Phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase II alpha licenses phagosomes for TLR4 signaling and MHC-II presentation in dendritic cells
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2020; 117 (45): 28251–62
Toll-like receptor (TLR) recruitment to phagosomes in dendritic cells (DCs) and downstream TLR signaling are essential to initiate antimicrobial immune responses. However, the mechanisms underlying TLR localization to phagosomes are poorly characterized. We show herein that phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase IIα (PI4KIIα) plays a key role in initiating phagosomal TLR4 responses in murine DCs by generating a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) platform conducive to the binding of the TLR sorting adaptor Toll-IL1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP). PI4KIIα is recruited to maturing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-containing phagosomes in an adaptor protein-3 (AP-3)-dependent manner, and both PI4KIIα and PtdIns4P are detected on phagosomal membrane tubules. Knockdown of PI4KIIα-but not the related PI4KIIβ-impairs TIRAP and TLR4 localization to phagosomes, reduces proinflammatory cytokine secretion, abolishes phagosomal tubule formation, and impairs major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) presentation. Phagosomal TLR responses in PI4KIIα-deficient DCs are restored by reexpression of wild-type PI4KIIα, but not of variants lacking kinase activity or AP-3 binding. Our data indicate that PI4KIIα is an essential regulator of phagosomal TLR signaling in DCs by ensuring optimal TIRAP recruitment to phagosomes.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2001948117
View details for Web of Science ID 000590745300008
View details for PubMedID 33109721
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7668187
A guide to measuring phagosomal dynamics.
The FEBS journal
Phagocytosis is an essential mechanism for immunity and homeostasis, performed by a subset of cells known as phagocytes. Upon target engulfment, de novo formation of specialized compartments termed phagosomes takes place. Phagosomes then undergo a series of fusion and fission events as they interact with the endolysosomal system and other organelles, in a dynamic process known as phagosome maturation. Because phagocytes play a key role in tissue patrolling and immune surveillance, phagosome maturation is associated with signaling pathways to link phagocytosis to antigen presentation and the development of adaptive immune responses. In addition, and depending on the nature of the cargo, phagosome integrity may be compromised, triggering additional cellular mechanisms including inflammation and autophagy. Upon completion of maturation, phagosomes enter a recently described phase: phagosome resolution, where catabolites from degraded cargo are metabolized, phagosomes are resorbed and vesicles of phagosomal origin are recycled. Finally, phagocytes return to homeostasis and become ready for a new round of phagocytosis. Altogether, phagosome maturation and resolution encompass a series of dynamic events and organelle crosstalk that can be measured by biochemical, imaging, photoluminescence, cytometric and immune-based assays that will be described in this Guide.
View details for DOI 10.1111/febs.15506
View details for PubMedID 32757358
Phagosome-Endoplasmic Reticulum contacts: kissing and not running.
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark)
The role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in phagocytosis has been the subject of debate for over a decade. Proteomic determinations and dynamic microscopy of live cells led to conflicting conclusions. Recent insights into the existence of a variety of membrane contact sites may help reconcile the seemingly disparate views. Specifically, earlier results can be rationalized considering that the ER forms specialized membrane contact sites with nascent and maturing phagosomes, without undergoing fusion. The composition and function of documented ER-to-phagosome contact sites is described. In addition, we speculate about the possible existence of additional phagosomal contact sites, based on available knowledge of interactions between the ER and other endocytic compartments. The interaction between phagosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been the subject of debate. Earlier observations that led to the suggestion that the ER fuses with the phagosomal membrane can now be explained in the light of recent evidence that intimate contacts form between the two organelles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1111/tra.12708
View details for PubMedID 31650670
Phagolysosome resolution requires contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate signalling.
Nature cell biology
Phosphoinositides have a pivotal role in the maturation of nascent phagosomes into microbicidal phagolysosomes. Following degradation of their contents, mature phagolysosomes undergo resolution, a process that remains largely uninvestigated. Here we studied the role of phosphoinositides in phagolysosome resolution. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P), which is abundant in maturing phagolysosomes, was depleted as they tubulated and resorbed. Depletion was caused, in part, by transfer of phagolysosomal PtdIns(4)P to the endoplasmic reticulum, a process mediated by oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 1L (ORP1L), a RAB7 effector. ORP1L formed discrete tethers between the phagolysosome and the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in distinct regions with alternating PtdIns(4)P depletion and enrichment. Tubules emerged from PtdIns(4)P-rich regions, where ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 8B (ARL8B) and SifA- and kinesin-interacting protein/pleckstrin homology domain-containing family M member 2 (SKIP/PLEKHM2) accumulated. SKIP binds preferentially to monophosphorylated phosphoinositides, of which PtdIns(4)P is most abundant in phagolysosomes, contributing to their tubulation. Accordingly, premature hydrolysis of PtdIns(4)P impaired SKIP recruitment and phagosome resolution. Thus, resolution involves phosphoinositides and tethering of phagolysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41556-019-0394-2
View details for PubMedID 31570833
Identification of phagocytosis regulators using magnetic genome-wide CRISPR screens.
Phagocytosis is required for a broad range of physiological functions, from pathogen defense to tissue homeostasis, but the mechanisms required for phagocytosis of diverse substrates remain incompletely understood. Here, we developed a rapid magnet-based phenotypic screening strategy, and performed eight genome-wide CRISPR screens in human cells to identify genes regulating phagocytosis of distinct substrates. After validating select hits in focused miniscreens, orthogonal assays and primary human macrophages, we show that (1) the previously uncharacterized gene NHLRC2 is a central player in phagocytosis, regulating RhoA-Rac1 signaling cascades that control actin polymerization and filopodia formation, (2) very-long-chain fatty acids are essential for efficient phagocytosis of certain substrates and (3) the previously uncharacterized Alzheimer's disease-associated gene TM2D3 can preferentially influence uptake of amyloid-beta aggregates. These findings illuminate new regulators and core principles of phagocytosis, and more generally establish an efficient method for unbiased identification of cellular uptake mechanisms across diverse physiological and pathological contexts.
View details for PubMedID 30397336