- Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Clinical Associate Professor, Pediatrics - Infectious Diseases
Co-Medical Director, Infection Prevention and Control at LPCH (2021 - Present)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Member, Infectious Diseases Society of America (2008 - Present)
Member, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (2012 - Present)
Member, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (2012 - Present)
Fellowship: Stanford University Pediatric Infectious Disease Fellowship (2011) CA
Residency: University of Illinois at Chicago Pediatric Residency (2008) IL
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Diseases (2011)
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2008)
Medical Education: Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College (2003) India
The Association Between Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection and Central Line Access.
Critical care medicine
OBJECTIVES: Identifying modifiable risk factors associated with central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) may lead to modifications to central line (CL) management. We hypothesize that the number of CL accesses per day is associated with an increased risk for CLABSI and that a significant fraction of CL access may be substituted with non-CL routes.DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with at least one CL device day from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019. A multivariate mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between the number of CL accesses in a given CL device day and prevalence of CLABSI within the following 3 days.SETTING: A 395-bed pediatric academic medical center.PATIENTS: Patients with at least one CL device day from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019.INTERVENTIONS: None.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 138,411 eligible CL device days across 6,543 patients, with 639 device days within 3 days of a CLABSI (a total of 217 CLABSIs). The number of per-day CL accesses was independently associated with risk of CLABSI in the next 3 days (adjusted odds ratio, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.003-1.012; p = 0.002). Of medications administered through CLs, 88% were candidates for delivery through a peripheral line. On average, these accesses contributed a 6.3% increase in daily risk for CLABSI.CONCLUSIONS: The number of daily CL accesses is independently associated with risk of CLABSI in the next 3 days. In the pediatric population examined, most medications delivered through CLs could be safely administered peripherally. Efforts to reduce CL access may be an important strategy to include in contemporary CLABSI-prevention bundles.
View details for DOI 10.1097/CCM.0000000000005838
View details for PubMedID 36920081
Importance of inclusive leadership in the pandemic response: the critical role of the physician.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in multiple logistical and communication challenges in the face of ever-changing guidance, disease prevalence and increasing evidence.At Stanford Children's Health (SCH), we felt physician input was an important element of pandemic response infrastructure, given our lens into patient care across its continuum. We formed the COVID-19 Physician Liaison Team (CPLT) consisting of representative physicians across the care continuum. The CPLT met regularly and communicated to the SCH's COVID-19 task force responsible for the ongoing organisation pandemic response. The CPLT problem-solved around various issues including testing, patient care on our COVID-19 inpatient unit and communication gaps.The CPLT contributed to conservation of rapid COVID-19 tests for critical patient care needs, decreased incident reports on our COVID-19 inpatient unit and helped enhance communication across the organisation, with a focus on physicians.In retrospect, the approach taken was in line with a distributed leadership model with physicians as integral members contributing to active lines of communication, continual problem-solving and new pathways to provide care.
View details for DOI 10.1136/leader-2022-000605
View details for PubMedID 37192092
Importance of inclusive leadership in the pandemic response: the critical role of the physician
View details for DOI 10.1136/leader-2022-000605
View details for Web of Science ID 000910504000001
Pediatric surgical site infections in 287 hospitals in the United States, 2015-2018.
Infection control and hospital epidemiology
Among 287 US hospitals reporting data between 2015 and 2018, annual pediatric surgical site infection (SSI) rates ranged from 0% for gallbladder to 10.4% for colon surgeries. Colon, spinal fusion, and small-bowel SSI rates did not decrease with greater surgical volumes in contrast to appendix and ventricular-shunt SSI rates.
View details for DOI 10.1017/ice.2022.154
View details for PubMedID 35801814
Fatal nocardiosis infection in a pediatric patient with an immunodeficiency after heart re-transplantation.
BACKGROUND: Nocardia infections are rare opportunistic infections in SOT recipients, with few reported pediatric cases. Pediatric patients with single ventricle congenital heart defects requiring HT may be more susceptible to opportunistic infections due to a decreased T-cell repertoire from early thymectomy and potential immunodeficiencies related to their congenital heart disease. Other risk factors in SOT recipients include the use of immunosuppressive medications and the development of persistent lymphopenia, delayed count recovery and/or lymphocyte dysfunction.METHODS: We report the case of a patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who underwent neonatal congenital heart surgery (with thymectomy) prior to palliative surgery and 2 HTs.RESULTS: After developing respiratory and neurological symptoms, the patient was found to be positive for Nocardia farcinica by BAL culture and cerebrospinal fluid PCR. Immune cell phenotyping demonstrated an attenuated T and B-cell repertoire. Despite antibiotic and immunoglobulin therapy, his symptoms worsened and he was subsequently discharged with hospice care.CONCLUSION: Pediatric patients with a history of congenital heart defects who undergo neonatal thymectomy prior to heart transplantation and a long-term history of immunosuppression should undergo routine immune system profiling to evaluate for T- and B-cell deficiency as risk factors for opportunistic infection. Such patients could benefit from long-term therapy with TMP/SMX for optimal antimicrobial prophylaxis, with desensitization as needed for allergies. Disseminated nocardiosis should be considered when evaluating acutely ill SOT recipients, especially those with persistent lymphopenia and known or suspected secondary immunodeficiencies.
View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.14344
View details for PubMedID 35726843
Novel Utilization of Strand-Specific Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction in Perioperative Clinical Decision Making for SARS-CoV-2 Polymerase Chain Reaction Positive Patients.
In order to prevent in-hospital transmission and potential complications related to SARS-CoV-2 in the perioperative patient, most healthcare institutions require preoperative testing for SARS-CoV-2 prior to proceeding with elective surgery. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a time and symptom-based duration of isolation for the presumed infectious period. The guidance to avoid retesting of asymptomatic patients in the 90days following a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is because of the possibility of detection of non-infectious viral shedding. When to reschedule asymptomatic patients who test RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 preoperatively is of considerable debate, both from the perspective of ensuring a patient's full preoperative fitness, as well as reducing the risk of viral transmission within the hospital. We describe the novel perioperative use of a strand-specific assay to detect minus strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) in a clinical decision-making algorithm to determine optimal timing of elective surgery after a patient tests RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2. This is the first description in the literature of an attempt to further stratify patients who repeatedly test positive for SARS-CoV-2 into infectious versus non-infectious for perioperative planning.
View details for DOI 10.1111/pan.14448
View details for PubMedID 35338765
Development and Implementation of a Real-time Bundle-adherence Dashboard for Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infections.
Pediatric quality & safety
2021; 6 (4): e431
Introduction: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infection in pediatric patients. High adherence to the CLABSI bundle mitigates CLABSIs. At our institution, there did not exist a hospital-wide system to measure bundle-adherence. We developed an electronic dashboard to monitor CLABSI bundle-adherence across the hospital and in real time.Methods: Institutional stakeholders and areas of opportunity were identified through interviews and data analyses. We created a data pipeline to pull adherence data from twice-daily bundle checks and populate a dashboard in the electronic health record. The dashboard was developed to allow visualization of overall and individual element bundle-adherence across units. Monthly dashboard accesses and element-level bundle-adherence were recorded, and the nursing staff's feedback about the dashboard was obtained.Results: Following deployment in September 2018, the dashboard was primarily accessed by quality improvement, clinical effectiveness and analytics, and infection prevention and control. Quality improvement and infection prevention and control specialists presented dashboard data at improvement meetings to inform unit-level accountability initiatives. All-element adherence across the hospital increased from 25% in September 2018 to 44% in December 2019, and average adherence to each bundle element increased between 2018 and 2019.Conclusions: CLABSI bundle-adherence, overall and by element, increased across the hospital following the deployment of a real-time electronic data dashboard. The dashboard enabled population-level surveillance of CLABSI bundle-adherence that informed bundle accountability initiatives. Data transparency enabled by electronic dashboards promises to be a useful tool for infectious disease control.
View details for DOI 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000431
View details for PubMedID 34235355
Post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infections and incidence of presumptive B.1.427/B.1.429 variant among healthcare personnel at a northern California academic medical center.
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
BACKGROUND: Although mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines report ≥90% efficacy, breakthrough infections occur. Little is known about the effectiveness of these vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the highly-prevalent B.1.427/B.1.429 variant in California..METHODS: In this quality improvement project, we collected demographic and clinical information from post-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 cases (PVSCs), defined as health care personnel (HCP) with positive SARS-CoV-2 NAAT after receiving ≥1 vaccine dose. Available specimens were tested for L452R, N501Y and E484K mutations by RT-PCR. Mutation prevalence was compared among unvaccinated, early post-vaccinated (<=14 days after dose 1), partially vaccinated (positive test >14 days after dose 1 and ≤14 days after dose 2) and fully vaccinated (>14 days after dose 2) PVSCs.RESULTS: From December 2020-April 2021, >=23,090 HCPS received at least1 dose of an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and 660 HCP cases of SARS-CoV-2 occurred of which 189 were PVSCs. Among the PVSCs, 114 (60.3%), 49 (25.9%) and 26 (13.8%) were early post-vaccination, partially vaccinated, and fully vaccinated, respectively. Of 261 available samples from vaccinated and unvaccinated HCP, 103 (39.5%), including 42 PVSCs (36.5%), had L452R mutation presumed to be B.1.427/B.1.429,. When adjusted for community prevalence of B.1.427/B.1.429, PVSCs did not have significantly elevated risk for infection with B.1.427/B.1.429 compared with unvaccinated HCP.CONCLUSIONS: Most PVSCs occurred prior to expected onset of full, vaccine-derived immunity. Presumptive B.1.427/B.1.429 was not more prevalent in post-vaccine cases than in unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 HCP. Continued infection control measures, particularly ≤14 days post-vaccination, and continued variant surveillance in PVSCs is imperative to control future SARS-CoV-2 surges.
View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciab554
View details for PubMedID 34137815
"For COVID" or "With COVID": Classification of SARS-CoV-2 Hospitalizations in Children.
View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2021-006001
View details for PubMedID 34011566
Strand Specific Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Replicating SARS-CoV-2
EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2021; 27 (2): 632–35
We developed an assay that detects minus-strand RNA as a surrogate for actively replicating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We detected minus-strand RNA in 41 persons with coronavirus disease up to 30 days after symptom onset. This assay might inform clinical decision-making about patient infectiousness.
View details for DOI 10.3201/eid2702.204168
View details for Web of Science ID 000631538500043
View details for PubMedID 33496233
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7853532
SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in Healthcare Personnel in Northern California Early in the COVID-19 Pandemic.
Infection control and hospital epidemiology
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the magnitude of unidentified SARS-CoV-2 infections in our healthcare personnel (HCP) early in the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluate risk factors for infection in order to identify areas for infection control practice improvement in a northern California academic medical center.METHODS: We reviewed the anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG serologic test results and self-reported risk factors for seropositivity among 10,449 asymptomatic HCP who underwent voluntary serology testing between April 20 and May 20, 2020.RESULTS: In total, 136 employees (1.3%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG. This included 41 (30.1%) individuals who had previously tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) between March 13 and April 16, 2020. In multivariable analysis, employees of Hispanic ethnicity (OR = 2.01; 95% CI = 1.22-3.46) and those working in environmental services/food services/patient transport (OR = 4.81; 95% CI = 2.08-10.30) were at increased risk for seropositivity compared to other groups. Employees reporting a household contact with COVID-19 were also at higher risk for seropositivity (OR = 3.25; 95% CI = 1.47-6.44), but those with a work exposure were not (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 0.58-2.47). Importantly, one-third of seropositive individuals reported no prior symptoms, no suspected exposures, and no prior positive RT-PCR test.CONCLUSION: In this study, SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCP early in the northern California epidemic appeared to be quite low and was more likely attributable to community rather than occupational exposure.
View details for DOI 10.1017/ice.2020.1358
View details for PubMedID 33292895
Reduction of Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection Through Focus on the Mesosystem: Standardization, Data, and Accountability.
Pediatric quality & safety
2020; 5 (2): e272
Introduction: Efforts to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates require strong microsystems for success. However, variation in practices across units leads to challenges in ensuring accountability. We redesigned the organization's mesosystem to provide oversight and alignment of microsystem efforts and ensure accountability in the context of the macrosystem. We implemented an A3 framework to achieve reductions in CLABSI through adherence to known evidence-based bundles.Methods: We conducted this CLABSI reduction improvement initiative at a 395-bed freestanding, academic, university-affiliated children's hospital. A mesosystem-focused A3 emphasized bundle adherence through 3 key drivers (1) practice standardization, (2) data transparency, and (3) accountability. We evaluated the impact of this intervention on CLABSI rates during the pre-intervention (01/15-09/17) and post-intervention (07/18-06/19) periods using a Poisson model controlling for baseline trends.Results: Our quarterly CLABSI rates during the pre-intervention period ranged from 1.0 to 2.3 CLABSIs per 1,000 central line-days. With the mesosystem in place, CLABSI rates ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 per 1,000 central line days during the post-intervention period. Adjusting for secular trends, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the post versus pre-intervention CLABSI rate of 71%.Conclusion: Our hospital-wide CLABSI rate declined for the first time in many years after the redesign of the mesosystem and a focus on practice standardization, data transparency, and accountability. Our approach highlights the importance of alignment across unit-level microsystems to ensure high-fidelity implementation of practice standards throughout the healthcare-delivery system.
View details for DOI 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000272
View details for PubMedID 32426638
Differences in Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Rates Based on the Criteria Used to Count Central Line Days.
2020; 323 (2): 183–85
View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2019.18616
View details for PubMedID 31935018
COVID-19 and Kawasaki Disease: Novel Virus and Novel Case.
View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2020-0123
View details for PubMedID 32265235
Health Care-Associated Infections Among Critically Ill Children in the US, 2013-2018.
Central catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) increase morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in pediatric patients.To examine changes over time in CLABSI and CAUTI rates between 2013 and 2018 in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) using prospective surveillance data from community hospitals, children's hospitals, and pediatric units within general hospitals.This time series study included 176 US hospitals reporting pediatric health care-associated infection surveillance data to the National Healthcare Safety Network from January 1, 2013, to June 30, 2018. Patients aged 18 years or younger admitted to PICUs or level III NICUs were included in the analysis.The primary outcomes were device-associated rates of CLABSI in NICUs and PICUs and CAUTI in PICUs (infections per 1000 device-days). Secondary outcomes included population-based rates (infections per 10 000 patient-days) and device utilization (device-days per patient-days). Regression models were fit using generalized estimating equations to assess yearly changes in CLABSI and CAUTI rates, adjusted for birth weight (≤1500 vs >1500 g) in neonatal models.Of the 176 hospitals, 132 hospitals with NICUs and 114 hospitals with PICUs contributed data. Of these, NICUs reported 6 064 172 patient-days and 1 363 700 central line-days and PICUs reported 1 999 979 patient-days, 925 956 central catheter-days, and 327 599 indwelling urinary catheter-days. In NICUs, there were no significant changes in yearly trends in device-associated (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per year, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.95-1.03) and population-based (IRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-1.00) CLABSI rates or central catheter utilization (odds ratio [OR], 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-1.00). Results were similar in PICUs, with device-associated (IRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.99-1.07) and population-based (IRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.99-1.07) CLABSI rates and central catheter utilization (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01) remaining stable. While device-associated CAUTI rates in PICUs also remained unchanged over time (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.91-1.03), population-based CAUTI rates significantly decreased by 8% per year (IRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.98) and indwelling urinary catheter utilization significantly decreased by 6% per year (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96).Recent trends in CLABSI rates noted in this study among critically ill neonates and children in a large cohort of US hospitals indicate that past gains have held, without evidence of further improvements, suggesting novel approaches for CLABSI prevention are needed. Modest improvements in population-based CAUTI rates likely reflect more judicious use of urinary catheters.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.3223
View details for PubMedID 33017011
Mucormycosis diagnosed during induction chemotherapy in five pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pediatric blood & cancer
Mucormycosis in pediatric oncology patients is a rare invasive fungal infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We describe five patients diagnosed with mucormycosis during induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia at our institution. All of the patients in our series survived, some in spite of having disseminated disease. Most of the patients' chemotherapy was modified with the aim of controlling their leukemia while minimizing immunosuppression until their fungal infection was under control. Although mucormycosis is frequently fatal, rapid diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach can lead to excellent outcomes, even in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy.
View details for DOI 10.1002/pbc.27834
View details for PubMedID 31131954
Foregone Inclusion: Neonatal CMV Hepatitis and Cholestasis.
Digestive diseases and sciences
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-019-05691-7
View details for PubMedID 31187327
Complicated pneumonia: current concepts and state of the art.
Current opinion in pediatrics
This review aims to provide clinicians engaged in the care of infants and children an update on the current understanding of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic evaluation, and clinical management of complicated pneumonia. The review provides timely information surrounding areas of consensus and ongoing research.The epidemiology and etiologies of complicated pneumonia continue to evolve over the past several decades in context of the introduction of new vaccines. We review uncommon and emerging pathogens. Immunocompromised patients are particularly at risk for complications. The 2011 clinical practice guidelines for pediatric community-acquired pneumonia from The Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America and the British Thoracic Society are changing approaches to evaluation and management. The efficacy of new diagnostic laboratory studies, and imaging techniques, continues to be studied. Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment, with several new options to consider. Techniques for the drainage of parapneumonic effusions continue to optimize.Although much is known about complicated pneumonia, it remains a significant burden. New diagnostic and therapeutic interventions hold much promise. This review seeks to provide clinicians with evidence that motivates a reasoned approach to the evaluation and management of complicated pneumonia.
View details for PubMedID 29528891
Pleural Effusion and Fever in an Immunocompromised Patient.
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
2015; 4 (1): e6-9
View details for DOI 10.1093/jpids/piu018
View details for PubMedID 26407371