Clinical Focus

  • Internal Medicine

Academic Appointments

  • Clinical Assistant Professor, Medicine

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2023)
  • Residency: Stanford University Internal Medicine Residency (2023) CA
  • Medical Education: Duke University School of Medicine (2020) NC

All Publications

  • Renal cell carcinoma with metastasis to the pancreas: Genomic signatures and clinical outcomes Glover, M., Chiang, R. S., Hoerner, C. R., Khan, O. A., Kao, C., Shah, S., Srinivas, S., Fan, A. C., Khaki, A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2023
  • Racial diversity and reporting in United States Food and Drug Administration registration trials for thoracic malignancies from 2006-2020. Cancer investigation Chiang, R. S., Desai, A., Glover, M. J., Hui, G., Ramchandran, K. J., Wakelee, H., Lythgoe, M. P., Khaki, A. R. 2022: 1-6


    There is significant racial disparity in thoracic malignancies in terms of epidemiology and outcomes. We analyzed race reporting and racial diversity in the registration trials of drugs approved by the FDA for thoracic malignancies from 2006-2020. We found a significant under-representation of non-white participants in FDA drug registration trials in thoracic malignancies. Furthermore, though almost all trials report some race information, FDA guidelines are not universally followed. There is a disproportionate disease burden of lung cancer in under-represented race communities, and clinical trials should prioritize racial diversity and inclusion efforts.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/07357907.2022.2131808

    View details for PubMedID 36197034

  • Association of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastatic to pancreas with a distinct molecular profile and immune cell population. Chiang, R. S., Ashok, A., Mauer, E., Barrett, A., Hoerner, C. R., Khan, O. A., Kao, C., Shah, S., Srinivas, S., Fan, A. C., Khaki, A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022
  • Immunotherapy for Urothelial Carcinoma: Focus on Clinical Utility of Nivolumab. OncoTargets and therapy Chiang, R. S., Glover, M. J., Khaki, A. R., Srinivas, S. 2022; 15: 1259-1269


    Over the past decade, the emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors has brought about significant change to the treatment landscape of bladder cancer. Nivolumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor that has shown favorable results resulting in FDA approval for treatment of platinum-refractory locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. More recently, it was the first (and only) immune checkpoint inhibitor to receive FDA approval for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma in the adjuvant setting after radical surgery. Multiple trials are now actively underway to further understand the nuances in which immune checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab can be beneficial. In this review, we explore the development of nivolumab in terms of its mechanism of action, its growing indications in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma, and potential future directions for clinical trials.Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a promising treatment for bladder cancer, but further work is needed to continue to improve outcomes for patients.

    View details for DOI 10.2147/OTT.S369043

    View details for PubMedID 36275184

  • Metastatic Parotid Gland Carcinoma With ERBB2 Amplification With Complete Response to Fam-Trastuzumab Deruxtecan. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN Shukla, N. D., Chiang, R. S., Colevas, A. D. 2022; 20 (2): 102-104


    HER2 mutations have been shown to be targetable in select cases of salivary gland cancers with overexpression or amplification of the HER2 oncogene. Fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan, a novel antibody-drug conjugate that combines trastuzumab with a topoisomerase I inhibitor, has recently demonstrated efficacy as a third-line agent in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer after trastuzumab failure. These promising results in breast cancer suggest a potential paradigm for use in other tumors with known HER2 alterations, including salivary gland cancer. This report describes a 67-year-old man with HER2-positive metastatic parotid gland carcinoma who experienced disease progression after parotidectomy with adjuvant cisplatin-based chemoradiation, neratinib, and ado-trastuzumab emtansine. After disease progression on the latter HER2-directed therapy, his malignancy demonstrated complete response to fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan, which has been sustained for the past 7 months. Fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan appears to be a well-tolerated therapeutic option in patients with HER2-positive salivary gland carcinoma, with activity demonstrated after progression on ado-trastuzumab emtansine and HER2-directed kinase inhibition. Further studies should be conducted to explore the use of this agent in HER2-positive salivary gland cancers.

    View details for DOI 10.6004/jnccn.2021.7089

    View details for PubMedID 35130504

  • Efficacy of enfortumab vedotin in advanced urothelial cancer: Analysis from the Urothelial Cancer Network to Investigate Therapeutic Experiences (UNITE) study. Cancer Koshkin, V. S., Henderson, N., James, M., Natesan, D., Freeman, D., Nizam, A., Su, C. T., Khaki, A. R., Osterman, C. K., Glover, M. J., Chiang, R., Makrakis, D., Talukder, R., Lemke, E., Olsen, T. A., Jain, J., Jang, A., Ali, A., Jindal, T., Chou, J., Friedlander, T. W., Hoimes, C., Basu, A., Zakharia, Y., Barata, P. C., Bilen, M. A., Emamekhoo, H., Davis, N. B., Shah, S. A., Milowsky, M. I., Gupta, S., Campbell, M. T., Grivas, P., Sonpavde, G. P., Kilari, D., Alva, A. S. 2021


    BACKGROUND: Enfortumab vedotin (EV) is a novel antibody-drug conjugate approved for advanced urothelial cancer (aUC) refractory to prior therapy. In the Urothelial Cancer Network to Investigate Therapeutic Experiences (UNITE) study, the authors looked at the experience with EV in patient subsets of interest for which activity had not been well defined in clinical trials.METHODS: UNITE was a retrospective study of patients with aUC treated with recently approved agents. This initial analysis focused on patients treated with EV. Patient data were abstracted from chart reviews by investigators at each site. The observed response rate (ORR) was investigator-assessed for patients with at least 1 post-baseline scan or clear evidence of clinical progression. ORRs were compared across subsets of interest for patients treated with EV monotherapy.RESULTS: The initial UNITE analysis included 304 patients from 16 institutions; 260 of these patients were treated with EV monotherapy and included in the analyses. In the monotherapy cohort, the ORR was 52%, and it was >40% in all reported subsets of interest, including patients with comorbidities previously excluded from clinical trials (baseline renal impairment, diabetes, and neuropathy) and patients with fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) alterations. Progression-free survival and overall survival were 6.8 and 14.4 months, respectively. Patients with a pure urothelial histology had a higher ORR than patients with a variant histology component (58% vs 42%; P = .06).CONCLUSIONS: In a large retrospective cohort, responses to EV monotherapy were consistent with data previously reported in clinical trials and were also observed in various patient subsets, including patients with variant histology, patients with FGFR3 alterations, and patients previously excluded from clinical trials with an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min and significant comorbidities.LAY SUMMARY: Enfortumab vedotin, approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2019, is an important new drug for the treatment of patients with advanced bladder cancer. This study looks at the effectiveness of enfortumab vedotin as it has been used at multiple centers since approval, and focuses on important patient populations previously excluded from clinical trials. These populations include patients with decreased kidney function, diabetes, and important mutations. Enfortumab vedotin is effective for treating these patients. Previously reported clinical trial data have been replicated in this real-world setting, and support the use of this drug in broader patient populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.34057

    View details for PubMedID 34882781

  • Disparity of Race Reporting in FDA Drug Approvals for Urinary System Cancers from 2006 to 2021. BJU international Glover, M., Hui, G., Chiang, R., Savage, P., Krell, J., Julve, M., Grivas, P., Lythgoe, M., Khaki, A. R. 2021


    BACKGROUND: Significant racial disparity exists in urinary system cancers (urothelial carcinoma [UC] and renal cell carcinoma [RCC]), in terms of epidemiology, access to therapy and outcomes. We analyzed racial diversity and race reporting in FDA drug registration trials for UC and RCC.METHOD: All FDA pivotal registration trials between 2006-2021 for both UC and RCC were identified. The trials were analyzed to check for compliance with current FDA recommendations for race reporting. Additional information on participant recruitment and race was obtained to assess representation based on cancer type.RESULTS: From 2006-2021 there were 30 new drug registrations for the management of urinary systems cancers, of which 16 in RCC and 14 in UC. Overall, 70% of these trials reported data on racial representation, however, only 43% reported data stratified into five categories as recommended by the FDA.CONCLUSION: We found a significant under-representation of non-white participants in FDA drug registration clinical trials in UC and RCC. Race reporting is inconsistent and FDA guidelines are not being universally followed. Considering the disproportionate disease burden in UC and RCC, clinical trials should prioritize recruiting a diverse population of participants.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bju.15629

    View details for PubMedID 34748278

  • Racial diversity and reporting in FDA registration trials for thoracic malignancies from 2006 to 2020 Chiang, R. S., Glover, M., Hui, G., Desai, A., Wakelee, H. A., Lythgoe, M., Khaki, A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2021
  • Sequential Targeted Treatment for a Geriatric Patient with Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Concurrent FLT3-TKD and IDH1 Mutations. Federal practitioner : for the health care professionals of the VA, DoD, and PHS Chiang, R. S., Friedman, D. R., McHugh, K. n., Ramalingam, S. n., Vashistha, V. n. 2021; 38 (1): 40–43


    Targeting and monitoring several acute myeloid leukemia mutations sequentially provides insights into optimal treatment plans.

    View details for DOI 10.12788/fp.0073

    View details for PubMedID 33574648

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7870276

  • Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma from Transplanted Kidney with Complete Response to an Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor. Case reports in urology Chiang, R. S., Connor, A. A., Inman, B. A., Foo, W., Howell, D. N., Madden, J. F., Ellis, M. J., Rege, A. S., Harrison, M. R. 2020; 2020: 8881841


    Background: Donor-derived malignancy is a rare complication in patients who undergo organ transplant. Approaches to treatment have largely been individualized based on clinical circumstances given the lack of evidence-based guidelines, with therapeutic options ranging from discontinuation of immunosuppression and transplantectomy to the addition of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Case Presentation. Herein, we describe a 60-year-old woman with metastatic donor-derived upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) discovered nine years postrenal transplant. Molecular diagnostic studies using polymerase chain reaction amplification of short tandem repeat alleles and HLA tissue typing proved that the urothelial carcinoma originated from donor tissue. She achieved sustained complete remission with transplant nephroureterectomy, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, immunosuppression withdrawal, and immunotherapy with pembrolizumab. Routine radiologic surveillance has demonstrated 15-month progression-free survival to date off pembrolizumab, and she is now under consideration for retransplantation.Conclusions: Immunotherapy using checkpoint inhibitors can serve as a novel treatment option for patients in the clinical predicament of having a solid organ transplant and simultaneous metastatic malignancy. In this report, we also discuss the oncogenic potential of BK virus, the use of checkpoint inhibitors in urothelial carcinoma, and the feasibility of retransplant for this patient population.

    View details for DOI 10.1155/2020/8881841

    View details for PubMedID 33425425