Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Transformers and large language models in healthcare: A review. Artificial intelligence in medicine Nerella, S., Bandyopadhyay, S., Zhang, J., Contreras, M., Siegel, S., Bumin, A., Silva, B., Sena, J., Shickel, B., Bihorac, A., Khezeli, K., Rashidi, P. 2024; 154: 102900


    With Artificial Intelligence (AI) increasingly permeating various aspects of society, including healthcare, the adoption of the Transformers neural network architecture is rapidly changing many applications. Transformer is a type of deep learning architecture initially developed to solve general-purpose Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks and has subsequently been adapted in many fields, including healthcare. In this survey paper, we provide an overview of how this architecture has been adopted to analyze various forms of healthcare data, including clinical NLP, medical imaging, structured Electronic Health Records (EHR), social media, bio-physiological signals, biomolecular sequences. Furthermore, which have also include the articles that used the transformer architecture for generating surgical instructions and predicting adverse outcomes after surgeries under the umbrella of critical care. Under diverse settings, these models have been used for clinical diagnosis, report generation, data reconstruction, and drug/protein synthesis. Finally, we also discuss the benefits and limitations of using transformers in healthcare and examine issues such as computational cost, model interpretability, fairness, alignment with human values, ethical implications, and environmental impact.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.artmed.2024.102900

    View details for PubMedID 38878555

  • Wearable sensors in patient acuity assessment in critical care. Frontiers in neurology Sena, J., Mostafiz, M. T., Zhang, J., Davidson, A. E., Bandyopadhyay, S., Nerella, S., Ren, Y., Ozrazgat-Baslanti, T., Shickel, B., Loftus, T., Schwartz, W. R., Bihorac, A., Rashidi, P. 2024; 15: 1386728


    Acuity assessments are vital for timely interventions and fair resource allocation in critical care settings. Conventional acuity scoring systems heavily depend on subjective patient assessments, leaving room for implicit bias and errors. These assessments are often manual, time-consuming, intermittent, and challenging to interpret accurately, especially for healthcare providers. This risk of bias and error is likely most pronounced in time-constrained and high-stakes environments, such as critical care settings. Furthermore, such scores do not incorporate other information, such as patients' mobility level, which can indicate recovery or deterioration in the intensive care unit (ICU), especially at a granular level. We hypothesized that wearable sensor data could assist in assessing patient acuity granularly, especially in conjunction with clinical data from electronic health records (EHR). In this prospective study, we evaluated the impact of integrating mobility data collected from wrist-worn accelerometers with clinical data obtained from EHR for estimating acuity. Accelerometry data were collected from 87 patients wearing accelerometers on their wrists in an academic hospital setting. The data was evaluated using five deep neural network models: VGG, ResNet, MobileNet, SqueezeNet, and a custom Transformer network. These models outperformed a rule-based clinical score (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SOFA) used as a baseline when predicting acuity state (for ground truth we labeled as unstable patients if they needed life-supporting therapies, and as stable otherwise), particularly regarding the precision, sensitivity, and F1 score. The results demonstrate that integrating accelerometer data with demographics and clinical variables improves predictive performance compared to traditional scoring systems in healthcare. Deep learning models consistently outperformed the SOFA score baseline across various scenarios, showing notable enhancements in metrics such as the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) Curve (AUC), precision, sensitivity, specificity, and F1 score. The most comprehensive scenario, leveraging accelerometer, demographics, and clinical data, achieved the highest AUC of 0.73, compared to 0.53 when using SOFA score as the baseline, with significant improvements in precision (0.80 vs. 0.23), specificity (0.79 vs. 0.73), and F1 score (0.77 vs. 0.66). This study demonstrates a novel approach beyond the simplistic differentiation between stable and unstable conditions. By incorporating mobility and comprehensive patient information, we distinguish between these states in critically ill patients and capture essential nuances in physiology and functional status. Unlike rudimentary definitions, such as equating low blood pressure with instability, our methodology delves deeper, offering a more holistic understanding and potentially valuable insights for acuity assessment.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fneur.2024.1386728

    View details for PubMedID 38784909

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC11112699