J., ZHANG, J. M., Pointeau, V., Zhang, F. X., Lang, M., Lu, F. Y., Poinssot, C., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 393 (3): 481-486
  • High-Pressure Response of Zirconia Nanoparticles with an Alumina Shell JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Zhang, F. X., Lang, M., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J., Wang, Z. W. 2009; 113 (33): 14658-14662

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp904144y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268907500014

  • Decoupled geochemical behavior of As and Cu in hydrothermal systems GEOLOGY Deditius, A. P., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Chryssoulis, S. L., Venter, D., Kesler, S. E. 2009; 37 (8): 707-710

    View details for DOI 10.1130/G25781A.1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268498600009

  • Propagation of ripples on pyrochlore induced by ion beam bombardment PHYSICAL REVIEW B Wei, Q., Lian, J., Boatner, L. A., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 80 (8)
  • Nuclear Waste Management in the United States-Starting Over SCIENCE Ewing, R. C., von Hippel, F. N. 2009; 325 (5937): 151-152

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1174594

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267802000028

    View details for PubMedID 19589986

  • Radiation Response of Nanocrystalline Rutile (TiO2) MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS Zhang, J., Lian, J., Namavar, F., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 15: 1366-1367
  • Effects of electron and ion irradiation on the annealing behavior of fission tracks and the microstructure of fluorapatite MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS Li, W. X., Sun, K., Wei, Q. M., Lang, M., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 15: 1354-1355
  • Radiation Response of Nanostructured Pyrochlore and Zirconia MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS Lian, J., Zhang, J., Fuentes, A. F., Namavar, F., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 15: 1338-1339
  • Structural transitions and electron transfer in coffinite, USiO4, at high pressure AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Zhang, F. X., Pointeau, V., Shuller, L. C., Reaman, D. M., Lang, M., Liu, Z., Hu, J., Panero, W. R., Becker, U., Poinssot, C., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 94 (7): 916-920
  • Ion beam-induced amorphous-to-tetragonal phase transformation and grain growth of nanocrystalline zirconia NANOTECHNOLOGY Lian, J., Zhang, J., Namavar, F., Zhang, Y., Lu, F., Haider, H., Garvin, K., Weber, W. J., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 20 (24)

    Abstract

    Nanocrystalline zirconia has recently attracted extensive research interest due to its unique mechanical, thermal and electrical properties as compared with bulk zirconia counterparts, and it is of particular importance for controlling the phase stability of different polymorphs (amorphous, cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic phases) in different size regimes. In this work, we performed ion beam bombardments on bilayers (amorphous and cubic) of nano-zirconia using 1 MeV Kr2+ irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals that amorphous zirconia transforms to a tetragonal structure under irradiation at room temperature, suggesting that the tetragonal phase is more energetically favorable under these conditions. The final grain size of the tetragonal zirconia can be controlled by irradiation conditions. A slower kinetics in the grain growth from cubic nanocrystalline zirconia was found as compared with that for the tetragonal grains recrystallized from the amorphous layer. The radiation-induced nanograins of tetragonal ZrO2 are stable at ambient conditions and maintain their physical integrity over a long period of time after irradiation. These results demonstrated that ion beam methods provide the means to control the phase stability and structure of zirconia polymorphs.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/20/24/245303

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266436500009

    View details for PubMedID 19468161

  • Enhanced radiation resistance of nanocrystalline pyrochlore Gd-2(Ti0.65Zr0.35)(2)O-7 APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Zhang, J., Lian, J., Fuentes, A. F., Zhang, F., Lang, M., Lu, F., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 94 (24)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3155855

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267166600067

  • Fluorescent Polystyrene-Fe3O4 Composite Nanospheres for In Vivo Imaging and Hyperthermia ADVANCED MATERIALS Shi, D., Cho, H. S., Chen, Y., Xu, H., Gu, H., Lian, J., Wang, W., Liu, G., Huth, C., Wang, L., Ewing, R. C., Budko, S., Pauletti, G. M., Dong, Z. 2009; 21 (21): 2170-?
  • Groundwater nanoparticles in the far-field at the Nevada Test Site GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Ustunomiya, S., Kersting, A. B., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 73 (13): A1362-A1362
  • Single-ion tracks in Gd2Zr2-xTixO7 pyrochlores irradiated with swift heavy ions PHYSICAL REVIEW B Lang, M., Lian, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, F., Weber, W. J., Trautmann, C., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 79 (22)
  • Liquid-like phase formation in Gd2Zr2O7 by extremely ionizing irradiation JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Zhang, J., Lang, M., Lian, J., Liu, J., Trautmann, C., Della-Negra, S., Toulemonde, M., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 105 (11)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3124370

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267053200043

  • MgO-pyrochlore composite as an inert matrix fuel: Neutronic and thermal characteristics JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Imaura, A., Touran, N., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 389 (3): 341-350
  • Response of strontium titanate to ion and electron irradiation JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Zhang, Y., Lian, J., Zhu, Z., Bennett, W. D., Saraf, L. V., Rausch, J. L., Hendricks, C. A., Ewing, R. C., Weber, W. J. 2009; 389 (2): 303-310
  • Crystal chemistry and radiation-induced amorphization of P-coffinite from the natural fission reactor at Bangombe, Gabon AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Deditius, A. P., Utsunomiya, S., Wall, M. A., Pointeau, V., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 94 (5-6): 827-836
  • Pb+ irradiation of synthetic zircon (ZrSiO4): Infrared spectroscopic investigation-Reply AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Zhang, M., Ewing, R. C., Boatner, L. A., Salje, E. K., Weber, W. J., Daniel, P., Zhang, Y., Farnan, I. 2009; 94 (5-6): 856-858
  • Structural modifications of Gd2Zr2-xTixO7 pyrochlore induced by swift heavy ions: Disordering and amorphization JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Lang, M., Zhang, F. X., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J., Trautmann, C., Wang, Z. 2009; 24 (4): 1322-1334
  • Source-to-receptor pathways of anthropogenic PM2.5 in Detroit, Michigan: Comparison of two inhalation exposure studies ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT Morishita, M., Keeler, G. J., McDonald, J. D., Wagner, J. G., Young, L., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Harkema, J. R. 2009; 43 (10): 1805-1813
  • Groundwater Nanoparticles in the Far-Field at the Nevada Test Site: Mechanism for Radionuclide Transport ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Utsunomiya, S., Kersting, A. B., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 43 (5): 1293-1298

    Abstract

    Colloid-like nanoparticles in groundwater have been shown to facilitate migration of several radionuclides: (239,240)Pu, 137Cs, (152,154, 155)Eu, and 60Co. However, the exact type of nanoparticle and the speciation of the associated radionuclides has remained unknown. We have investigated nanoparticles sampled from the far-field at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, utilizing advanced electron microscopytechniques, including high-angle annular dark-field scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM). Fissiogenic elements: Cs, rare earth elements (REE), activation elements: Co; and actinides: U and Th, were detected. Cesium is associated with U-forming cesium uranate with a Cs/U atomic ratio of approximately 0.12. Light REEs and Th are associated with phosphates, silicates, or apatite. Cobalt occurs as a metallic aggregate, associated with Cr, Fe, Ni, and +/-Mo. Uranyl minerals; Na-boltwoodite and oxide hydrates are also present as colloids. Because of these chemical associations with nanoscale particles, in the size range <100 nm, these particles may facilitate transport, and a variety of trace nanoscale phases may be responsible for the migration of fissiogenic and actinide elements in groundwater. To accurately model the transport of these contaminants, predictive transport models should include consideration of nanoparticle-facilitated transport.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es802181t

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263758600013

    View details for PubMedID 19350893

  • In Situ TEM of Radiation Effects in Complex Ceramics MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Sun, K., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 72 (3): 165-181

    Abstract

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been extensively applied to study radiation effects in a wide variety of materials, such as metals, ceramics and semiconductors and is an indispensable tool in obtaining a fundamental understanding of energetic beam-matter interactions, damage events, and materials' behavior under intense radiation environments. In this article, in situ TEM observations of radiation effects in complex ceramics (e.g., oxides, silicates, and phosphates) subjected to energetic ion and electron irradiations have been summarized with a focus on irradiation-induced microstructural evolution, changes in microchemistry, and the formation of nanostructures. New results for in situ TEM observation of radiation effects in pyrochlore, A(2)B(2)O(7), and zircon, ZrSiO(4), subjected to multiple beam irradiations are presented, and the effects of simultaneous irradiations of alpha-decay and beta-decay on the microstructural evolution of potential nuclear waste forms are discussed. Furthermore, in situ TEM results of radiation effects in a sodium borosilicate glass subjected to electron-beam exposure are introduced to highlight the important applications of advanced analytical TEM techniques, including Z-contrast imaging, energy filtered TEM (EFTEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), in studying radiation effects in materials microstructural evolution and microchemical changes. By combining ex situ TEM and advanced analytical TEM techniques with in situ TEM observations under energetic beam irradiations, one can obtain invaluable information on the phase stability and response behaviors of materials under a wide range of irradiation conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jemt.20669

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264238500006

    View details for PubMedID 19130508

  • UO2 corrosion in an iron waste package JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Ferriss, E. D., Helean, K. B., Bryan, C. R., Brady, P. V., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 384 (2): 130-139
  • Surface charge induced Stark effect on luminescence of quantum dots conjugated on functionalized carbon nanotubes CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS Wang, W., Liu, G. K., Cho, H. S., Guo, Y., Shi, D., Lian, J., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 469 (1-3): 149-152
  • Stability of uranium (VI) peroxide hydrates under ionizing radiation AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Rey, A., Utsunomiya, S., Gimenez, J., Casas, I., De Pablo, J., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 94 (2-3): 229-235
  • Nanoscale "liquid" inclusions of As-Fe-S in arsenian pyrite AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Deditius, A. P., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Kesler, S. E. 2009; 94 (2-3): 391-394
  • LOST IN TRANSLATION ELEMENTS Ewing, R. 2009; 5 (1): 5-6
  • Thermodynamic Properties of Actinide-Oxide Solid-Solutions MATERIALS FOR FUTURE FUSION AND FISSION TECHNOLOGIES Shuller, L. C., Pavenayotin, N., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2009; 1125: 95-100
  • UO2 Corrosion in an Iron Waste Package SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXXII Ferriss, E. D., Helean, K. B., Bryan, C. R., Brady, P. V., Ewing, R. C. 2009; 1124: 105-110
  • Radiation-Stability of Smectite ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Sorieul, S., Allard, T., Wang, L. M., Grambin-Lapeyre, C., Lian, J., Calas, G., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 42 (22): 8407-8411

    Abstract

    The safety assessment of geological repositories for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel requires an understanding of the response of materials to high temperatures and intense radiation fields. Clays, such as smectite, have been proposed as backfill material around waste packages, but their response to intense radiation from short-lived fission products and alpha decay of sorbed actinides remains poorly understood. Cumulative doses may amorphize clays and may alter their properties of sorption, swelling, or water retention. We describe the amorphization of smectites induced by electron and heavy ion irradiations to simulate ionizing radiation and alpha recoil nuclei, respectively. A new "bell-shaped" evolution of the amorphization dose with temperature has been determined. The maximum dose for amorphization occurs at about 300-400 degrees C, showing that temperature-induced dehydroxylation enhances amorphization. The exact shape of the bell-shaped curves depends on the interlayer cation. At ambient temperature, ionizing radiation and alpha-decay events do not show the same efficiency. The former results in amorphization at doses between 10(10)-10(11) Gy which are greater than the total radiation dose expected for radioactive waste over 10(6) years. In contrast, alpha-decay events amorphize clays at doses as low as 0.13-0.16 displacements per atom, i.e. doses consistent with nuclear waste accumulated over approximately 1000 yrs. However, the limited penetration of alpha particles and recoil nuclei, in the 100 nm - 20 microm range, will minimize damage. Clays will not be amorphized unless the waste package is breached and released actinides are heavily sorbed onto the clay overpack.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es800766b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260921400038

    View details for PubMedID 19068825

  • Fission tracks simulated by swift heavy ions at crustal pressures and temperatures EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS Lang, M., Lian, J., Zhang, F., Hendriks, B. W., Trautmann, C., Neumann, R., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 274 (3-4): 355-358
  • Enhanced thermal stability of carbon nanotubes by plasma surface modification in Al2O3 composites JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Cho, H., Shi, D., Guo, Y., Lian, J., Ren, Z., Poudel, B., Song, Y., Abot, J. L., Singh, D., Routbort, J., Wang, L., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 104 (7)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2985915

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260125500120

  • Pressure-induced zircon-type to scheelite-type phase transitions in YbPO4 and LuPO4 JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Zhang, F. X., Lang, M., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J., Wang, Z. W., Hu, J., Boatner, L. A. 2008; 181 (10): 2633-2638
  • In vivo imaging and drug storage by quantum-dot-conjugated carbon nanotubes ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Guo, Y., Shi, D., Cho, H., Dong, Z., Kulkarni, A., Pauletti, G. M., Wang, W., Lian, J., Liu, W., Ren, L., Zhang, Q., Liu, G., Huth, C., Wang, L., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 18 (17): 2489-2497
  • Pb+ irradiation of synthetic zircon (ZrSiO4): Infrared spectroscopic investigation AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Zhang, M., Boatner, L. A., Salje, E. K., Honda, S., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 93 (8-9): 1418-1423
  • Museums are not attics ELEMENTS Ewing, R. C. 2008; 4 (4): 221-222
  • Structural phase transitions of cubic Gd2O3 at high pressures PHYSICAL REVIEW B Zhang, F. X., Lang, M., Wang, J. W., Becker, U., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 78 (6)
  • Coffinite and ningyoite from the natural nuclear reactor at Bangombe, Gabon GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Utsunomiya, S., Deditius, A. P., Pointeau, V., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 72 (12): A968-A968
  • Actinide adsorption onto hematite (001) surface GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Shuller, L. C., Poling, J., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2008; 72 (12): A864-A864
  • Decoupling of Cu and As in magmatic-hydrothermal systems: Evidence from the pueblo viejo Au-Ag deposit, Dominican republic GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Deditius, A. P., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Kesler, S. E. 2008; 72 (12): A206-A206
  • Radiation effects in zircon and apatite GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Ewing, R. C., Weber, W. J., Lang, M. 2008; 72 (12): A248-A248
  • Gold deposition onto arsenian pyrite GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Renock, D., Deditius, A., Reich, A., Kesler, S. E., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2008; 72 (12): A788-A788
  • Horizontally aligned Cu5Si polycrystalline nanorods on Si APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Wu, W., Yu, Q., Zhang, J., Lian, J., Liang, G., Ewing, R. C., Pei, S. 2008; 92 (25)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2952770

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257231200064

  • A proposed new type of arsenian pyrite: Composition, nanostructure and geological significance GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Deditius, A. P., Utsunomiya, S., Renock, D., Ewing, R. C., Ramana, C. V., Becker, U., Kesler, S. E. 2008; 72 (12): 2919-2933
  • The chemical stability of coffinite, USiO4 center dot nH(2)O; 0 < n < 2, associated with organic matter: A case study from Grants uranium region, New Mexico, USA CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Deditius, A. P., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 251 (1-4): 33-49
  • Fabrication of nano-/micro-patterns on iron phosphate glass surfaces by focused energetic beams NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Sun, K., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 266 (12-13): 3133-3137
  • Structural and bonding properties of stannate pyrochlores: A density functional theory investigation COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE Chen, Z. J., Xiao, H. Y., Zu, X. T., Wang, L. M., Gao, F., Lian, J., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 42 (4): 653-658
  • Irradiation-induced stabilization of zircon (ZrSiO4) at high pressure EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS Lang, M., Zhang, F., Lian, J., Trautmann, C., Neumann, R., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 269 (1-2): 291-295
  • Self-assembly of well-aligned 3C-SiC ripples by focused ion beam APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Zhang, J., Wei, Q., Lian, J., Jiang, W., Weber, W. J., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 92 (19)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2927473

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256564200078

  • Corrosion of UO2 and ThO2: A quantum-mechanical investigation JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Skomurski, F. N., Shuller, L. C., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2008; 375 (3): 290-310
  • Quantum dot conjugated hydroxylapatite nanoparticles for in vivo imaging NANOTECHNOLOGY Guo, Y., Shi, D., Lian, J., Dong, Z., Wang, W., Cho, H., Liu, G., Wang, L., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 19 (17)

    Abstract

    Hydroxylapatite (HA) nanoparticles were conjugated with quantum dots (QDs) for in vivo imaging. The surface structures of HA nanoparticles with conjugated quantum dots (HA-QD) were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser fluorescent spectroscopy. The TEM data showed that the quantum dots were well conjugated on the HA nanoparticle surfaces. The laser fluorescent spectroscopy results indicated that the HA-QD exhibited promising luminescent emission in vitro. The initial in vivo experiments revealed clear images of HA-QD from the hypodermic injected area at the emission of 600 nm. Furthermore, the optimized in vivo images of HA-QD with near-infrared emission at 800 nm were visualized after intravenous injection. These luminescent HA-QD nanoparticles may find important applications as biodegradable substrates for biomarkers and in drug delivery.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/19/17/175102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254329700002

    View details for PubMedID 21825660

  • Nuclear fuel cycle: Environmental impact MRS BULLETIN Ewing, R. C. 2008; 33 (4): 338-340
  • Micro-Raman and micro-infrared spectroscopic studies of Pb- and Au-irradiated ZrSiO4: Optical properties, structural damage, and amorphization PHYSICAL REVIEW B Zhang, M., Boatner, L. A., Salje, E. K., Ewing, R. C., Daniel, P., Weber, W. J., Zhang, Y., Farnan, I. 2008; 77 (14)
  • Phase stability and pressure dependence of defect formation in Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlores PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Zhang, F. X., Wang, J. W., Lian, J., Lang, M. K., Becker, U., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 100 (4)

    Abstract

    We report dramatically different behaviors between isostructural Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlore at pressures up to 44 GPa, in which the substitution of Ti for Zr significantly increases structural stability. Upon release of pressure, the Gd2Ti2O7 becomes amorphous. In contrast, the high-pressure phase of Gd2Zr2O7 transforms to a disordered defect-fluorite structure. First-principle calculations for both compositions revealed that the response of pyrochlore to high pressure is controlled by the intrinsic energetics of defect formation.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.045503

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252863400055

    View details for PubMedID 18352296

  • Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of the optical properties and thermal stability of ZrO2 films made by ion-beam assisted deposition APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Ramana, C. V., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U., Atuchin, V. V., Aliev, V. S., Kruchinin, V. N. 2008; 92 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2811955

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252284200055

  • High pressure phase transitions and compressibilities of Er2Zr2O7 and Ho2Zr2O7 APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Zhang, F. X., Lang, M., Becker, U., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J. 2008; 92 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2830832

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252284200047

  • Np-incorporation into K-boltwoodite SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXXI Shuller, L. C., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2008; 1107: 455-463
  • Effects of ionizing radiation on the hollandite structure-type: Ba0.85Cs0.26Al1.35Fe0.77Ti5.90O16 AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Abdelouas, A., Utsunomiya, S., Suzuki, T., Grambow, B., Advocat, T., Bart, F., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 93 (1): 241-247
  • Waste package corrosion studies using small mockup experiments SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXXI Anderson, B. E., Helean, K. B., Bryan, C. R., Brady, P. V., Ewing, R. C. 2008; 1107: 519-526
  • Effects of plasma surface modification on interfacial behaviors and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube-Al2O3 nanocomposites APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Guo, Y., Cho, H., Shi, D., Lian, J., Song, Y., Abot, J., Poudel, B., Ren, Z., Wang, L., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 91 (26)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2824865

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251987400011

  • High-pressure structural changes in the Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlore PHYSICAL REVIEW B Zhang, F. X., Lian, J., Becker, U., Ewing, R. C., Hu, J., Saxena, S. K. 2007; 76 (21)
  • Quantum-dot-activated luminescent carbon nanotubes via a nano scale surface functionalization for in vivo imaging ADVANCED MATERIALS Shi, D., Guo, Y., Dong, Z., Lian, J., Wang, W., Liu, G., Wang, L., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 19 (22): 4033-?
  • Dissolution of radiation-damaged zircon in lateritic soils AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Delattre, S., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Boeglin, J., Braun, J., Balan, E., Calas, G. 2007; 92 (11-12): 1978-1989
  • Fate of trace elements during alteration of uraninite in a hydrothermal vein-type U-deposit from Marshall Pass, Colorado, USA GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Deditius, A. P., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 71 (20): 4954-4973
  • Alteration of UO2+x under oxidizing conditions, Marshall Pass, Colorado, USA JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS Deditius, A. P., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 444: 584-589
  • Ion beam irradiation of U-, Th- and Ce-doped pyrochlores JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS Lian, J., Yudintsev, S. V., Stefanovsky, S. V., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 444: 429-433
  • First-principles study of electronic properties of La2Hf2O7 and Gd2Hf2O7 JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Li, N., Xiao, H. Y., Zu, X. T., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J., Gao, F. 2007; 102 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2779262

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249787200057

  • Theoretical investigation of structural, energetic and electronic properties of titanate pyrochlores JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Xiao, H. Y., Wang, L. M., Zu, X. T., Lian, J., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 19 (34)
  • Arsenic uptake and release on sulfide nanoparticles GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Renock, D., Utsunomiya, S., Gallegos, T. J., Hayes, K. F., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2007; 71 (15): A833-A833
  • Adsorption energy trends on UO2 and ThO2 surfaces GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Skomurski, F. N., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2007; 71 (15): A945-A945
  • Structural distortions and phase transformations in Sm2Zr2O7 pyrochlore at high pressures CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS Zhang, F. X., Lian, J., Becker, U., Wang, L. M., Hu, J., Saxena, S., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 441 (4-6): 216-220
  • Low-temperature anisotropic diffusion of helium in zircon: Implications for zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Reich, M., Ewing, R. C., Ehlers, T. A., Becker, U. 2007; 71 (12): 3119-3130
  • A science-based approach to understanding waste form durability in open and closed nuclear fuel cycles JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Peters, M. T., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 362 (2-3): 395-401
  • Nuclear materials and materials for fusion - Proceedings of the E-MRS 2006 Spring Meeting: Symposium N on Nuclear Materials and Materials for Fusion - Nice, France - 29 May-2 June 2006 - Editorial note JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Degueldre, C., Poinssot, C., Ewing, R., Zhou, L. 2007; 362 (2-3): VII-VIII
  • Ion beam irradiation of lanthanum and thorium-doped yttrium titanates JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Lian, J., Zhang, F. X., Peters, M. T., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 362 (2-3): 438-444
  • Behavior of implanted strontium in yttria-stabilized zirconia APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Zhu, S., Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Zu, X. T. 2007; 90 (17)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2713127

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246568600040

  • Growth and surface characterization of sputter-deposited molybdenum oxide thin films APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE Ramana, C. V., Atuchin, V. V., Kesler, V. G., Kochubey, V. A., Pokrovsky, L. D., Shutthanandan, V., Becker, U., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 253 (12): 5368-5374
  • Low-energy Ar+ ion-beam-induced amorphization and chemical modification of potassium titanyl arsenate (001) crystal surfaces JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Ramana, C. V., Atuchin, V. V., Becker, U., Ewing, R. C., Isaenko, L. I., Khyzhun, O. Y., Merkulov, A. A., Pokrovsky, L. D., Sinelnichenko, A. K., Zhurkov, S. A. 2007; 111 (6): 2702-2708

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp0671392

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245005700050

  • Structural change of layered perovskite La2Ti2O7 at high pressures JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Zhang, F. X., Lian, J., Becker, U., Ewing, R. C., Wang, L. M., Hu, J., Saxena, S. K. 2007; 180 (2): 571-576
  • Summertime carbonaceous aerosols collected in the marine boundary layer of the Arctic Ocean JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES Xie, Z., Blum, J. D., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Wang, X., Sun, L. 2007; 112 (D2)
  • Enhancement of paramagnetic defects in yttria stabilized zirconia implanted by Cs ion irradiation JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS Zu, X. T., Zhu, S., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 429 (1-2): 25-28
  • Behavior of Si and C atoms in ion amorphized SiC JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Jiang, W., Zhang, Y., Engelhard, M. H., Weber, W. J., Exarhos, G. J., Lian, J., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 101 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2431941

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243890800050

  • Radiation damage and alteration of zircon from a 3.3 Ga porphyritic granite from the Jack Hills, Western Australia CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Utsunomiya, S., Valley, J. W., Cavosie, A. J., Wilde, S. A., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 236 (1-2): 92-111
  • Materials science - Displaced by radiation NATURE Ewing, R. C. 2007; 445 (7124): 161-162

    View details for DOI 10.1038/445161a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243384300039

    View details for PubMedID 17215837

  • Trace element immobilization by uranyl minerals in granite-hosted uranium ores: Evidences from the Xiazhuang ore field of Guangdong province, China RADIOCHIMICA ACTA Lu, L., Chen, F., Ewing, R. C., Wang, R. 2007; 95 (1): 25-32
  • Np incorporation into uranyl alteration phases: A quantum mechanical approach SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXX Shuller, L., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2007; 985: 407-412
  • Perrhenate and pertechnetate Behavior on iron and sulfur-bearing compounds SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXX Anderson, B. E., Becker, U., Helean, K. B., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 985: 425-430
  • Ceramic matrices for plutonium disposition PROGRESS IN NUCLEAR ENERGY Ewing, R. C. 2007; 49 (8): 635-643
  • Computational investigation of the formation of hyperstoichiometric uranium dioxide (UO2+x) SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXX Skomurski, F., Becker, U., Ewing, R. 2007; 985: 89-94
  • A modular model of the crystal structure of the pyrochlore-murataite polysomatic series CRYSTALLOGRAPHY REPORTS Urusov, V. S., Organova, N. I., Karimova, O. V., Yudintsev, S. V., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 52 (1): 37-46
  • Alteration of coffinite (USiO4) under reducing and oxidizing conditions SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXX Deditius, A. P., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C. 2007; 985: 47-52
  • Surface modification of a Ti-Al-Zr alloy by niobium ion implantation SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY Zu, X. T., Liu, Y. Z., Lian, J., Liu, H., Wang, Y., Wang, Y. H., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 201 (6): 3756-3760
  • The crystal structure of dehydrated wyartite, Ca(CO3)[U5+(U6+O2)(2)O-4(OH)] (H2O)(3) CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Hawthorne, F. C., Finch, R. J., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 44: 1379-1385
  • Thermal behavior of metal nanoparticles in geologic materials GEOLOGY Reich, M., Utsunomiya, S., Kesler, S. E., Wang, L., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2006; 34 (12): 1033-1036
  • Spent nuclear fuel ELEMENTS Bruno, J., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 2 (6): 343-349
  • The nuclear fuel cycle: A role for mineralogy and geochemistry ELEMENTS Ewing, R. C. 2006; 2 (6): 331-334
  • Quantum mechanical vs. empirical potential modeling of uranium dioxide (UO2) surfaces: (111), (110), and (100) AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Skomurski, F. N., Ewing, R. C., Rohl, A. L., Gale, J. D., Becker, U. 2006; 91 (11-12): 1761-1772
  • Pressure-induced structural transitions and phase decomposition in the Cd2Nb2O7 pyrochlore PHYSICAL REVIEW B Zhang, F. X., Lian, J., Becker, U., Ewing, R. C., Wang, L. M., Boatner, L. A., Hu, J., Saxena, S. K. 2006; 74 (17)
  • Luminescent hydroxylapatite nanoparticles by surface functionalization APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Wang, W., Shi, D., Lian, J., Guo, Y., Liu, G., Wang, L., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 89 (18)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2374687

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241757500098

  • Colloid transport of plutonium in the far-field of the Mayak Production Association, Russia SCIENCE Novikov, A. P., Kalmykov, S. N., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Horreard, F., Merkulov, A., Clark, S. B., Tkachev, V. V., Myasoedov, B. F. 2006; 314 (5799): 638-641

    Abstract

    Sorption of actinides, particularly plutonium, onto submicrometer-sized colloids increases their mobility, but these plutonium colloids are difficult to detect in the far-field. We identified actinides on colloids in the groundwater from the Mayak Production Association, Urals, Russia; at the source, the plutonium activity is approximately 1000 becquerels per liter. Plutonium activities are still 0.16 becquerels per liter at a distance of 3 kilometers, where 70 to 90 mole percent of the plutonium is sorbed onto colloids, confirming that colloids are responsible for the long-distance transport of plutonium. Nano-secondary ion mass spectrometry elemental maps reveal that amorphous iron oxide colloids adsorb Pu(IV) hydroxides or carbonates along with uranium carbonates.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1131307

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241557800044

    View details for PubMedID 17068260

  • Refinement of the crystal structure of billietite, Ba [(UO2)(6) O-4 (OH)(6)] (H2O)(8) CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Finch, R. J., Burns, P. C., Hawthorne, F. C., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 44: 1197-1205
  • Acceptance of the Dana Medal of the Mineralogical Society of America for 2006 AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Ewing, R. C. 2006; 91 (10): 1712-1713
  • Radiation-induced effects in pyrochlores and nanoscale materials engineering NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Lian, J., Weber, W. J., Jiang, W., Wang, L. M., Boatner, L. A., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 250: 128-136
  • XPS and optical studies of Xe+-implanted and annealed YSZ single crystals NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Xiang, X., Zu, X. T., Zhu, S., Zhang, C. F., Wang, Z. G., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 250: 382-385
  • Irradiation-induced nanostructures in cadmium niobate pyrochlores NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Jiang, W., Weber, W. J., Young, J. S., Boatner, L. A., Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 250: 188-191
  • Perrhenate and pertechnetate behavior on iron and sulfur-bearing compounds GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Anderson, B. E., Becker, U., Helean, K. B., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 70 (18): A16-A16
  • Adsorbed U(VI) surface species on muscovite identified by laser fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Arnold, T., Utsunomiya, S., Geipel, G., Ewing, R. C., Baumann, N., Brendler, V. 2006; 40 (15): 4646-4652

    Abstract

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) were applied to investigate the species of uranyl(VI) adsorbed onto muscovite platelets and muscovite suspensions (grain size: 63-200 microm). TRLFS provided evidence for the presence of two adsorbed uranium(VI) surface species on edge-surfaces of muscovite. The two species showed different positions of the fluorescence emission bands and different fluorescence lifetimes indicating a different coordination environment for the two species. HAADF-STEM revealed that nanoclusters of an amorphous uranium phase were attached to the edge-surfaces of muscovite powder during batch sorption experiments. These U-nanoclusters were not observed on {00/} cleavage planes of the muscovite. The surface species with the shorter fluorescence lifetimes are interpreted as truly adsorbed bidentate surface complexes, in which the U(VI) binds to aluminol groups of edge-surfaces. The surface species with the longer fluorescence lifetimes are interpreted to be an amorphous U(VI) condensate or nanosized clusters of polynuclear uranyl(VI) surface species with a particle diameter of 1 to 2 nm. Depending on the size of these clusters the fluorescence lifetimes vary; i.e., the larger the nanosized clusters, the longer is the fluorescence lifetime.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es0525071

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239437600026

    View details for PubMedID 16913119

  • The mechanisms of reduction of hexavalent chromium by green rust sodium sulphate: Formation of Cr-goethite GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Skovbjerg, L. L., Stipp, S. L., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 70 (14): 3582-3592
  • Direct evidence of N aggregation and diffusion in Au+ irradiated GaN APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Jiang, W., Zhang, Y., Weber, W. J., Lian, J., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 89 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2219418

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239793100021

  • Two planets - Which future? ELEMENTS Ewing, R. 2006; 2 (3): 131-131
  • Structural stability and phase transitions in WO3 thin films JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Ramana, C. V., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Julien, C. M., Becker, U. 2006; 110 (21): 10430-10435

    Abstract

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films have been produced by KrF excimer laser (lambda = 248 nm) ablation of bulk ceramic WO3 targets. The crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition, and structural stability of the WO3 thin films have been studied in detail. Characterization of freshly grown WO3 thin films has been performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy (RS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) measurements. The results indicate that the freshly grown WO3 thin films are nearly stoichiometric and well crystallized as monoclinic WO3. The surface morphology of the resulting WO3 thin film has grains of approximately 60 nm in size with a root-mean-square (rms) surface roughness of 10 nm. The phase transformations in the WO3 thin films were investigated by annealing in the TEM column at 30-500 degrees C. The phase transitions in the WO3 thin films occur in sequence as the temperature is increased: monoclinic --> orthorhombic --> hexagonal. Distortion and tilting of the WO6 octahedra occurs with the phase transitions and significantly affects the electronic properties and, hence, the electrochemical device applications of WO3.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp056664i

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237844900034

    View details for PubMedID 16722749

  • Patterning metallic nanostructures by ion-beam-induced dewetting and Rayleigh instability NANO LETTERS Lian, J., Wang, L., Sun, X., Yu, Q., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 6 (5): 1047-1052

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl060492z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237592900031

  • Deposition of ultrathin rare-earth doped Y2O3 phosphor films on alumina nanoparticles NANOTECHNOLOGY Lian, J., Yang, L., Chen, X. Y., Liu, G. K., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Shi, D. L. 2006; 17 (5): 1351-1354
  • Simultaneous formation of surface ripples and metallic nanodots induced by phase decomposition and focused ion beam patterning APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Lian, J., Zhou, W., Wei, Q. M., Wang, L. M., Boatner, L. A., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 88 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2181203

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235736300078

  • Effect of structure and thermodynamic stability on the response of lanthanide stannate-pyrochlores to ion beam irradiation JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Lian, J., Helean, K. B., Kennedy, B. J., Wang, L. M., NAVROTSKY, A., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 110 (5): 2343-2350

    Abstract

    The lanthanide stannates, Ln2Sn2O7, Ln=La-Lu and Y, have the isometric pyrochlore structure, A2B2O7, and their structural properties have been refined by Rietveld analysis of powder neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. In this study, the enthalpies of formation of selected stannate pyrochlores, Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, and Yb, were measured by high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. Their radiation response was determined by 1 MeV Kr2+ ion irradiation combined with in situ TEM observation over the temperature range of 25 to 1000 K. The enthalpy of formation from binary oxides of stannate pyrochlores became more endothermic (from -145 to -40 kJ/mol) as the size of the lanthanide in the A-site decreases. A more exothermic trend of the enthalpy of formation was observed in stannate pyrochlores with larger lanthanide ions, particularly La, possibly as a result of increased covalency in the Sn-O bond. In contrast to lanthanide titanate pyrochlores, Ln2Ti2O7, that are generally susceptible to radiation-induced amorphization and zirconate pyrochlores, Ln2Zr2O7, that are generally resistant to radiation-induced amorphization, the lanthanide stannate pyrochlores show a much greater variation in their response to ion irradiation. La, Nd, and Gd stannates experience the radiation-induced transformation to the aperiodic state, and the critical amorphization temperatures are approximately 960, 700, and 350 K, respectively. Y and Er stannate pyrochlores cannot be amorphized by ion beam irradiation, even at 25 K, and instead disorder to a defect fluorite structure. Comparison of the calorimetric and ion irradiation data for titanate, zirconate, and stannate pyrochlores reveals a strong correlation among subtle changes in crystal structure with changing composition, the energetics of the disordering process, and the temperature above which the material can no longer be amorphized. In summary, as the structure approaches the ideal, ordered pyrochlore structure, radiation-induced amorphization is more easily attained. This is consistent with an increasingly exothermic trend in the enthalpies of formation of pyrochlores from the oxides, that is, the greater the thermochemical stability of the pyrochlore structure, the more likely it will be amorphized upon radiation damage rather than recover to a disordered fluorite structure.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp055266c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235284300057

    View details for PubMedID 16471823

  • Luminescent carbon nanotubes by surface functionalization ADVANCED MATERIALS Shi, D. L., Lian, J., Wang, W., Liu, G. K., He, P., Dong, Z. Y., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 18 (2): 189-?
  • Formation of V2O3 nanocrystals by thermal reduction of V2O5 thin films SOLID STATE COMMUNICATIONS Ramana, C. V., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Becker, U. 2006; 137 (12): 645-649
  • The fate of the epsilon phase (Mo-Ru-Pd-Tc-Rh) in the UO2 of the Oklo natural fission reactors RADIOCHIMICA ACTA Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 94 (9-11): 749-753
  • TEM characterization of Au nano-particles in TiO2 single crystals by ion implantation NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Zhu, S., Sun, K., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Fromknecht, R. 2006; 242 (1-2): 152-156
  • Ion-beam implantation and cross-sectional TEM characterization of Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Boatner, L. A. 2006; 242 (1-2): 448-451
  • Radiation-induced decomposition of U(VI) alteration phases of UO2 SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXIX Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C. 2006; 932: 465-472
  • How does surface modification aid in the dispersion of carbon nanofibers? JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Zhao, J., Schaefer, D. W., SHI, D. L., Lian, J., Brown, J., BEAUCAGE, G., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2005; 109 (49): 23351-23357

    Abstract

    Small-angle light scattering is used to assess the dispersion behavior of vapor-grown carbon nanofibers suspended in water. These data provide the first insights into the mechanism by which surface treatment promotes dispersion. Both acid-treated and untreated nanofibers exhibit hierarchical morphology consisting of small-scale aggregates (small bundles) that agglomerate to form fractal clusters that eventually precipitate. Although the morphology of the aggregates and agglomerates is nearly independent of surface treatment, their time evolution is quite different. The time evolution of the small-scale bundles is studied by extracting the size distribution from the angle-dependence of the scattered intensity, using the maximum entropy method in conjunction with a simplified tube form factor. The bundles consist of multiple tubes possibly aggregated side-by-side. Acid oxidation has little effect on this bundle morphology. Rather acid treatment inhibits agglomeration of the bundles. The time evolution of agglomeration is followed by fitting the scattering data to a generalized fractal model. Agglomerates appear immediately after cessation of sonication for untreated fibers but only after hours for treated fibers. Eventually, however, both systems precipitate.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp055129f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233864300040

    View details for PubMedID 16375306

  • Ion beam implantation and cross-sectional TEM studies of lanthanide titanate pyrochlore single crystals NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Boatner, L. A. 2005; 241 (1-4): 365-371
  • Radiation-induced decomposition of U(VI) phases to nanocrystals of UO2 EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Wang, L. M. 2005; 240 (2): 521-528
  • The nuclear fuel cycle versus the carbon cycle CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Ewing, R. C. 2005; 43: 2099-2116
  • The application of HRTEM techniques and nanosims to chemically and isotopically characterize Geobacter sulfurreducens surfaces CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Fayek, M., Utsunomiya, S., Pfiffner, S. M., White, D. C., Riciputi, L. R., Ewing, R. C., Anovitz, L. M., Stadermann, F. J. 2005; 43: 1631-1641
  • Ion-induced damage accumulation and electron-beam-enhanced recrystallization in SrTiO3 PHYSICAL REVIEW B Zhang, Y., Lian, J., Wang, C. M., Jiang, W., Ewing, R. C., Weber, W. J. 2005; 72 (9)
  • Electron microscopy investigation of structural transformations in tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Ramana, C. V., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Julien, C. M., Becker, U. 2005; 202 (10): R108-R110
  • Cadmium nanowire formation induced by ion irradiation ADVANCED MATERIALS Jiang, W. L., Weber, W. J., Wang, C. M., Young, J. S., Boatner, L. A., Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2005; 17 (13): 1602-?
  • Solubility of gold in arsenian pyrite GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Reich, M., Kesler, S. E., Utsunomiya, S., Palenik, C. S., Chryssoulis, S. L., Ewing, R. C. 2005; 69 (11): 2781-2796
  • Ion-beam-induced amorphization and order-disorder transition in the murataite structure JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Yudintsev, S. V., Stefanovsky, S. V. 2005; 97 (11)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1926394

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229804700052

  • In situ observation of thermodynamic size effects on melting of natural gold nanoparticles GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Reich, M., Utsunomiya, S., Becker, U., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2005; 69 (10): A513-A513
  • The corrosion of UO2 versus ThO2: A quantum mechanical investigation GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Skomurski, F. N., Shuller, L. C., Becker, U., Ewing, R. C. 2005; 69 (10): A411-A411
  • The epsilon phase in the UO2 of the Oklo natural reactors GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C. 2005; 69 (10): A477-A477
  • Natural uranium getters in near surface environments at the Nopal I deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Fayek, M., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Simmons, A. 2005; 69 (10): A474-A474
  • Characterization of Nd, Te and U isotope ratios in UO2 using SIMS GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Fayek, M., Palenik, C. S., Ewing, R. C. 2005; 69 (10): A378-A378
  • Spent nuclear fuel: Research needs GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Ewing, R. C. 2005; 69 (10): A473-A473
  • Uraninite recrystallization and Pb loss in the Oklo and Bangombe natural fission reactors, Gabon GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Evins, L. Z., Jensen, K. A., Ewing, R. C. 2005; 69 (6): 1589-1606
  • Magnetic alignment of carbon nanofibers in polymer composites and anisotropy of mechanical properties JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Shi, D. L., He, P., Lian, J., Chaud, X., Bud'ko, S. L., Beaugnon, E., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Tournier, R. 2005; 97 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1861143

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227767700079

  • Geochemical fixation of rare earth elements into secondary minerals in sandstones beneath a natural fission reactor at Bangombe, Gabon GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Hidaka, H., Janeczek, J., Skomurski, F. N., Ewing, R. C., Gauthier-Lafaye, F. 2005; 69 (3): 685-694
  • Radiation effects in ferrate garnet JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Utsunomiya, S., Yudintsev, S., Ewing, R. C. 2005; 336 (2-3): 251-260
  • Effects of electron irradiation in nuclear waste glasses PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE Sun, K., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Weber, W. J. 2005; 85 (4-7): 597-608
  • Plasma deposition of thin carbonfluorine films on aligned carbon nanotube APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS He, P., Shi, D. L., Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., van Ooij, W., Li, W. Z., Ren, Z. F. 2005; 86 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1846957

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226761400065

  • Plutonium and "minor' actinides: safe sequestration EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS Ewing, R. C. 2005; 229 (3-4): 165-181
  • Electron irradiation induced transformation of (Pb5Ca5)(VO4)(6)F-2 apatite to CaVO3 perovskite JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY Dong, Z. L., White, T. J., Sun, K., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2005; 88 (1): 184-190
  • Microscale characterization of uranium(VI) silicate solids and associated neptunium(V) RADIOCHIMICA ACTA Douglas, M., Clark, S. B., Friese, J. I., Arey, B. W., Buck, E. C., Hanson, B. D., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C. 2005; 93 (5): 265-272
  • Thermally induced phase decomposition and nanocrystal formation in murataite ceramics JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Yudintsev, S. V., Stefanovsky, S. V. 2005; 15 (6): 709-714

    View details for DOI 10.1039/b411845f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226703500012

  • Comment on "Probabilistic risk analysis for a high-level radioactive waste repository" by B. L. Cohen in Risk analysis, volume 23, 909-915 RISK ANALYSIS Ewing, R. C., Palenik, C. S., Konikow, L. F. 2004; 24 (6): 1417-1419

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226235800001

    View details for PubMedID 15660599

  • Radiation and thermal effects on porous and layer structured materials as getters of radionuclides CURRENT OPINION IN SOLID STATE & MATERIALS SCIENCE Wang, L. M., Chen, J., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 8 (6): 405-418
  • Nanoscale occurrence of Pb in an Archean zircon GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Utsunomiya, S., Palenik, C. S., Valley, J. W., Cavosie, A. J., Wilde, S. A., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 68 (22): 4679-4686
  • TEM observation of oxide scale formed on a Ti-Al-Zr alloy oxidized at 360 degrees C in alkaline steam PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE LETTERS Liu, Y. Z., Zu, X. T., Lian, J., Wang, L., Huang, X. Q., Wang, Z. G., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 84 (11): 705-712
  • "Invisible" gold revealed: Direct imaging of gold nanoparticles in a Carlin-type deposit AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Palenik, C. S., Utsunomiya, S., Reich, M., Kesler, S. E., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 89 (10): 1359-1366
  • Probing cation antisite disorder in Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore by site-specific near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy PHYSICAL REVIEW B Nachimuthu, P., Thevuthasan, S., Engelhard, M. H., Weber, W. J., Shuh, D. K., Hamdan, N. M., Mun, B. S., Adams, E. M., McCready, D. E., Shutthanandan, V., Lindle, D. W., Balakrishnan, G., PAUL, D. M., Gullikson, E. M., Perera, R. C., Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 70 (10)
  • Applications of near-infrared FT-Raman spectroscopy in metamict and annealed zircon: oxidation state of U ions PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF MINERALS Zhang, M., Salje, E. K., Ewing, R. C., Daniel, P., Geisler, T. 2004; 31 (7): 405-414
  • First-principles calculation of defect-formation energies in the Y-2(Ti,Sn,Zr)(2)O-7 pyrochlore PHYSICAL REVIEW B Panero, W. R., Stixrude, L., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 70 (5)
  • Microstructural evolution and nanocrystal formation in Pb+-implanted ZrSiO4 single crystals (vol 94, pg 5695, 2003) JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Lian, J., Rios, S., Boatner, L. A., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 96 (1): 937-937

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1753069

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222093300151

  • Nuclear waste disposal-pyrochlore (A(2)B(2)O(7)): Nuclear waste form for the immobilization of plutonium and "minor" actinides JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Ewing, R. C., Weber, W. J., Lian, J. 2004; 95 (11): 5949-5971

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1707213

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221657300001

  • Cr(VI) reduction by green rust GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Skovbjerg, L. L., Stipp, S. L., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 68 (11): A138-A138
  • Quantum mechanical versus empirical potential modeling of UO2 surface-water interactions GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Skomurski, F. N., Becker, U., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 68 (11): A119-A119
  • The environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle: Climate change, nuclear waste & nuclear weapons GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Ewing, R. C. 2004; 68 (11): A13-A13
  • Ion beam irradiation in La2Zr2O7-Ce2Zr2O7 pyrochlore NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Haire, R. G., Helean, K. B., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 218: 236-243
  • Electron irradiation induced phase separation in a sodium borosilicate glass NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Sun, K., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Weber, W. J. 2004; 218: 368-374
  • Formation enthalpies of rare earth titanate pyrochlores JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Helean, K. B., Ushakov, S. V., Brown, C. E., Navrotsky, A., Lian, J., Ewing, R. C., Farmer, J. M., Boatner, L. A. 2004; 177 (6): 1858-1866
  • Ion-beam irradiation of Gd2Sn2O7 and Gd2Hf2O7 pyrochlore: Bond-type effect JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Lian, J., Ewing, R. C., Wang, L. M., Helean, K. B. 2004; 19 (5): 1575-1580
  • Direct identification of trace metals in fine and ultrafine particles in the Detroit urban atmosphere ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Utsunomiya, S., Jensen, K. A., Keeler, G. J., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 38 (8): 2289-2297

    Abstract

    Exposure to airborne particulates containing low concentrations of heavy metals, such as Pb, As, and Se, may have serious health effects. However, little is known about the speciation and particle size of these airborne metals. Fine- and ultrafine particles with heavy metals in aerosol samples from the Detroit urban area, Michigan, were examined in detail to investigate metal concentrations and speciation. The characterization of individual particles was completed using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) combined with conventional high-resolution TEM techniques. The trace elements, Pb, As, La, Ce, Sr, Zn, Cr, Se, Sn, Y, Zr, Au, and Ag, were detected, and the elemental distributions were mapped in situ atthe nanoscale. The crystal structures of the particles containing Pb, Sr, Zn, and Au were determined from their electron diffraction patterns. Based on the characterization of the representative trace element particles, the potential health effects are discussed. Most of the trace element particles detected in this study were within a range of 0.01-1.0 microm in size, which has the longest atmospheric residence time (approximately 100 days). Increased chemical reactivity owing to the size of nanoparticles may be expected for most of the trace metal particles observed.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es035010p

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220857400005

    View details for PubMedID 15116832

  • Radiation-induced nanostructures in an iron phosphate glass RADIATION EFFECTS AND ION-BEAM PROCESSING OF MATERIALS Sun, K., Ding, T., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 792: 177-182
  • Nficrostructure and chemistry of an aluminophosphate glass waste form under electron beam irradiation SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXVII Sun, K., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 807: 121-126
  • Ion beam-induced amorphization of the pyrochlore structure-type: A review RADIATION EFFECTS AND ION-BEAM PROCESSING OF MATERIALS Ewing, R. C., Lian, J., Wang, L. M. 2004; 792: 37-48
  • Radiation effects in murataite ceramics SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXVII Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Yudintsev, S. V., Stefanovsky, S. V. 2004; 807: 225-230
  • MAS NMR study on the microstructural changes of zeolite-NaY under neutron irradiation RADIATION EFFECTS AND ION-BEAM PROCESSING OF MATERIALS Chen, J., Beck, L. W., Wang, L. M., Gu, B. X., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 792: 417-422
  • Performance assessments of geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste: Are they necessary or sufficient? SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXVIII Ewing, R. C. 2004; 824: 511-520
  • Yucca Mountain: Earth-science issues at a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste ANNUAL REVIEW OF EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Long, J. C., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 32: 363-401
  • Colloid transport of radionuclides: Yucca mountain performance assessment SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXVII Traexler, K. A., Utsunomiya, S., Kersting, A. B., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 807: 653-658
  • Uncertainties in geochemical models of natural systems: Implications for performance assessments SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXVIII Palenik, C. S., Jensen, K. A., Ewing, R. C. 2004; 824: 543-548
  • Effect of radiation on properties of confinement matrices for immobilization of actinide-bearing wastes GEOLOGY OF ORE DEPOSITS Laverov, N. P., Yudintsev, S. V., Yudintseva, T. S., Stefanovsky, S. V., Ewing, R. C., Lian, J., Utsunomiya, S., Wang, L. A. 2003; 45 (6): 423-451
  • Ion-beam and electron-beam irradiation of synthetic britholite JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Utsunomiya, S., Yudintsev, S., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2003; 322 (2-3): 180-188
  • Structural and magnetic characterization of CoxNi1-x nanoparticles in yttria-stabilized zirconia single crystals JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Zhu, S., Sun, K., Zhang, Q. Y., Zu, X. T., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2003; 94 (9): 5648-5651

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1615299

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186138600028

  • Microstructural evolution and nanocrystal formation in Pb+-implanted ZrSiO4 single crystals JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Lian, J., Rios, S., Boatner, L. A., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2003; 94 (9): 5695-5703

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1618917

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186138600036

  • Nanoscale mineralogy of arsenic in a region of New Hampshire with elevated As-concentrations in the groundwater AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Utsunomiya, S., Peters, S. C., Blum, J. D., Ewing, R. C. 2003; 88 (11-12): 1844-1852
  • Radiation-induced amorphization of rare-earth titanate pyrochlores PHYSICAL REVIEW B Lian, J., Chen, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Farmer, J. M., Boatner, L. A., Helean, K. B. 2003; 68 (13)
  • Oxygen isotopic composition of nano-scale uraninite at the Oklo-Okelobondo natural fission reactors, Gabon AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Fayek, M., Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C., Riciputi, L. R., Jensen, K. A. 2003; 88 (10): 1583-1590
  • REE mobility in groundwater proximate to the natural fission reactor at Bangombe (Gabon) CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Stille, P., Gauthier-Lafaye, F., Jensen, K. A., Salah, S., Bracke, G., Ewing, R. C., Louvat, D., Million, D. 2003; 198 (3-4): 289-304
  • Enthalpies of formation of U-, Th-, Ce-brannerite: implications for plutonium immobilization JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Helean, K. B., NAVROTSKY, A., Lumpkin, G. R., Colella, M., Lian, J., Ewing, R. C., Ebbinghaus, B., Catalano, J. G. 2003; 320 (3): 231-244
  • Oxidation state of uranium in metamict and annealed zircon: near-infrared spectroscopic quantitative analysis JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Zhang, M., Salje, E. K., Ewing, R. C. 2003; 15 (20): 3445-3470
  • Radiation damage in zircon AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Palenik, C. S., Nasdala, L., Ewing, R. C. 2003; 88 (5-6): 770-781
  • Electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy study of xenon-implanted yttria-stabilized zirconia NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Zhu, S., Zu, X. T., Xiang, X., Wang, Z. G., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2003; 206: 1092-1096
  • The order-disorder transition in ion-irradiated pyrochlore ACTA MATERIALIA Lian, J., Wang, L., Chen, J., Sun, K., Ewing, R. C., Farmer, J. M., Boatner, L. A. 2003; 51 (5): 1493-1502
  • Application of high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy to the characterization of nanoparticles in the environment ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Utsunomiya, S., Ewing, R. C. 2003; 37 (4): 786-791

    Abstract

    A major challenge to the development of a fundamental understanding of transport and retardation mechanisms of trace metal contaminants (<10 ppm) is their identification and characterization at the nanoscale. Atomic-scale techniques, such as conventional transmission electron microscopy, although powerful, are limited by the extremely small amounts of material that are examined. However, recent advances in electron microscopy provide a number of new analytical techniques that expand its application in environmental studies, particularly those concerning heavy metals on airborne particulates or water-borne colloids. High-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), STEM-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) can be effectively used to identify and characterize nanoparticles. The image contrast in HAADF-STEM is strongly correlated to the atomic mass: heavier elements contribute to brighter contrast. Gold nanocrystals in pyrite and uranium nanocrystals in atmospheric aerosols have been identified by HAADF-STEM and STEM-EDX mapping and subsequently characterized by high-resolution TEM (HRTEM). EFTEM was used to identify U and Fe nanocrystals embedded in an aluminosilicate. A rare, As-bearing nanophase, westerveldite (FeAs), was identified by STEM-EDX and HRTEM. The combined use of these techniques greatly expands the effective application of electron microscopy in environmental studies, especially when applied to metals of very low concentrations. This paper describes examples of how these electron microbeam techniques can be used in combination to characterize a low concentration of heavy metals (a few ppm) on nanoscale particles.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es026053t

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181067100019

    View details for PubMedID 12636280

  • The effect of ionizing radiation on uranophane AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Utsunomiya, S., Wang, L. M., Douglas, M., Clark, S. B., Ewing, R. C. 2003; 88 (1): 159-166
  • Analytical electron microscopy study of electron radiation damage in iron phosphate glass waste forms SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXVI Sun, K., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2003; 757: 135-140
  • Radiation effects in zircon ZIRCON Ewing, R. C., Meldrum, A., Wang, L. M., Weber, W. J., Corrales, L. R. 2003; 53: 387-425
  • Structure-configurational entropy and its effect on the thermodynamic stability of uranyl phases: With special application for geological disposal of nuclear waste SCIENCE IN CHINA SERIES D-EARTH SCIENCES Chen, F. R., Ewing, R. C. 2003; 46 (1): 39-49
  • Uraninite and fullerene in atmospheric particulates ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Utsunomiya, S., Jensen, K. A., Keeler, G. J., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 36 (23): 4943-4947

    Abstract

    Particulates emitted from coal-burning power plants typically contain very small amounts of uranium (<10 ppm). Because of the extremely low concentrations, the form of the uranium has been unknown. Using a variety of advanced electron microscopy techniques, we have identified for the first time nanocrystals of uraninite, UO2+x, encapsulated in carbonaceous matter (< or = 50 nm) similar to fullerene. We have also identified, for the first time, closely associated fullerenes, C60. The "carbon-caged" nanocrystals of uraninite are protected from the immediate oxidation that would lead to increased mobility of uranium in the environment. Still, the presence of uranium in the very fine fraction of atmospheric particulates provides another pathway for radiation exposure.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179685000005

    View details for PubMedID 12523404

  • X-ray study of actinide host-phases formation GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Yudintsev, S. V., Stefanovsky, S. V., Jang, Y. N., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 66 (15A): A866-A866
  • Ion-irradiation-induced amorphization of La2Zr2O7 pyrochlore PHYSICAL REVIEW B Lian, J., Zu, X. T., Kutty, K. V., Chen, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 66 (5)
  • REE migration in groundwaters close to the natural fission reactor of Bangombe (Gabon) GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Stille, P., Gauthier-Lafaye, F., Jensen, K. A., Bracke, G., Ewing, R., Louvat, D. 2002; 66 (15A): A742-A742
  • Impact of the nuclear fuel cycle on the environment GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Ewing, R. C. 2002; 66 (15A): A220-A220
  • Phase transformations during synthesis of actinide matrices DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES Laverov, N. P., Yudintsev, S. V., Stefanovsky, S. V., Jang, Y., Lapina, M. I., Sivtsov, A. V., Ewing, R. 2002; 385 (6): 671-675
  • Yucca Mountain: Should we delay? Response SCIENCE Ewing, R. C., Macfarlane, A. 2002; 296 (5577): 2334-2335
  • Nanodomains of pyrochlore formed by Ti ion implantation in yttria-stabilized zirconia APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Zhu, S., Zu, X. T., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 80 (23): 4327-4329

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1482784

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175904600013

  • Ion irradiation-induced amorphization and nano-crystal formation in garnets JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Utsunomiya, S., Wang, L. M., Yudintsev, S., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 303 (2-3): 177-187
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of irradiation-induced amorphization of Gd2Ti2O7 (vol 79, pg 1989, 2001) APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Chen, J., Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Boatner, L. A. 2002; 80 (19): 3650-3650

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1472474

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175464100062

  • O and Pb isotopic analyses of uranium minerals by ion microprobe and U-Pb ages from the Cigar Lake deposit CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Fayek, M., Harrison, T. M., Ewing, R. C., Grove, M., Coath, C. D. 2002; 185 (3-4): 205-225
  • Ion irradiation effects in natural garnets: Comparison with zircon NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Utsunomiya, S., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 191: 600-605
  • Heavy ion irradiation effects of brannerite-type ceramics NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Lumpkin, G. R., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 191: 565-570
  • Nuclear waste - Yucca Mountain SCIENCE Ewing, R. C., MACFARLANE, A. 2002; 296 (5568): 659-660

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175281700027

    View details for PubMedID 11976429

  • Infrared spectra of Si-O overtones, hydrous species, and U ions in metamict zircon: radiation damage and recrystallization JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Zhang, M., Salje, E. K., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 14 (12): 3333-3352
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of disordering in Gd-2(Ti1-xZrx)(2)O-7 pyrochlores PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Chen, J., Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Wang, R. G., Pan, W. 2002; 88 (10)

    Abstract

    The dramatic increases in ionic conductivity in Gd2(Ti1-xZrx)2O7 solid solution are related to disordering on the cation and anion lattices. Disordering in Gd2(Ti1-xZrx)2O7 was characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As Zr substitutes for Ti in Gd2Ti2O7 to form Gd2(Ti1-xZrx)2O7 (0.25 < x < or =0.75), the corresponding O 1s XPS spectrum merges into a single symmetric peak. This confirms that the cation antisite disorder occurs simultaneously with anion disorder. Furthermore, the O 1s XPS spectrum of Gd2Zr2O7 experimentally suggests the formation of a split vacancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.105901

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174342000045

    View details for PubMedID 11909374

  • Amorphization and recrystallization of the ABO(3) oxides JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Meldrum, A., Boatner, L. A., Weber, W. J., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 300 (2-3): 242-254
  • Structural alterations in titanate pyrochlores induced by ion irradiation: X ray photoelectron spectrum interpretation SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXV Chen, J., Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Farmer, J. M., Boatner, L. A. 2002; 713: 501-506
  • Materials research in nuclear waste management: Reflections on twenty-five MRS symposia SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXV Ewing, R. C. 2002; 713: 3-14
  • Ion irradiation effects in synthetic garnets incorporating actinides SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXV Utsunomiya, S., Wan, L. M., Yadintsev, S., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 713: 495-500
  • Heavy ion irradiation of zirconate pyrochlores SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXV Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Chen, J., Ewing, R. C., Kutty, K. V. 2002; 713: 507-512
  • Ion-induced amorphization of murataite SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXV Lian, J., Yudintsev, S. V., Stefanovsky, S. V., Kirjanova, O. I., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 713: 455-460
  • Phosphates as nuclear waste forms PHOSPHATES: GEOCHEMICAL, GEOBIOLOGICAL, AND MATERIALS IMPORTANCE Ewing, R. C., Wang, L. M. 2002; 48: 673-699
  • The effects of radiation on the retention of strontium in zeolite-NaSrY JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY Gu, B. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 12 (2): 233-238
  • Cesium ton implantation in single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and polycrystalline MgAl2O4-YSZ SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXV Zhu, S., Zu, X. T., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 713: 327-332
  • U6+ phases in the weathering zone of the Bangombe U-deposit: observed and predicted mineralogy RADIOCHIMICA ACTA Jensen, K. A., Palenik, C. S., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 90 (9-11): 761-769
  • An empirical method for calculating thermodynamic parameters for U(VI) phases, applications to performance assessment calculations USE OF THERMODYNAMIC DATABASES IN PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT, WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS Ewing, R. C., Chen, F. R., Clark, S. B. 2002: 93-102
  • Microanalysis of radiation damage across a zoned zircon crystal SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXV Palenik, C. S., Ewing, R. C. 2002; 713: 521-526
  • Nanoscale manipulation of pyrochlore: New nanocomposite ionic conductors PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Wang, S. X., Chen, J., Boatner, L. A., Ewing, R. C. 2001; 87 (14)

    Abstract

    The ionic conductivity of isometric pyrochlore, ideally A2B2O (7), is extremely sensitive to disordering of A- and B-site cations and oxygen anion vacancies. We report the first use of ion beam irradiation-induced disordering in Gd 2Ti 2O (7) to produce a strain-free, buried, disordered defect-fluorite layer approximately 12 nm thick within an ordered pyrochlore matrix. This approach provides a new means of creating nanoscale, mixed ionic-electronic conductors in pyrochlore ceramics, such as those required for solid-state electrochemical cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.145901

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171427500031

    View details for PubMedID 11580662

  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of irradiation-induced amorphizaton of Gd2Ti2O7 APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Chen, J., Lian, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Boatner, L. A. 2001; 79 (13): 1989-1991
  • Temperature effects on the radiation stability and ion exchange capacity of smectites JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Gu, B. X., Wang, L. M., Minc, L. D., Ewing, R. C. 2001; 297 (3): 345-354
  • Radiation damage and nanocrystal formation in uranium-niobium titanates JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Lian, J., Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2001; 297 (1): 89-96
  • The design and evaluation of nuclear-waste forms: Clues from mineralogy CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Ewing, R. C. 2001; 39: 697-715
  • Radiation resistance of fused titanium ceramic for actinide immobilization ATOMIC ENERGY Yudintsev, S. V., Stefanovskii, S. V., Kir'yanova, O. I., Lian, J., Ewing, R. 2001; 90 (6): 487-494
  • Ion irradiation-induced amorphization of two GeO2 polymorphs NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2001; 175: 615-619
  • Irradiation-induced amorphization of Cd2Nb2O7 pyrochlore PHYSICAL REVIEW B Meldrum, A., White, C. W., Keppens, V., Boatner, L. A., Ewing, R. C. 2001; 63 (10)
  • Nuclear waste form glasses: The evaluation of very long-term behaviour MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY Ewing, R. C. 2001; 16 (1): 30-36
  • Effects of fission product incorporation on the microstructure of cubic zirconia JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Wang, L. M., Wang, S. X., Zhu, S., Ewing, R. C. 2001; 289 (1-2): 122-127
  • Radiation stability of actinide matrices DOKLADY EARTH SCIENCES Laverov, N. P., Yudintsev, S. V., Stefanovsky, S. V., Lian, J., Ewing, R. 2001; 377 (2): 175-177
  • Irradiation-induced amorphization: Effects of temperature, ion mass, cascade size, and dose rate PHYSICAL REVIEW B Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2001; 63 (2)
  • Effects of xenon implantation in spinel-zirconia/ceria composites PROGRESS IN NUCLEAR ENERGY Wang, L. M., Zhu, S., Wang, S. X., Ewing, R. C., Boucharat, N., Fernandez, A., Matzke, H. 2001; 38 (3-4): 295-300
  • The Okelobondo natural fission reactor, southeast Gabon: Geology, mineralogy, and retardation of nuclear-reaction products GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA BULLETIN Jensen, K. A., Ewing, R. C. 2001; 113 (1): 32-62
  • Memorial of Arthur Montgomery, 1909-1999 AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Ewing, R. C. 2000; 85 (11-12): 1848-1850
  • Integrated experimental and computational methods for structure determination and characterization of a new, highly stable cesium silicotitanate phase, Cs2TiSi6O15 (SNL-A) CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS Nyman, M., Bonhomme, F., Teter, D. M., Maxwell, R. S., Gu, B. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Nenoff, T. M. 2000; 12 (11): 3449-3458

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cm000259g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165462800034

  • Synthesis and characterization of a new microporous cesium silicotitanate (SNL-B) molecular sieve MICROPOROUS AND MESOPOROUS MATERIALS Nyman, M., Gu, B. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Nenoff, T. M. 2000; 40 (1-3): 115-125
  • Plutonium immobilization and radiation effects SCIENCE Weber, W. J., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 289 (5487): 2051-2052

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089430900019

    View details for PubMedID 17799393

  • Nano-scale glass formation in pyrochlore by heavy ion irradiation JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 274 (1-3): 238-243
  • Irradiation-induced nanostructures MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Wang, L. M., Wang, S. X., Ewing, R. C., Meldrum, A., BIRTCHER, R. C., Provencio, P. N., Weber, W. J., Matzke, H. 2000; 286 (1): 72-80
  • Alpha-decay damage and recrystallization in zircon: evidence for an intermediate state from infrared spectroscopy JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Zhang, M., Salje, E. K., Ewing, R. C., Farnan, I., Rios, S., Schluter, J., Leggo, P. 2000; 12 (24): 5189-5199
  • Ion irradiation of rare-earth- and yttrium-titanate-pyrochlores NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Kutty, K. V. 2000; 169: 135-140
  • Amorphization of cubic zirconia by caesium-ion implantation PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE LETTERS Wang, L. M., Wang, S. X., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 80 (5): 341-347
  • Ion irradiation-induced amorphization of six zirconolite compositions NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Wang, S. X., Lumpkin, G. R., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 166: 293-298
  • Annealing of alpha-decay damage in zircon: a Raman spectroscopic study JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Zhang, M., Salje, E. K., Capitani, G. C., Leroux, H., Clark, A. M., Schluter, J., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 12 (13): 3131-3148
  • A comparison of radiation effects in crystalline ABO(4)-type phosphates and silicates MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE Meldrum, A., Boatner, L. A., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 64 (2): 185-194
  • Electron and ion irradiation of zeolites JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 278 (2-3): 233-241
  • Near-field behavior of Tc-99 during the oxidative alteration of spent nuclear fuel JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Chen, F. R., Burns, P. C., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 278 (2-3): 225-232
  • XAS and XRD study of annealed Pu-238- and Pu-239-substituted zircons (Zr0.92Pu0.08SiO4) JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Begg, B. D., Hess, N. J., Weber, W. J., Conradson, S. D., Schweiger, M. J., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 278 (2-3): 212-224
  • Amorphization in zircon: evidence for direct impact damage JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Rios, S., Salje, E. K., Zhang, M., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 12 (11): 2401-2412
  • Ion irradiation effects in nonmetals: formation of nanocrystals and novel microstructures MATERIALS RESEARCH INNOVATIONS Meldrum, A., Boatner, L. A., White, C. W., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 3 (4): 190-204
  • The effect of amorphization on the Cs ion exchange and retention capacity of zeolite-NaY JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Gu, B. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 278 (1): 64-72
  • Reaction sintered glass: a durable matrix for spinel-forming nuclear waste compositions JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Gong, W. L., Lutze, W., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 278 (1): 73-84
  • Metamictization of zircon: Raman spectroscopic study JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Zhang, M., Salje, E. K., Farnan, I., Graeme-Barber, A., Daniel, P., Ewing, R. C., Clark, A. M., Leroux, H. 2000; 12 (8): 1915-1925
  • Zirconia ceramics for excess weapons plutonium waste JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Gong, W. L., Lutze, W., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 277 (2-3): 239-249
  • Micro-structures associated with uraninite alteration JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Fayek, M., Burns, P., Guo, Y. X., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 277 (2-3): 204-210
  • The effect of H+ irradiation on the Cs-ion exchange capacity of zeolite-NaY JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY Gu, B. X., Wang, L. M., Wang, S. X., Zhao, D. G., Rotberg, V. H., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 10 (11): 2610-2616
  • Effects of cesium, iodine and strontium ion implantation on the microstructure of cubic zirconia SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXIV Wang, L. M., Zhu, S., Wang, S. X., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 663: 293-300
  • Gadolinium borosilicate glass-bonded Gd-silicate apatite: A glass-ceramic nuclear waste form for actinides SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXIV Zhao, D. G., Li, L. Y., Davis, L. L., Weber, W. J., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 663: 199-206
  • Radiation effects on materials in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXIV Gu, B. X., Wang, L. M., Wang, S. X., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 663: 883-891
  • Effects of fission product accumulation in cubic zirconia PLUTONIUM FUTURES-THE SCIENCE Wang, L. M., Wang, S. X., Zhu, S., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 532: 95-97
  • Alteration products of uraninite from the Colorado Plateau RADIOCHIMICA ACTA Zhao, D., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 88 (9-11): 739-749
  • Radiation effects in nuclear waste materials and their consequences APPLIED MINERALOGY, VOLS 1 AND 2 Wang, M. L., Ewing, R. C. 2000: 87-87
  • Radiation effects in uranium-niobium titanates PLUTONIUM FUTURES-THE SCIENCE Lian, J., Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 532: 403-405
  • Radiation resistance of gadolinium zirconate pyrochlore PLUTONIUM FUTURES-THE SCIENCE Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Kutty, K. V., Weber, W. J. 2000; 532: 15-17
  • Ceramic waste forms for excess weapons plutonium ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES OF NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT Lutze, W., Gong, W. L., Ewing, R. C. 2000; 29: 65-74
  • Radiation-induced amorphization TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES IN MINERALS Ewing, R. C., Meldrum, A., Wang, L. M., Wang, S. X. 2000; 39: 319-361
  • Radiation stability of gadolinium zirconate: A waste form for plutonium disposition JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Wang, S. X., Begg, B. D., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Weber, W. J., Kutty, K. V. 1999; 14 (12): 4470-4473
  • Comparison of ion-beam irradiation effects in X2YO4 compounds JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY Wang, L. M., Gong, W. L., Wang, S. X., Ewing, R. C. 1999; 82 (12): 3321-3329
  • Radioactive waste - Less geology in the geological disposal of nuclear waste SCIENCE Ewing, R. C. 1999; 286 (5439): 415-?
  • Se-79: geochemical and crystallo-chemical retardation mechanisms JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Chen, F. R., Burns, P. C., Ewing, R. C. 1999; 275 (1): 81-94
  • Performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories: A dialogue on their value and limitations RISK ANALYSIS Ewing, R. C., Tierney, M. S., Konikow, L. F., Rechard, R. P. 1999; 19 (5): 933-958

    Abstract

    Performance Assessment (PA) is the use of mathematical models to simulate the long-term behavior of engineered and geologic barriers in a nuclear waste repository; methods of uncertainty analysis are used to assess effects of parametric and conceptual uncertainties associated with the model system upon the uncertainty in outcomes of the simulation. PA is required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of its certification process for geologic repositories for nuclear waste. This paper is a dialogue to explore the value and limitations of PA. Two "skeptics" acknowledge the utility of PA in organizing the scientific investigations that are necessary for confident siting and licensing of a repository; however, they maintain that the PA process, at least as it is currently implemented, is an essentially unscientific process with shortcomings that may provide results of limited use in evaluating actual effects on public health and safety. Conceptual uncertainties in a PA analysis can be so great that results can be confidently applied only over short time ranges, the antithesis of the purpose behind long-term, geologic disposal. Two "proponents" of PA agree that performance assessment is unscientific, but only in the sense that PA is an engineering analysis that uses existing scientific knowledge to support public policy decisions, rather than an investigation intended to increase fundamental knowledge of nature; PA has different goals and constraints than a typical scientific study. The "proponents" describe an ideal, six-step process for conducting generalized PA, here called probabilistic systems analysis (PSA); they note that virtually all scientific content of a PA is introduced during the model-building steps of a PSA; they contend that a PA based on simple but scientifically acceptable mathematical models can provide useful and objective input to regulatory decision makers. The value of the results of any PA must lie between these two views and will depend on the level of knowledge of the site, the degree to which models capture actual physical and chemical processes, the time over which extrapolations are made, and the proper evaluation of health risks attending implementation of the repository. The challenge is in evaluating whether the quality of the PA matches the needs of decision makers charged with protecting the health and safety of the public.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083825000008

    View details for PubMedID 10765440

  • Refinement of the crystal structure of rutherfordine CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Finch, R. J., Cooper, M. A., Hawthorne, F. C., Ewing, R. C. 1999; 37: 929-938
  • Is "metamictization" of zircon a phase transition? AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Salje, E. K., Chrosch, J., Ewing, R. C. 1999; 84 (7-8): 1107-1116
  • Is a probabilistic performance assessment enough? GROUND WATER Konikow, L. E., Ewing, R. C. 1999; 37 (4): 481-482
  • The Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation of U6+ phases: An empirical method of prediction AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Chen, F. R., Ewing, R. C., Clark, S. B. 1999; 84 (4): 650-664
  • Nuclear waste forms for actinides PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ewing, R. C. 1999; 96 (7): 3432-3439

    Abstract

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The "mineralogic approach" is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079507900019

    View details for PubMedID 10097054

  • Effects of dose rate and temperature on the crystalline-to-metamict transformation in the ABO(4) orthosilicates CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Meldrum, A., Boatner, L. A., Zinkle, S. J., Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 1999; 37: 207-221
  • Vitrification of radioactive waste by reaction sintering under pressure JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Gong, W. L., Lutze, W., Abdelouas, A., Ewing, R. C. 1999; 265 (1-2): 12-21
  • Formation of oriented particles in an amorphous host: ZnS nanocrystals in silicon APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Meldrum, A., ZUHR, R. A., Sonder, E., Budai, J. D., White, C. W., Boatner, L. A., Ewing, R. C., Henderson, D. O. 1999; 74 (5): 697-699
  • Heavy-ion irradiation effects in the ABO(4) orthosilicates: Decomposition, amorphization, and recrystallization PHYSICAL REVIEW B Meldrum, A., Zinkle, S. J., Boatner, L. A., Ewing, R. C. 1999; 59 (6): 3981-3992
  • Surface features and alteration products of natural zirconolite leached in silica-saturated solutions SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXII Helean, K. B., Lutze, W., Ewing, R. C. 1999; 556: 157-164
  • Structural contributions to the third-law entropy of uranyl phases SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXII Chen, F. R., Ewing, R. C. 1999; 556: 1017-1024
  • Radioactivity and the 20th Century REVIEWS IN MINERALOGY <D> Ewing, R. C. 1999; 38: 1-21
  • Zirconia - A ceramic for excess weapons plutonium wastes SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXII Gong, W. L., Lutze, W., Ewing, R. C. 1999; 556: 63-70
  • Effect of microstructure and chemical bonding on the adhesion strength of a silicon/polymer interface for microelectronic packaging applications III-V AND IV-IV MATERIALS AND PROCESSING CHALLENGES FOR HIGHLY INTEGRATED MICROELECTRONICS AND OPTOELECTRONICS Pantelidis, D., Lee, H. J., Bravman, J. C. 1999; 535: 165-170
  • Ion irradiation effects for two pyrochlore compositions: Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Zr2O7 MICROSTRUCTURAL PROCESSES IN IRRADIATED MATERIALS Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Kutty, K. V. 1999; 540: 355-360
  • Electron irradiation of zeolites MICROSTRUCTURAL PROCESSES IN IRRADIATED MATERIALS Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 1999; 540: 361-366
  • Ion irradiation-induced phase transformation of pyrochlore and zirconolite NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Was, G. S., Lumpkin, G. R. 1999; 148 (1-4): 704-709
  • The dissolution rate of chemically durable materials: Zircon ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN THE CERAMIC AND NUCLEAR INDUSTRIES IV Helean, K. B., Lutze, W., Ewing, R. C. 1999; 93: 297-304
  • Rubicline, a new feldspar from San Piero in Campo, Elba, Italy AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Teertstra, D. K., Cerny, P., Hawthorne, F. C., Pier, J., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 1998; 83 (11-12): 1335-1339
  • Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy study of 1.5 MeV Kr+ irradiation-induced amorphization in alpha-quartz JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Gong, W. L., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 1998; 84 (8): 4204-4208
  • Amorphization of ceramic materials by ion beam irradiation MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Wang, L. M., Wang, S. X., Gong, W. L., Ewing, R. C., Weber, W. J. 1998; 253 (1-2): 106-113
  • A transient liquid-like phase in the displacement cascades of zircon, hafnon and thorite NATURE Meldrum, A., Zinkle, S. J., Boatner, L. A., Ewing, R. C. 1998; 395 (6697): 56-58
  • Ion beam-induced amorphization in MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. II. Empirical model JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Doremus, R. H. 1998; 238 (3): 214-224
  • Ion beam-induced amorphization in MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. I. Experimental and theoretical basis JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Doremus, R. H. 1998; 238 (3): 198-213
  • Radiation damage in zircon and monazite GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Meldrum, A., Boatner, L. A., Weber, W. J., Ewing, R. C. 1998; 62 (14): 2509-2520
  • The role of pe, pH, and carbonate on the solubility of UO2 and uraninite under nominally reducing conditions GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Casas, I., de Pablo, J., Gimenez, J., Torrero, M. E., Bruno, J., Cera, E., Finch, R. J., Ewing, R. C. 1998; 62 (13): 2223-2231
  • A method to predict free energies of formation of mineral phases in the U(VI)-SiO2-H2O system JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS Clark, S. B., Ewing, R. C., Schaumloffel, J. C. 1998; 271: 189-193
  • Radiation effects in crystalline ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and plutonium JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Weber, W. J., Ewing, R. C., Catlow, C. R., de la Rubia, T. D., Hobbs, L. W., Kinoshita, C., Matzke, H., Motta, A. T., Nastasi, M., Salje, E. K., Vance, E. R., Zinkle, S. J. 1998; 13 (6): 1434-1484
  • Structural relations among schoepite, metaschoepite and "dehydrated schoepite" CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Finch, R. J., Hawthorne, F. C., Ewing, R. C. 1998; 36: 831-845
  • Ion irradiation-induced amorphization of CaA1(2)O(4) NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 1998; 141 (1-4): 509-513
  • Temperature dependence of Kr ion-induced amorphization of mica minerals NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Wang, L. M., Wang, S. X., Gong, W. L., Ewing, R. C. 1998; 141 (1-4): 501-508
  • Effects of ionizing and displacive irradiation on several perovskite-structure oxides NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Meldrum, A., Boatner, L. A., Ewing, R. C. 1998; 141 (1-4): 347-352
  • Analytical electron microscopy study of surface layers formed on the French SON68 nuclear waste glass during vapor hydration at 200 degrees C JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Gong, W. L., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Vernaz, E., Bates, J. K., Ebert, W. L. 1998; 254 (2-3): 249-265
  • The Hawley Medal for 1997 to Peter C. Burns, Mark L. Miller and Rodney C. Ewing CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Ewing, R. C. 1998; 36: 240-240
  • Vitrification of high-level radioactive waste by sintering under pressure SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXI Lutze, W., Gong, W., Abdelouas, A., Ewing, R. C., Scales, C. 1998; 506: 223-230
  • Transmission electron microscopy study of radiation effects in materials for nuclear waste disposal ELECTRON MICROSCOPY 1998, VOL 2 Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 1998: 825-826
  • The crystal chemistry of hexavalent uranium: Polyhedron geometries, bond-valence parameters, and polymerization of polyhedra CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Burns, P. C., Ewing, R. C., Hawthorne, F. C. 1997; 35: 1551-1570
  • Distinguishing among schoepite, [(UO2)(8)O-2(OH)(12)](H2O)(12), and related minerals by X-ray powder diffraction POWDER DIFFRACTION Finch, R. J., Hawthorne, F. C., Miller, M. L., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 12 (4): 230-238
  • The kinetics of alpha-decay-induced amorphization in zircon and apatite containing weapons-grade plutonium or other actinides JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Weber, W. J., Ewing, R. C., Meldrum, A. 1997; 250 (2-3): 147-155
  • Displacive radiation effects in the monazite- and zircon-structure orthophosphates PHYSICAL REVIEW B Meldrum, A., Boatner, L. A., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 56 (21): 13805-13814
  • The crystal structure of ianthinite, [U-2(4+)(UO2)(4)O-6(OH)(4)(H2O)(4)](H2O)(5): a possible phase for Pu4+ incorporation during the oxidation of spent nuclear fuel JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Burns, P. C., Finch, R. J., Hawthorne, F. C., Miller, M. L., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 249 (2-3): 199-206
  • Characterization and dissolution behavior of a becquerelite from Shinkolobwe, Zaire GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Casas, I., Bruno, J., Cera, E., Finch, R. J., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 61 (18): 3879-3884
  • Electron-irradiation-induced phase segregation in crystalline and amorphous apatite: A TEM study AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Meldrum, A., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 82 (9-10): 858-869
  • Mineral chemistry and oxygen isotopic analyses of uraninite, pitchblende and uranium alteration minerals from the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, Canada APPLIED GEOCHEMISTRY Fayek, M., Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 12 (5): 549-565
  • Radiation effects in glasses used for immobilization of high-level waste and plutonium disposition JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Weber, W. J., Ewing, R. C., Angell, C. A., Arnold, G. W., Cormack, A. N., Delaye, J. M., Griscom, D. L., Hobbs, L. W., NAVROTSKY, A., Price, D. L., Stoneham, A. M., Weinberg, W. C. 1997; 12 (8): 1946-1978
  • Electron-irradiation-induced nucleation and growth in amorphous LaPO4, ScPO4, and zircon JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Meldrum, A., Boatner, L. A., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 12 (7): 1816-1827
  • Ion beam-irradiation induced structure transformation in alpha-AlMnSi NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Guo, Y. X., Wang, L. M., Chen, L. F., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 127: 752-755
  • Donathite discredited: A mixture of two spinels NEUES JAHRBUCH FUR MINERALOGIE-MONATSHEFTE Burns, P. C., Hawthorne, F. C., Libowitzky, E., Bordes, N., Ewing, R. C. 1997: 163-174
  • Ion-beam-induced amorphization of LaPO4 and ScPO4 NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Meldrum, A., Boatner, L. A., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 127: 160-165
  • Ion irradiation-induced phase transformation in Al-Cu-Co-Ge decagonal quasicrystal NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Chen, L. F., Wang, L. M., Guo, Y. X., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 127: 127-131
  • Incorporation mechanisms of actinide elements into the structures of U6+ phases formed during the oxidation of spent nuclear fuel JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Burns, P. C., Ewing, R. C., Miller, M. L. 1997; 245 (1): 1-9
  • Clarkeite: New chemical and structural data AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Finch, R. J., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 82 (5-6): 607-619
  • Amorphization of Al2SiO5 polymorphs under ion beam irradiation NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 127: 186-190
  • Interface-mediated amorphization of coesite by 200 keV electron irradiation JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Gong, W. L., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Xie, H. S. 1997; 81 (6): 2570-2574
  • Disposing of plutonium SCIENCE Ewing, R. C., Lutze, W. 1997; 275 (5301): 737-737
  • Ion irradiation-induced amorphization in the Al2O3-SiO2 system: A comparison with glass formation JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Doremus, R. H. 1997; 81 (2): 587-593
  • Transuranium element incorporation into the beta-U3O8 uranyl sheet SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XX Miller, M. L., Burns, P. C., Finch, R. J., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 465: 581-588
  • Ion irradiation-induced amorphization in the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system: A cascade quenching model MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION DURING IRRADIATION Wang, S. X., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 439: 619-624
  • Electron-irradiation-induced crystallization orthophosphates MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION DURING IRRADIATION Meldrum, A., Boatner, L. A., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 439: 697-702
  • Transmission electron microscopy study of alpha-decay damage in aeschynite and britholite SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XX Gong, W. L., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Chen, L. F., Lutze, W. 1997; 465: 649-656
  • Uraninite-water interactions in an oxidizing environment SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XX Fayek, M., Kyser, T. K., Ewing, R. C., Miller, M. L. 1997; 465: 1201-1208
  • Amorphization of ceramic materials by ion-beam-irradiation: Parallels to glass formation MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION DURING IRRADIATION Wang, L. M., Wang, S. X., Gong, W. L., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 439: 583-594
  • Mineralogical and microtextural characterization of ''gel-zircon'' from the Manibay uranium mine, Kazakhstan SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XX Helean, K. B., Burakov, B. E., Anderson, E. B., Strykanova, E. E., Ushakov, S. V., Ewing, R. C. 1997; 465: 1219-1226
  • Description and classification of uranium oxide hydrate sheet anion topologies JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Miller, M. L., Finch, R. J., Burns, P. C., Ewing, R. C. 1996; 11 (12): 3048-3056
  • Uraninite and UO2 in spent nuclear fuel: A comparison JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. C., Oversby, V. M., Werme, L. O. 1996; 238 (1): 121-130
  • The crystal structure of schoepite, [(UO2)(8)O-2(OH)(12)](H2O)(12) CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Finch, R. J., Cooper, M. A., Hawthorne, F. C., Ewing, R. C. 1996; 34: 1071-1088
  • Geochemical alteration of pyrochlore group minerals: Betafite subgroup AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Lumpkin, G. R., Ewing, R. C. 1996; 81 (9-10): 1237-1248
  • Florencite-(La) with fissiogenic REEs from a natural fission reactor at Bangombe, Gabon AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. C. 1996; 81 (9-10): 1263-1269
  • Temperature dependent microstructural modification in ion-irradiated Tl-type high temperature superconductors PHYSICA C Newcomer, P. P., Barbour, J. C., Wang, L. M., Venturini, E. L., KWAK, J. F., Ewing, R. C., Miller, M. L., Morosin, B. 1996; 267 (3-4): 243-253
  • U6+ minerals and inorganic phases: A comparison and hierarchy of crystal structures CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Burns, P. C., Miller, M. L., Ewing, R. C. 1996; 34: 845-880
  • Irradiation-induced amorphization of AlPO4 NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS SREERAM, A. N., Hobbs, L. W., Bordes, N., Ewing, R. C. 1996; 116 (1-4): 126-130
  • Electron-irradiation- and ion-beam-induced amorphization of coesite PHYSICAL REVIEW B Gong, W. L., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Zhang, J. 1996; 54 (6): 3800-3808
  • Ion beam induced amorphization of monazite NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Meldrum, A., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 1996; 116 (1-4): 220-224
  • Phosphatian coffinite with rare earth elements and Ce-rich francoisite-(Nd) from sandstone beneath a natural fission reactor at Bangombe, Gabon MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. 1996; 60 (401): 665-669
  • Surface and grain-boundary amorphization: Thermodynamic melting of coesite below the glass transition temperature PHYSICAL REVIEW B Gong, W. L., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Fei, Y. 1996; 53 (5): 2155-2158
  • Description and classification of uranium oxide hydrate sheet topologies SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XIX Miller, M. L., Finch, R. J., Burns, P. C., Ewing, R. C. 1996; 412: 369-376
  • Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium DISPOSAL OF WEAPON PLUTONIUM Ewing, R. C., Weber, W. J., Lutze, W. 1996; 4: 65-83
  • Aeschynite and euxenite structure-types as host phases for rare-earths and actinides from HLW SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XIX Gong, W. L., Ewing, R. C., Wang, L. M., Xie, H. S. 1996; 412: 377-384
  • A comparative study on ion-beam induced effects in spinel structure types ION BEAM MODIFICATION OF MATERIALS Wang, L. M., Gong, W. L., Bordes, N., Ewing, R. C. 1996: 1073-1076
  • Clays at the natural nuclear reactor at Bangombe, Gabon: Migration of actinides RADIOCHIMICA ACTA Eberly, P. O., Ewing, R. C., Janeczek, J., Furlano, A. 1996; 74: 271-275
  • Secondary phase formation and the microstructural evolution of surface layers during vapor phase alteration of the French SON68 nuclear waste glass at 200 degrees C SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XIX Gong, W. L., Ewing, R. C., Wang, L. M., Vernaz, E., Bates, J. K., Ebert, W. L. 1996; 412: 197-204
  • On the roles of temperature and interfaces in irradiation and thermally induced solid state amorphization THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS Wang, L. M., Gong, W. L., Ewing, R. C., Weber, W. J. 1996; 398: 233-238
  • STRUCTURAL DAMAGE IN SPINEL AFTER ION IRRADIATION JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Bordes, N., Sickafus, K. E., Cooper, E. A., Ewing, R. C. 1995; 225: 318-323
  • GEOCHEMICAL ALTERATION OF PYROCHLORE GROUP MINERALS - PYROCHLORE SUBGROUP AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Lumpkin, G. R., Ewing, R. C. 1995; 80 (7-8): 732-743
  • RECOIL REFINEMENTS - IMPLICATIONS FOR THE AR-40/AR-39 DATING TECHNIQUE GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Onstott, T. C., Miller, M. L., Ewing, R. C., Arnold, G. W., Walsh, D. S. 1995; 59 (9): 1821-1834
  • MECHANISMS OF LEAD RELEASE FROM URANINITE IN THE NATURAL FISSION REACTORS IN GABON GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. C. 1995; 59 (10): 1917-1931
  • ION-BEAM-INDUCED DISORDERING AND ONSET OF AMORPHIZATION IN SPINEL BY DEFECT ACCUMULATION JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Bordes, N., Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C., Sickafus, K. E. 1995; 10 (4): 981-985
  • ZIRCON - A HOST-PHASE FOR THE DISPOSAL OF WEAPONS PLUTONIUM JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Ewing, R. C., Lutze, W., Weber, W. J. 1995; 10 (2): 243-246
  • Application of channeling techniques and high resolution transmission electron microscopy to ion-beam damaged zircon MICROSTRUCTURE OF IRRADIATED MATERIALS Bordes, N., Ewing, R. C. 1995; 373: 371-376
  • Effects of ion dose and irradiation temperature on the microstructure of three spinel compositions MICROSTRUCTURE OF IRRADIATED MATERIALS Wang, L. M., Gong, W. L., Bordes, N., Ewing, R. C., Fei, Y. 1995; 373: 407-412
  • CRICHTONITE STRUCTURE TYPE (AM21O38 AND A2M19O36) AS A HOST PHASE IN CRYSTALLINE WASTE FROM CERAMICS SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XVIII, PTS 1 AND 2 Gong, W. L., Ewing, R. C., Wang, L. M., Xie, H. S. 1995; 353: 807-815
  • Ion-beam and electron-beam induced amorphization of berlinite (A1PO(4)) MICROSTRUCTURE OF IRRADIATED MATERIALS Bordes, N., Ewing, R. C. 1995; 373: 395-400
  • PRECIPITATION OF URANINITE IN CHLORITE-BEARING VEINS OF THE HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION ZONE (ARGILE-DE-PILE) OF THE NATURAL NUCLEAR REACTOR AT BANGOMBE, REPUBLIC OF GABON SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XVIII, PTS 1 AND 2 EBERLY, P., Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. 1995; 353: 1195-1202
  • Amorphization of complex ceramics by heavy-particle irradiations MICROSTRUCTURE OF IRRADIATED MATERIALS Ewing, R. C., Wang, L. M., Weber, W. J. 1995; 373: 347-358
  • MATERIALS SCIENCE OF RADIOACTIVE-WASTE FORMS MRS BULLETIN Ewing, R. C., Lutze, W. 1994; 19 (12): 16-18
  • RADIATION EFFECTS IN CERAMICS JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Hobbs, L. W., CLINARD, F. W., Zinkle, S. J., Ewing, R. C. 1994; 216: 291-321
  • ENERGETICS OF RADIATION-DAMAGE IN NATURAL ZIRCON (ZRSIO4) PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF MINERALS Ellsworth, S., NAVROTSKY, A., Ewing, R. C. 1994; 21 (3): 140-149
  • THE METAMICT STATE - 1993 - THE CENTENNIAL NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Ewing, R. C. 1994; 91 (1-4): 22-29
  • THE RADIATION-INDUCED CRYSTALLINE-TO-AMORPHOUS TRANSITION IN ZIRCON JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Weber, W. J., Ewing, R. C., Wang, L. M. 1994; 9 (3): 688-698
  • IN-SITU TEM OBSERVATION OF RADIATION-INDUCED AMORPHIZATION OF CRYSTALS WITH APATITE STRUCTURE HYDROXYAPATITE AND RELATED MATERIALS Wang, L. M., Cameron, M., Weber, W. J., Crowley, K. D., Ewing, R. C. 1994: 243-249
  • Quantitative analysis of displacement cascade damage in ion irradiated TlBa2CaCu2O7 superconductor by digital HRTEM ELECTRON MICROSCOPY 1994, VOLS 2A AND 2B Wang, L. M., Newcomer, P. P., Ewing, R. C., Morosin, B. 1994: 957-958
  • AMORPHIZATION AND DYNAMIC RECOVERY OF A2BO4 STRUCTURE TYPES DURING 1.5-MEV KRYPTON ION-BEAM IRRADIATION CRYSTALLIZATION AND RELATED PHENOMENA IN AMORPHOUS MATERIALS Wang, L. M., Gong, W. L., Ewing, R. C. 1994; 321: 405-410
  • AMORPHIZATION AND DYNAMIC RECOVERY OF A2BO4 STRUCTURE TYPES DURING 1.5 MEV KRYPTON ION-BEAM IRRADIATION MATERIALS SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING USING ION BEAMS Wang, L. M., Gong, W. L., Ewing, R. C. 1994; 316: 247-252
  • PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM THE URANIUM DEPOSIT AT OKLO, REPUBLIC OF GABON RADIOCHIMICA ACTA EBERLY, P., Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. C. 1994; 66-7: 455-461
  • FORMATION, OXIDATION AND ALTERATION OF IANTHINITE SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XVII Finch, R. J., Ewing, R. C. 1994; 333: 625-630
  • Petrographic analysis of samples from the uranium deposit at Oklo, Republic of Gabon CHEMISTRY AND MIGRATION BEHAVIOUR OF ACTINIDES AND FISSION PRODUCTS IN THE GEOSPHERE EBERLY, P., Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. C. 1994: 565-571
  • OXIDATION OF URANINITE - DOES TETRAGONAL U3O7 OCCUR IN NATURE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. C., Thomas, L. E. 1993; 207: 177-191
  • THE STRUCTURE OF APERIODIC, METAMICT (CA,TH)ZRTI2O7 (ZIRCONOLITE) - AN EXAFS STUDY OF THE ZR-SITES, TH-SITES AND U-SITES JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Farges, F., Ewing, R. C., Brown, G. E. 1993; 8 (8): 1983-1995
  • HRTEM STUDY OF DISPLACEMENT CASCADE DAMAGE IN KRYPTON-ION-IRRADIATED SILICATE OLIVINE ULTRAMICROSCOPY Wang, L. M., Miller, M. L., Ewing, R. C. 1993; 51 (1-4): 339-347
  • METAMICT AND CHEMICALLY ALTERED VESUVIANITE CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Eby, R. K., Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. C., Ercit, T. S., Groat, L. A., Chakoumakos, B. C., Hawthorne, F. C., Rossman, G. R. 1993; 31: 357-369
  • ION IRRADIATION-INDUCED NANO-SCALE POLYCRYSTALLIZATION OF INTERMETALLIC AND CERAMIC MATERIALS NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Wang, L. M., BIRTCHER, R. C., Ewing, R. C. 1993; 80-1: 1109-1113
  • CRYSTAL-CHEMISTRY OF SAMARSKITE AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Warner, J. K., Ewing, R. C. 1993; 78 (3-4): 419-424
  • MINERALOGY GEOTIMES Ewing, R. C. 1993; 38 (2): 31-32
  • IMAGE SIMULATION OF PARTIALLY AMORPHOUS MATERIALS ULTRAMICROSCOPY Miller, M. L., Ewing, R. C. 1993; 48 (1-2): 203-237
  • THE AMORPHIZATION OF COMPLEX SILICATES BY ION-BEAM IRRADIATION JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Eby, R. K., Ewing, R. C., BIRTCHER, R. C. 1992; 7 (11): 3080-3102
  • THEMATIC ISSUE ON NUCLEAR WASTE - PREFACE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Ewing, R. C. 1992; 190: R7-R10
  • DISSOLUTION AND ALTERATION OF URANINITE UNDER REDUCING CONDITIONS JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. C. 1992; 190: 157-173
  • THE CORROSION OF URANINITE UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Finch, R. J., Ewing, R. C. 1992; 190: 133-156
  • ALTERATION OF URANIUM MINERALS IN THE KOONGARRA DEPOSIT, AUSTRALIA - UNWEATHERED ZONE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Isobe, H., Murakami, T., Ewing, R. C. 1992; 190: 174-187
  • STRUCTURAL FORMULA OF URANINITE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. C. 1992; 190: 128-132
  • EARTH MATERIALS MRS BULLETIN Ewing, R. C., NAVROTSKY, A. 1992; 17 (5): 19-20
  • ION-BEAM-INDUCED AMORPHIZATION OF COMPLEX CERAMIC MATERIALS MINERALS MRS BULLETIN Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 1992; 17 (5): 38-44
  • DETAILED INSITU STUDY OF ION BEAM-INDUCED AMORPHIZATION OF ZIRCON NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Wang, L. M., Ewing, R. C. 1992; 65 (1-4): 324-329
  • AMORPHIZATION OF ZIRCONOLITE - ALPHA-DECAY EVENT DAMAGE VERSUS KRYPTON ION IRRADIATION NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Ewing, R. C., Wang, L. M. 1992; 65 (1-4): 319-323
  • GEOCHEMICAL ALTERATION OF PYROCHLORE GROUP MINERALS - MICROLITE SUBGROUP AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Lumpkin, G. R., Ewing, R. C. 1992; 77 (1-2): 179-188
  • WEATHERING OF NATURAL URANYL OXIDE HYDRATES - SCHOEPITE POLYTYPES AND DEHYDRATION EFFECTS RADIOCHIMICA ACTA Finch, R. J., Miller, M. L., Ewing, R. C. 1992; 58-9: 433-443
  • STORED ENERGY IN NATURAL ZIRCONOLITE AND ITS SYNTHETIC COUNTERPART AFTER ALPHA-RECOIL SELF-IRRADIATION DAMAGE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS CLINARD, F. W., Foltyn, E. M., Ewing, R. C. 1991; 185 (2): 202-207
  • X-RAY-POWDER DIFFRACTION STUDY OF ANNEALED URANINITE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. C. 1991; 185 (1): 66-77
  • ALPHA-DECAY EVENT DAMAGE IN ZIRCON AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Murakami, T., Chakoumakos, B. C., Ewing, R. C., Lumpkin, G. R., Weber, W. J. 1991; 76 (9-10): 1510-1532
  • INSITU TEM STUDY OF ION-BEAM-INDUCED AMORPHIZATION OF COMPLEX SILICATE STRUCTURES NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Wang, L. M., Eby, R. K., Janeczek, J., Ewing, R. C. 1991; 59: 395-400
  • ACCUMULATION OF STRUCTURAL DEFECTS IN ION-IRRADIATED CA2ND8(SIO4)6O2 JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Weber, W. J., Eby, R. K., Ewing, R. C. 1991; 6 (6): 1334-1345
  • ALPHA-DECAY DAMAGE IN TITANITE AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Hawthorne, F. C., Groat, L. A., Raudsepp, M., Ball, N. A., Kimata, M., SPIKE, F. D., GABA, R., Halden, N. M., Lumpkin, G. R., Ewing, R. C., Greegor, R. B., Lytle, F. W., Ercit, T. S., Rossman, G. R., Wicks, F. J., Ramik, R. A., Sherriff, B. L., Fleet, M. E., Mccammon, C. 1991; 76 (3-4): 370-396
  • ALPHA-RECOIL DAMAGE IN TITANITE (CATISIO5) - DIRECT OBSERVATION AND ANNEALING STUDY USING HIGH-RESOLUTION TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Lumpkin, G. R., Eby, R. K., Ewing, R. C. 1991; 6 (3): 560-564
  • INTERNATIONAL UNION OF MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETIES ESTABLISHED MRS BULLETIN Ewing, R. C. 1991; 16 (2): 33-33
  • HARDNESS AND ELASTIC-MODULUS OF ZIRCON AS A FUNCTION OF HEAVY-PARTICLE IRRADIATION DOSE .1. INSITU ALPHA-DECAY EVENT DAMAGE RADIATION EFFECTS AND DEFECTS IN SOLIDS Chakoumakos, B. C., OLIVER, W. C., Lumpkin, G. R., Ewing, R. C. 1991; 118 (4): 393-403
  • HIGH-LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE IMMOBILIZATION WITH CERAMICS CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL Ewing, R. C., Lutze, W. 1991; 17 (5): 287-293
  • ALTERATION OF NATURAL UO2 UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS FROM SHINKOLOBWE, KATANGA, ZAIRE - A NATURAL ANALOG FOR THE CORROSION OF SPENT FUEL RADIOCHIMICA ACTA Finch, R. J., Ewing, R. C. 1991; 52-3: 395-401
  • PB-IMPLANTED SRTIO3 ANALYZED USING RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING AND SURFACE SENSITIVE EXAFS XANES SPECTROSCOPY JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS Greegor, R. B., Lytle, F. W., Arnold, G. W., Ewing, R. C. 1990; 122 (2): 121-132
  • CHEMICAL CORROSION OF HIGHLY RADIOACTIVE BOROSILICATE NUCLEAR WASTE GLASS UNDER SIMULATED REPOSITORY CONDITIONS JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Werme, L., BJORNER, I. K., Bart, G., ZWICKY, H. U., Grambow, B., Lutze, W., Ewing, R. C., MAGRABI, C. 1990; 5 (5): 1130-1146
  • APPLICATION OF VARIOUS XAFS TECHNIQUES TO THE INVESTIGATION OF STRUCTURALLY DAMAGED MATERIALS PHYSICA B-CONDENSED MATTER Greegor, R. B., Lytle, F. W., Chakoumakos, B. C., Ewing, R. C., LIVAK, R. J., CLINARD, F. W., Crozier, E. D., Alberding, N., SEARY, A. J., Arnold, G. W., Weber, M. J., Wong, J., Weber, W. J. 1989; 158 (1-3): 498-500
  • METAMICT MINERALS - NATURAL ANALOGS FOR RADIATION-DAMAGE EFFECTS IN CERAMIC NUCLEAR WASTE FORMS NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Ewing, R. C., Chakoumakos, B. C., Lumpkin, G. R., Murakami, T., Greegor, R. B., Lytle, F. W. 1988; 32 (1-4): 487-497
  • PREFERENTIAL LEACHING AND NATURAL ANNEALING OF ALPHA-RECOIL TRACKS IN METAMICT BETAFITE AND SAMARSKITE JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Lumpkin, G. R., Ewing, R. C., Eyal, Y. 1988; 3 (2): 357-368
  • ALPHA-DECAY DAMAGE IN MINERALS OF THE PYROCHLORE GROUP PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF MINERALS Lumpkin, G. R., Ewing, R. C. 1988; 16 (1): 2-20
  • ALPHA-DECAY INDUCED FRACTURING IN ZIRCON - THE TRANSITION FROM THE CRYSTALLINE TO THE METAMICT STATE SCIENCE Chakoumakos, B. C., Murakami, T., Lumpkin, G. R., Ewing, R. C. 1987; 236 (4808): 1556-1559

    Abstract

    A natural single crystal of zircon, ZrSiO(4,) from Sri Lanka exhibited zonation due to alpha-decay damage. The zones vary in thickness on a scale from one to hundreds of micrometers. The uranium and thorium concentrations vary from zone to zone such that the alpha-decay dose is between 0.2 x 10(16) and 0.8 x 10(16) alpha-events per milligram (0.15 to 0.60 displacement per atom). The transition from the crystalline to the aperiodic metamict state occurs over this dose range. Differential expansion of individual layers due to variations in their alpha-decay dose caused a systematic pattern of fractures that do not propagate across aperiodic layers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed a systematic change in the microstructure from a periodic atomic array to an aperiodic array with increasing alpha-decay dose. At doses greater than 0.8 x 10(16) alpha-events per milligram there is no evidence for long-range order. This type of damage will accumulate in actinide-bearing, ceramic nuclear waste forms. The systematic pattern of fractures would occur in crystalline phases that are zoned with respect to actinide radionuclides.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987H781800025

    View details for PubMedID 17835739

  • Alpha-recoil damage in zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Lumpkin, G. R., Ewing, R. C., Chakoumakos, B. C., Greegor, R. B., Lytle, F. W., Foltyn, E. M., Clinard, F. W., Boatner, L. A., Abraham, M. M. 1986; 1 (4): 564-576
  • THERMAL RECRYSTALLIZATION OF ALPHA-RECOIL DAMAGED MINERALS OF THE PYROCHLORE STRUCTURE TYPE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Lumpkin, G. R., Foltyn, E. M., Ewing, R. C. 1986; 139 (2): 113-120
  • JAHNS,R.H. MEMORIAL ISSUE - THE MINERALOGY, PETROLOGY, AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF GRANITIC PEGMATITES AND RELATED GRANITIC-ROCKS - INTRODUCTION AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Brown, G. E., Ewing, R. C. 1986; 71 (3-4): 233-238
  • MEMORIAL OF JAHNS,RICHARD,HENRY MARCH 10, 1915 DECEMBER 31, 1983 AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Brown, G. E., Ewing, R. C. 1986; 71 (3-4): 652-654
  • MINERALOGY AND RADIATION EFFECTS OF MICROLITE FROM THE HARDING PEGMATITE, TAOS COUNTY, NEW-MEXICO AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Lumpkin, G. R., Chakoumakos, B. C., Ewing, R. C. 1986; 71 (3-4): 569-588
  • ALTERATION OF BASALT GLASSES - IMPLICATIONS FOR MODELING THE LONG-TERM STABILITY OF NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES NATURE Lutze, W., MALOW, G., Ewing, R. C., Jercinovic, M. J., Keil, K. 1985; 314 (6008): 252-255
  • TI-SITE GEOMETRY IN METAMICT, ANNEALED AND SYNTHETIC COMPLEX TI-NB-TA OXIDES BY X-RAY ABSORPTION-SPECTROSCOPY NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Greegor, R. B., Lytle, F. W., Ewing, R. C., HAAKER, R. F. 1984; 1 (2-3): 587-594
  • ALTERATION EFFECTS AND LEACH RATES OF BASALTIC GLASSES - IMPLICATIONS FOR THE LONG-TERM STABILITY OF NUCLEAR WASTE FORM BOROSILICATE GLASSES JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS MALOW, G., Lutze, W., Ewing, R. C. 1984; 67 (1-3): 305-321
  • ALPHA-RECOIL DAMAGE IN NATURAL ZIRCONOLITE (CAZRTI2O7) JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS Ewing, R. C., Headley, T. J. 1983; 119 (1): 102-109
  • THE HARDING PEGMATITE - A SUMMARY OF RECENT RESEARCH AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Chakoumakos, B. C., REGISTER, M. E., BROOKINS, D. G., Ewing, R. C., Landis, G. P. 1982; 67 (1-2): 182-183
  • RADIATION-DAMAGE IN NATURAL MATERIALS - ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR RADIOACTIVE-WASTE FORMS BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Ewing, R. C. 1981; 26 (3): 401-401
  • SOLUTION-GELATION METHOD FOR PREPARING POLYCRYSTALLINE ZIRCON JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY HAAKER, R. F., Ewing, R. C. 1981; 64 (11): C149-C149
  • AMORPHOUS STRUCTURE OF METAMICT MINERALS OBSERVED BY TEM NATURE Headley, T. J., Ewing, R. C., HAAKER, R. F. 1981; 293 (5832): 449-450
  • DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL-ANALYSIS OF SOME IRRADIATED MATERIALS - DISCUSSION AMERICAN MINERALOGIST HAAKER, R. F., Ewing, R. C. 1979; 64 (9-10): 1131-1132
  • METAMICT STATE - RADIATION-DAMAGE IN CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY BULLETIN Ewing, R. C., HAAKER, R. F. 1979; 58 (3): 326-326
  • CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MINERAL CHEMISTRY OF HAWAIIAN ROCKS .7. BARIAN-TITANIAN BIOTITES IN NEPHELINITES FROM OAHU, HAWAII AMERICAN MINERALOGIST MANSKER, W. L., Ewing, R. C., Keil, K. 1979; 64 (1-2): 156-159
  • CRYSTAL-STRUCTURES OF THSIO4 POLYMORPHS - HUTTONITE AND THORITE ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION B-STRUCTURAL SCIENCE Taylor, M., Ewing, R. C. 1978; 34 (APR): 1074-1079
  • ROWLANDITE FROM BARRINGER HILL RARE-EARTH PEGMATITE DISTRICT, LLANO AND BURNET COUNTIES, TEXAS AMERICAN MINERALOGIST CROOK, W., Ewing, R. C., Ehlmann, A. J. 1978; 63 (7-8): 754-756
  • EUXENITE FROM AMPANGABE, MADAGASCAR CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Ewing, R. C., SNETSINGER, K. G., Bunch, T. E. 1977; 15: 92-96
  • DARAPSKITE, NA3(NO3)(SO4)H2O, A NEW OCCURRENCE, IN TEXAS MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE Hill, C. A., Ewing, R. C. 1977; 41 (320): 548-550
  • METAMICT COLUMBITE REEXAMINED MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE Ewing, R. C. 1976; 40 (316): 898-899
  • METAMICT MINERAL ALTERATION - IMPLICATION FOR RADIOACTIVE-WASTE DISPOSAL SCIENCE Ewing, R. C. 1976; 192 (4246): 1336-1337

    Abstract

    Pervasive alteration is a common feature of metamict minerals. Previous studies of metamict niobium-tantalum-titanium oxides and electron microprobe analyses of altered areas in metamict yttrialite document the leaching of uranium, thorium, and rare earth elements. These data suggest that glasses may not provide a stable medium for radioactive waste disposal.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1976BU52900019

    View details for PubMedID 17739840

  • CRYSTAL-STRUCTURES OF THSIO4 POLYMORPHS, THORITE AND HUTTONITE TRANSACTIONS-AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION Taylor, M., Ewing, R. C. 1975; 56 (12): 1076-1076
  • CRYSTAL-CHEMISTRY OF COMPLEX NIOBIUM AND TANTALUM OXIDES .4. METAMICT STATE - DISCUSSION AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Ewing, R. C. 1975; 60 (7-8): 728-733