Dr. Sun is a board-eligible, fellowship-trained urologist specializing in general urology and endourology. He is a clinical assistant professor of urology at Stanford University School of Medicine. He graduated with Cum Laud from the University of Washington and obtained his medical degree from the University of Toronto. After completing his urology residency at the University of Manitoba, Dr. Sun completed further fellowship training in Endourology at Stanford University School of Medicine.
Dr. Sun speaks fluent Mandarin and sees patients with a wide spectrum of general urologic diseases of the kidneys, bladder, prostate, and genitalia, with a special focus in complex kidney stone disease and minimally invasive surgery. He has received multiple research awards and authored numerous peer-reviewed publications regarding kidney stone disease, oncology, education, imaging, voiding dysfunction, and gene therapy.
In his academic role, Dr. Sun is committed to providing compassionate care and developing innovative treatments to advance minimally invasive surgical techniques.
Clinical Assistant Professor, Urology
Residency: University of Manitoba Urology Residency (2022) Canada
Medical Education: University of Toronto MD Program (2017) Canada
Are there predictors of flexible ureteroscopic aptitude among novice trainees? objective assessment using simulation-based trainer
WORLD JOURNAL OF UROLOGY
2022; 40 (3): 823-829
Non-surgical skills involving hand-eye coordination and bimanual dexterity may have a transferable impact on the acquisition of ureteroscopy skills. In this study, we aim to investigate the predictors of initial flexible ureteroscopy skills among novice trainees.This was a prospective study involving students with no prior ureteroscopy exposure. Non-surgical parameters were assessed with a detailed survey, including demographics, video game, and musical history. Musical ability was objectively evaluated with the mini-Profile of Music Perception Skills test. Ureteroscopic performance was evaluated using a Boston Scientific© flexible ureteroscope on a bench model. Each participant completed diagnostic ureteroscopy and stone extraction. Outcomes included both speed and quality of performance, based on an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills rubric.A total of 28 pre-clerkship medical students and 10 urology residents were included. Age and musical background were not associated with ureteroscopic aptitude. Those with video game history tended to perform ureteroscopy tasks faster with a higher OSATS score, although no statistical significance was reached. Male gender was associated with faster task completion with statistically higher OSATS score independent of video game activities (p = 0.011), however, the absolute score difference was small.Among novice trainees, musical and video game experience was not predictive of ureteroscopy skills. Male gender was associated with slightly faster and higher ureteroscopy technique scores, however, the differences are small and unlikely to represent clinical significance. Nevertheless, the use of ureteroscopy trainer provides useful insights and should be adopted in training programs as a marker of skills progression.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00345-021-03846-8
View details for Web of Science ID 000704175600001
View details for PubMedID 34608509
Assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-fusion prostate biopsy with concurrent standard systematic ultrasound-guided biopsy among men requiring repeat biopsy
CUAJ-CANADIAN UROLOGICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL
2021; 15 (9): E495-E500
The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-fusion biopsy (FB) remains unclear in men with prior negative prostate biopsies. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of FB with concurrent systematic biopsy (SB) in patients requiring repeat prostate biopsies.Patients with previous negative prostate biopsies requiring repeat biopsies were included. Those without suspicious lesions (≥Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System [PI-RADS] 3) on MRI were excluded. All patients underwent FB followed by SB. The primary outcome was the sensitivity for clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥7). The secondary objective was identification of potential predictive factors of biopsy performance.A total of 53 patients were included; 41 (77%) patients were found to have clinically significant prostate cancer. FB had a higher detection rate of significant cancer compared to SB (85% vs. 76%, respectively, p=0.20) and lower diagnosis of indolent (Gleason score 3+3=6) cancer (10% vs. 27%, respectively, p=0.05). FB alone missed six (15%) clinically significant cancers, compared to 10 (24%) with SB. SB performance was significantly impaired in patients with anterior lesions and high prostate volumes (p<0.05). There was high degree of pathological discordance between the two approaches, with concordance seen in only 34% of patients.In patients with prior negative biopsies and ongoing suspicion for prostate cancer, a combined approach of FB with SB is needed for optimal detection and risk classification of clinically significant disease. Anterior tumors and large prostates were significant predictors of poor SB performance and an MRI-fusion alone approach in these settings could be considered.
View details for DOI 10.5489/cuaj.6991
View details for Web of Science ID 000717838700007
View details for PubMedID 33591902
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8490098
Influence of musical background on surgical skills acquisition
2021; 170 (1): 75-80
There is growing interest in identifying trainees with surgical aptitude predictive of eventual technical proficiency. Musical tasks involve complex, cerebral activity, and ambidextrousity, which may have a positive impact on the acquisition of surgical skill sets. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of prior musical experience on the performance of basic surgical skills.This was a prospective cross-sectional study involving 51 novice undergraduate and medical school trainees with no prior surgical exposure. Musicality was assessed with a detailed survey and objectively with the Mini-Profile of Music Perception Skills test. Dexterity was assessed using the Purdue Pegboard test. Surgical skills were then evaluated by performing 2 timed suturing trials after observing tutorial video, followed by a timed laparoscopic peg transfer test. Outcomes included both speed and quality of performance.Participants with prior musical experience performed better than nonmusicians on the Mini-Profile of Music Perception Skills test (P = .015), dominant hand dexterity (P = .05), suture quality (P < .03), and laparoscopic peg transfer speed (P < .01). There was no significant difference in the suturing speed between musicians and nonmusicians. The dexterity and Mini-Profile of Music Perception Skills scores were predictive of suture quality (P < .01). Among musicians, duration of musical training, inactivity, instrument type, and certification levels did not correlate with differences in surgical task performance.Musical background is associated with better performance of fundamental surgical skills among surgical novices, particularly technique quality. Although this does not imply superior ultimate surgical ability, musicality may be a marker for basic surgical skill development useful in identifying suitable candidates for surgical training.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2021.01.013
View details for Web of Science ID 000667298800015
View details for PubMedID 33608147
Prognostic impact of paraneoplastic syndromes on patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma undergoing surgery: Results from Canadian Kidney Cancer information system
CUAJ-CANADIAN UROLOGICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL
2021; 15 (4): 132-137
The impact of paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) on survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is uncertain. This study was conducted to analyze the association of PNS with recurrence and survival of patients with non-metastatic RCC undergoing nephrectomy.The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system is a multi-institutional cohort of patients started in January 2011. Patients with nephrectomy for non-metastatic RCC were identified. PNS included anemia, polycythemia, hypercalcemia, and weight loss. Associations between PNS and recurrence or death were assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable analysis.Of 4337 patients, 1314 (30.3%) had evidence of one or more PNS. Patients with PNS were older, had higher comorbidity, and had more advanced clinical and pathological tumor characteristics as compared to patients without PNS (all p<0.05). Kaplan-Meier five-year estimated recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were significantly worse in patients with PNS (63.7%, 84.3%, and 79.6%, respectively, for patients with PNS vs. 73.9%, 90.8%, and 90.1%, respectively, for patients without PNS, all p<0.005). On univariable analysis, presence of PNS increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-1.90, p<0.0001) and cancer-related death (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.34-2.54, p=0.0002). Adjusting for known prognostic factors, PNS was not associated with recurrence or survival.In non-metastatic RCC patients undergoing surgery, presence of PNS is associated with older age, higher Charlson comorbidity index score, advanced tumor stage, and aggressive tumor histology. Following surgery, baseline PNS is not strongly independently associated with recurrence or death.
View details for DOI 10.5489/cuaj.6833
View details for Web of Science ID 000636786800021
View details for PubMedID 33007184
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8021432
- Predicting patency after vasovasostomy and heterogeneity in defining success FERTILITY AND STERILITY 2020; 113 (4): 755
Changes in the PGC-1 alpha and mtDNA copy number may play a role in the development of pelvic organ prolapse in pre-menopausal patients
TAIWANESE JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY
2019; 58 (4): 526-530
The alternations of mtDNA may play an important role in the molecular pathogenesis and process of Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) formation in both pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women. The aim of the present study is to analyze the association between the mitochondrial biogenesis gene and development of POP in the uterosacral ligaments (UL) of pre-menopausal women.Seventy one pre-menopausal women, all below 52 years of age, were enrolled in this study. UL biopsies were obtained from uterine specimens taken from 33 women with POP (n = 33, study group) and 38 myoma patients without POP (n = 38, control group). Quantitative Real-Time PCR was performed to measure mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and mtDNA4977. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the protein expression of PGC-1α, TFAM, NRF-1 and NRF-2. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software and the Mann-Whitney U test, and the continuous variables were analyzed using the Student's t-test in demographic data.There were no significant differences in the patient demographics between the two groups (p > 0.05). The mtDNA copy number in the UL of pre-menopausal patients with prolapse was significantly higher than that in the no prolapse group (p = 0.008). There were no significant differences between the mtDNA4977 of the POP and non-POP groups, but a significantly higher expression of PGC-1α in the POP group compared to the non-POP group (1.59 ± 1.30 v.s. 0.66 ± 0.53; p = 0.036). The expression of TFAM in the POP group was higher than in the non-POP group). There was no significant difference in the TFAM(p = 0.377), NRF-1 and NRF-2 expression between the POP and non-POP groups (p = 0.647; p = 0.682).Changes in the PGC-1α and mtDNA copy number may play a role in the development of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in pre-menopausal patients.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tjog.2019.05.017
View details for Web of Science ID 000475427000017
View details for PubMedID 31307745
The effect of time from biopsy to radical prostatectomy on adverse pathologic outcomes
RESEARCH AND REPORTS IN UROLOGY
2019; 11: 53-60
To assess the impact of time between prostate cancer diagnosis on biopsy and definitive intervention with radical prostatectomy (RP) in regard to adverse pathologic outcomes using a large multi-surgeon database.We retrospectively reviewed 2,728 patients who underwent RP between 2005 and 2014. Patients were stratified according to biopsy Grade Group (GG). Pathologic outcomes were evaluated for patients with <2 months between biopsy and surgery and then at monthly intervals of up to 6 months. Adverse pathological outcomes were defined as Gleason upgrading from biopsy, the presence of extraprostatic extension (EPE, pT3a) or seminal vesicle invasion (SVI, pT3b), positive surgical margins, and lymph node positivity. The chi-squared test was used for statistical analysis.In total 2,310 patients met the inclusion criteria. Median time from biopsy to surgery was 83 days (range: 61-109 days). No difference was observed for patients in any risk category regarding the adverse pathologic outcomes, including GG upgrade from biopsy to prostatectomy, presence of EPE, SVI, positive surgical margins, and positive lymph node involvement, with delays of up to 6 months between biopsy and RP. Surgical margins were positive in 25% of cases with pT2 disease and 50.2% of cases with pT3 and greater disease. EPE and SVI were present in 24.5% and 7.5% of specimens, respectively.Surgical delays of up to 6 months following prostate biopsy were not associated with an increased risk of GG upgrading, EPE, SVI, positive surgical margins, or lymph node involvement.
View details for DOI 10.2147/RRU.S187950
View details for Web of Science ID 000462189400001
View details for PubMedID 30881945
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6410755
Ultrasound-Mediated Gene Therapy in Swine Livers Using Single-Element, Multi-lensed, High-Intensity Ultrasound Transducers
MOLECULAR THERAPY-METHODS & CLINICAL DEVELOPMENT
2018; 10: 179-188
We have achieved significant enhancement of gene delivery into livers of large animals using ultrasound (US)-targeted microbubble (MB) destruction methods. An infusion of pGL4 (encoding a luciferase reporter gene) plasmid DNA (pDNA) and MBs into a portal-vein segmental branch of a porcine liver was exposed to US for 4 min. Therapeutic US induced cavitation of MBs to temporarily permeabilize the vascular endothelium and cell membranes, allowing entry of pDNA. We obtained a 64-fold enhancement in luciferase expression in pig livers compared to control without US using an unfocused, dual-element transducer (H105, center frequency [fc] = 1.10 MHz) at 2.7 MPa peak negative pressure (PNP). However, input electrical energy was limited, and modified transducers were designed to have spherical (H185A, fc = 1.10 MHz) or cylindrical foci (H185B, fc = 1.10 MHz; H185D, fc = 1.05 MHz) to enhance PNP output. The revised transducers required less electrical input to achieve 2.7 MPa PNP compared to H105, thereby allowing PNP outputs of up to 6.2 MPa without surpassing the piezo-material limitations. Subsequently, luciferase expression significantly improved up to 9,000-fold compared to controls with minor liver damage. These advancements will allow us to modify our current protocols toward minimally invasive US gene therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.omtm.2018.06.008
View details for Web of Science ID 000451115100017
View details for PubMedID 30105275
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6077835
Is single incision midurethral sling effective in patients with low maximal urethral closure pressure?
TAIWANESE JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY
2016; 55 (1): 20-25
To ascertain whether low preoperational maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP) affects the outcomes of single incision sling (SIS) procedures and changes MUCP values postsurgery.There were 112 (MUCP ≥ 40 cmH2O, n = 88; MUCP < 40 cmH2O, n = 24) consecutive women with urodynamic stress incontinence who had undergone SIS (MiniArc) procedures included in this study. The threshold of 40 cmH2O was used since it has been shown to be a significant risk factor for failed incontinence surgery. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the cough stress test, the 1-hour pad test, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-Short Form, the Urogenital Distress Inventory six-item questionnaire, the Sexual Questionnaire-SF, and postoperative changes in the urodynamic parameters. A comparison of the 1-year follow-up data is presented.Three months postsurgery, a significant decrease was observed in the 1-hour pad test, from 20.6 g preoperatively to 0.73 g postoperatively (p < 0.001). The objective cure rate was 82.1% without any significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.202). At 3 months and 1 year after surgery, significantly decreasing Urogenital Distress Inventory six-item questionnaire and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-Short Form, and increasing Sexual Questionnaire-SF scores were observed in both groups, without any significant differences between the two groups. No statistically significant difference in the subjective cured rate was noted between the two groups at the 3-month and 18.4 month follow-ups. The postoperative MUCP was significantly decreased in the MUCP ≥ 40 group (p < 0.05) while significantly increased in the MUCP < 40 group (p = 0.006).These results suggest that SIS is a safe and highly effective treatment for urodynamic stress incontinence even in women with low MUCP at a mean follow-up of 18.4 months. Evaluation of the outcomes with more subjects after a longer follow-up period is necessary.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tjog.2014.09.013
View details for Web of Science ID 000373413600005
View details for PubMedID 26927242
Changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the uterosacral ligaments of premenopausal women with pelvic organ prolapse
TAIWANESE JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY
2016; 55 (1): 9-15
The study aimed to explore the changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, collagen, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) expression with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in the uterosacral ligaments of premenopausal women.A group of 56 premenopausal women, all younger than 52 years of age, were enrolled in this study. Uterosacral ligament (UL) biopsies were obtained from uterine specimens taken from 22 women with POP (n = 22, study group) and 34 myoma patients without POP (n = 34, control group) during abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunohistochemistry analysis were applied in the present study.The rate of high body mass index (BMI) (> 24 kg/m(2)) women was significantly higher in the POP group (81.8% vs. 35.3%, p = 0.001 *), and the BMI of the POP women was higher than that of the nonPOP women (p = 0.029 *). The mtDNA copy number (p = 0.001 *), collagen III alpha 1 (COL3α1) expression (p = 0.025 *), and MMP2 expression (p = 0.047 *) were significantly higher in the POP group when compared with the nonPOP group. The high BMI women had a higher mtDNA copy number (p = 0.002 *), COL3α1 (p = 0.028 *) gene expressions compared with the standard BMI women.In the premenopausal state, higher BMI may be a stronger associate factor than vaginal birth for the development of POP. The higher mtDNA copy number, COL3α1, and MMP2 gene expressions are highly associated with POP in the UL of premenopausal women.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tjog.2014.04.032
View details for Web of Science ID 000373413600003
View details for PubMedID 26927240
Tumor-induced alterations in lymph node lymph drainage identified by contrast-enhanced MRI
JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
2015; 42 (1): 145-152
To use high resolution MRI lymphography to characterize altered tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN) lymph drainage in response to growth of aggressive tumors.Six mice bearing B16-F10 melanomas in one rear footpad were imaged by 3.0 Tesla (T) MRI before and after subcutaneous injection of Gadofosveset trisodium (Gd-FVT) contrast agent into both rear feet. Gd-FVT uptake into the left and right draining popliteal LNs was quantified and compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Fluorescent dextran lymphography compared patterns of LN lymph drainage with the pattern of immunostained lymphatic sinuses by fluorescence microscopy.TDLNs exhibited greater Gd-FVT uptake than contralateral uninvolved LNs, although this difference did not reach significance (P < 0.06). Foci of contrast agent consistently surrounded the medulla and cortex of TDLNs, while Gd-FVT preferentially accumulated in the cortex of contralateral LNs at 5 and 15 min after injection. Fluorescent dextran lymphography confirmed these distinct contrast agent uptake patterns, which correlated with lymphatic sinus growth in TDLNs.3.0T MRI lymphography using Gd-FVT identified several distinctive alterations in the uptake of contrast agent into TDLNs, which could be useful to identify the correct TDLN, and to characterize TDLN lymphatic sinus growth that may predict metastatic potential.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.24754
View details for Web of Science ID 000356625500017
View details for PubMedID 25256593
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5357140
The therapeutic efficiency of extracorporeal magnetic innervation treatment in women with urinary tract dysfunction following radical hysterectomy
JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY
2015; 35 (1): 74-78
Data on 32 consecutive women with demonstrable urinary tract dysfunction for at least 6 months following radical hysterectomy (RH) for uterine cervical cancer, who received 24 sessions of extracorporeal magnetic innervation (ExMI) treatment twice-weekly were collected. The 1-h pad test weight decreased from 27.2 g pre-treatment to 12.1 g post-treatment (p < 0.05). Both the median UDI-6 and IIQ-7 scores showed statistically significant improvements (p < 0.001) at every stage of the ExMI treatment and in the 24.2 months mean follow-up duration after treatment. The symptoms of frequency, stress incontinence, urge incontinence and voiding difficulty showed statistically significant improvements (p < 0.001) after 8 and 24 sessions of ExMI treatment. The urodynamic parameters between pre-treatment and post-treatment after 24 sessions revealed no statistically significant changes. Based on the objective and subjective measures observed in this study, 24 sessions of twice-weekly ExMI treatment is an additional non-invasive therapy option for patients with the symptoms of lower urinary tract following RH.
View details for DOI 10.3109/01443615.2014.935721
View details for Web of Science ID 000346300100019
View details for PubMedID 25153935
Development of therapeutic microbubbles for enhancing ultrasound-mediated gene delivery
JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE
2014; 182: 111-120
Ultrasound (US)-mediated gene delivery has emerged as a promising non-viral method for safe and selective gene delivery. When enhanced by the cavitation of microbubbles (MBs), US exposure can induce sonoporation that transiently increases cell membrane permeability for localized delivery of DNA. The present study explores the effect of generalizable MB customizations on MB facilitation of gene transfer compared to Definity®, a clinically available contrast agent. These modifications are 1) increased MB shell acyl chain length (RN18) for elevated stability and 2) addition of positive charge on MB (RC5K) for greater DNA associability. The MB types were compared in their ability to facilitate transfection of luciferase and GFP reporter plasmid DNA in vitro and in vivo under various conditions of US intensity, MB dosage, and pretreatment MB-DNA incubation. The results indicated that both RN18 and RC5K were more efficient than Definity®, and that the cationic RC5K can induce even greater transgene expression by increasing payload capacity with prior DNA incubation without compromising cell viability. These findings could be applied to enhance MB functions in a wide range of therapeutic US/MB gene and drug delivery approach. With further designs, MB customizations have the potential to advance this technology closer to clinical application.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.03.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000335554000013
View details for PubMedID 24650644
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4038297
A comparative study of a single-incision sling and a transobturator sling: clinical efficacy and urodynamic changes
INTERNATIONAL UROGYNECOLOGY JOURNAL
2013; 24 (5): 823-829
In this retrospective study, a comparison is made of the clinical efficacy of two stress urinary incontinence treatment apparatuses, a single-incision sling and a transobturator sling.Eighty-five (single-incision n=43, transobturator n=42) consecutive patients were included in this study. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the cough stress test (CST), the pad test, the Impact Questionnaire-Short Form (IIQ-7), the Urogenital Distress Inventory six-item questionnaire (UDI-6), the Sexual Questionnaire-SF (PIS-Q), the pain score, and the postoperative changes in urodynamic parameters. A comparison of the 1-year follow-up data is presented.Three months post-surgery, 81.8% of the single-incision sling group and 74.4% of the transobturator sling group had a negative cough test and a dry pad test. One year after surgery, significantly decreasing UDI-6, IIQ-7, and increasing PIS-Q scores were observed in both groups, while the complication rates remained similar. Postoperatively, the single-incision sling group seems to show a greater improvement in UDI-6 score, require less operation time, and experience less blood loss, less postoperative pain, and a smaller decrease in maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP).These results suggest that the single-incision sling and the transobturator sling are equally as effective and safe for the treatment of stress incontinence, as evaluated during the 1-year follow-up. The insertion of a single-incision sling seems to be less painful than that of a conventional sling. One year after surgery, the MUCP and mean flow rate of the transobturator sling group had significantly decreased compared with that of the single-incision sling group.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00192-012-1942-5
View details for Web of Science ID 000318554900020
View details for PubMedID 23052630
- Improved Luciferase Gene Expression Using Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction Therapy in Swine AMER INST PHYSICS. 2012: 55-60
Diffusion-weighted MRI: influence of intravoxel fat signal and breast density on breast tumor conspicuity and apparent diffusion coefficient measurements
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
2011; 29 (9): 1215-1221
Promising recent investigations have shown that breast malignancies exhibit restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and may be distinguished from normal tissue and benign lesions in the breast based on differences in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. In this study, we assessed the influence of intravoxel fat signal on breast diffusion measures by comparing ADC values obtained using a diffusion-weighted single shot fast spin-echo sequence with and without fat suppression. The influence of breast density on ADC measures was also evaluated. ADC values were calculated for both tumor and normal fibroglandular tissue in a group of 21 women with diagnosed breast cancer. There were systematic underestimations of ADC for both tumor and normal breast tissue due to intravoxel contribution from fat signal on non-fat-suppressed DWI. This ADC underestimation was more pronounced for normal tissue values (mean difference=40%) than for tumors (mean difference=27%, P<.001) and was worse in women with low breast tissue density vs. those with extremely dense breasts (P<.05 for both tumor and normal tissue). Tumor conspicuity measured by contrast-to-noise ratio was significantly higher on ADC maps created with fat suppression and was not significantly associated with breast density. In summary, robust fat suppression is important for accurate breast ADC measures and optimal lesion conspicuity on DWI.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mri.2011.07.024
View details for Web of Science ID 000296366700007
View details for PubMedID 21920686
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3199288