All Publications

  • Risk of adverse perinatal outcomes among African-born Black women in California, 2011-2020. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) McKenzie-Sampson, S., Baer, R. J., Chambers Butcher, B. D., Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L. L., Karasek, D., Oltman, S. P., Riddell, C. A., Rogers, E. E., Torres, J. M., Blebu, B. 2024


    African-born women have a lower risk of preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA) birth compared to United States (US)-born Black women, however variation by country of origin is overlooked. Additionally, the extent that nativity disparities in adverse perinatal outcomes to Black women are explained by individual-level factors remains unclear.We conducted a population-based study of non-anomalous singleton live births to US- and African-born Black women in California from 2011-2020 (n=194,320). We used age-adjusted Poisson regression models to estimate risk of preterm birth and SGA, and reported risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Decomposition using Monte Carlo integration of the g-formula computed the percentage of disparities in adverse outcomes between US- and African-born women explained by individual-level factors.Eritrean women (RR 0.4; 95%CI: 0.3, 0.5) had the largest differences in risk of preterm birth and Cameroonian women (RR 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.6) in SGA birth, compared to US-born Black women. Ghanaian women had smaller differences in risk of preterm birth (RR 0.8; 95%CI: 0.7, 1.0) and SGA (RR 0.9; 95% CI 0.8, 1.1) compared to US-born women. Overall, we estimate that absolute differences in socio-demographic and clinical factors contributed to 32% of nativity-based disparities in the risk of preterm birth and 26% of disparities in SGA.We observed heterogeneity in risk of adverse perinatal outcomes for African- compared to US-born Black women, suggesting that nativity disparities in adverse perinatal outcomes were not fully explained by differences in individual-level factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/EDE.0000000000001745

    View details for PubMedID 38567905

  • Structural racism, nativity and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes among Black women. Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology McKenzie-Sampson, S., Baer, R. J., Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L. L., Karasek, D., Riddell, C. A., Torres, J. M., Blebu, B. E. 2023


    Black women in the United States (US) have the highest risk of preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA) births, compared to women of other racial groups. Among Black women, there are disparities by nativity whereby foreign-born women have a lower risk of PTB and SGA compared to US-born women. Differential exposure to racism may confer nativity-based differences in adverse perinatal outcomes between US- and foreign-born Black women. This remains unexplored among US- and African-born women in California.Evaluate the relationship between structural racism, nativity, PTB and SGA among US- and African-born Black women in California.We conducted a population-based study of singleton births to US- and African-born Black women in California from 2011 to 2017 (n = 131,424). We examined the risk of PTB and SGA by nativity and neighbourhoods with differing levels of structural racism, as measured by the Index of Concentration at the Extremes. We fit crude and age-adjusted Poisson regression models, estimated using generalized estimating equations, with risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as the effect measure.The proportions of PTB and SGA were 9.7% and 14.5%, respectively, for US-born women, while 5.6% and 8.3% for African-born women. US-born women (n = 24,782; 20.8%) were more likely to live in neighbourhoods with high structural racism compared to African-born women (n = 1474; 11.6%). Structural racism was associated with an elevated risk of PTB (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.12, 1.26) and SGA (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.13, 1.25) for all Black women, however, there was heterogeneity by nativity, with US-born women experiencing a higher magnitude of effect than African-born women.Among Black women in California, exposure to structural racism and the impacts of structural racism on the risk of PTB and SGA varied by nativity.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ppe.13032

    View details for PubMedID 38116814

  • Maternal nativity and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes among Black women residing in California, 2011-2017. Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association McKenzie-Sampson, S., Baer, R. J., Blebu, B. E., Karasek, D., Oltman, S. P., Pantell, M. S., Rand, L., Rogers, E. E., Torres, J. M., Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L. L., Scott, K. A., Chambers, B. D. 2021; 41 (12): 2736-2741


    Examine the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes among the United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women in California.The study comprised all singleton live births to Black women in California between 2011 and 2017. We defined maternal nativity as US-born or foreign-born. Using Poisson regression, we computed risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for three adverse perinatal outcomes: preterm birth, small for gestational age deliveries, and infant mortality.Rates of adverse perinatal outcomes were significantly higher among US-born Black women. In adjusted models, US-born Black women experienced an increased risk of preterm birth (RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.39, 1.65) and small for gestational age deliveries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.41, 1.64), compared to foreign-born Black women.Future studies should consider experiences of racism across the life course when exploring heterogeneity in the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes by nativity among Black women in the US.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41372-021-01149-9

    View details for PubMedID 34282261

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8939260

  • Parent and staff perceptions of racism in a single-center neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatric research Karvonen, K. L., Smith, O., Chambers Butcher, B. D., Franck, L. S., McKenzie-Sampson, S., McLemore, M. R., Pantell, M. S., Rogers, E. E. 2024


    In alignment with previous literature, NICU parents reported experiencing racism and NICU staff reported witnessing racism in the NICU. Our study also uniquely describes personal experiences with racism by staff in the NICU. NICU staff reported witnessing and experiencing racism more often than parents reported. Black staff reported witnessing and experiencing more racism than white staff. Differences in reporting is likely influenced by variations in lived experience, social identities, psychological safety, and levels of awareness. Future studies are necessary to prevent and accurately measure racism in the NICU.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41390-023-02980-w

    View details for PubMedID 38167642

    View details for PubMedCentralID 5998372

  • Neighborhood Income is Associated with Healthcare Utilization in Pediatric Short Bowel Syndrome. The Journal of pediatrics Gutierrez, S. A., Pathak, S., Raghu, V., Shui, A., Huang, C. Y., Rhee, S., McKenzie-Sampson, S., Lai, J. C., Wadhwani, S. I. 2023: 113819


    To evaluate associations between neighborhood income and burden of hospitalizations for children with short bowel syndrome.We used the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database to evaluate associations between neighborhood income and hospital readmissions, readmissions for central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), and hospital length of stay (LOS) for patients <18 years with SBS hospitalized between 1/1/2006 and 10/1/2015. We analyzed readmissions with recurrent event analysis and analyzed LOS with linear mixed effects modeling. We used a conceptual model to guide our multivariable analyses, adjusting for race, ethnicity, and insurance status.We included 4,289 children with 16,347 hospitalizations from 43 institutions. Fifty-seven percent of the children were male, 21% were Black, 19% were Hispanic, and 67% had public insurance. In univariable analysis, children from low-income neighborhoods had a 38% increased risk for all-cause hospitalizations (rate ratio [RR] 1.38, 95% CI 1.10, 1.72, p=0.01), an 83% increased risk for CLABSI hospitalizations (RR 1.83, 95% CI 1.37, 2.44, p<0.001), and increased hospital LOS (β 0.15, 95% CI 0.01, 0.29, p=0.04). In multivariable analysis, the association between low-income neighborhoods and elevated risk for CLABSI hospitalizations persisted (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.23, 2.35, p<0.01, respectively).Children with SBS from low-income neighborhoods are at increased risk for hospitalizations due to CLABSI. Examination of specific household- and neighborhood-level factors contributing to this disparity may inform equity-based interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2023.113819

    View details for PubMedID 37940084

  • Structural racism is associated with adverse postnatal outcomes among Black preterm infants. Pediatric research Karvonen, K. L., McKenzie-Sampson, S., Baer, R. J., Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L., Rogers, E. E., Pantell, M. S., Chambers, B. D. 2023; 94 (1): 371-377


    Structural racism contributes to racial disparities in adverse perinatal outcomes. We sought to determine if structural racism is associated with adverse outcomes among Black preterm infants postnatally.Observational cohort study of 13,321 Black birthing people who delivered preterm (gestational age 22-36 weeks) in California in 2011-2017 using a statewide birth cohort database and the American Community Survey. Racial and income segregation was quantified by the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE) scores. Multivariable generalized estimating equations regression models were fit to test the association between ICE scores and adverse postnatal outcomes: frequent acute care visits, readmissions, and pre- and post-discharge death, adjusting for infant and birthing person characteristics and social factors.Black birthing people who delivered preterm in the least privileged ICE tertiles were more likely to have infants who experienced frequent acute care visits (crude risk ratio [cRR] 1.3 95% CI 1.2-1.4), readmissions (cRR 1.1 95% CI 1.0-1.2), and post-discharge death (cRR 1.9 95% CI 1.2-3.1) in their first year compared to those in the privileged tertile. Results did not differ significantly after adjusting for infant or birthing person characteristics.Structural racism contributes to adverse outcomes for Black preterm infants after hospital discharge.Structural racism, measured by racial and income segregation, was associated with adverse postnatal outcomes among Black preterm infants including frequent acute care visits, rehospitalizations, and death after hospital discharge. This study extends our understanding of the impact of structural racism on the health of Black preterm infants beyond the perinatal period and provides reinforcement to the concept of structural racism contributing to racial disparities in poor postnatal outcomes for preterm infants. Identifying structural racism as a primary cause of racial disparities in the postnatal period is necessary to prioritize and implement appropriate structural interventions to improve outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41390-022-02445-6

    View details for PubMedID 36577795

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9795138

  • "It was just one moment that I felt like I was being judged": Pregnant and postpartum black Women's experiences of personal and group-based racism during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social science & medicine (1982) Chambers, B. D., Fontenot, J., McKenzie-Sampson, S., Blebu, B. E., Edwards, B. N., Hutchings, N., Karasek, D., Coleman-Phox, K., Curry, V. C., Kuppermann, M. 2023; 322: 115813


    Racial inequities in maternal and child health outcomes persist: Black women and birthing people experience higher rates of adverse outcomes than their white counterparts. Similar inequities are seen in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mortality rates. In response, we sought to explore the intersections of racism and the COVID-19 pandemic impact on the daily lives and perinatal care experiences of Black birthing people.We used an intrinsic case study approach grounded in an intersectional lens to collect stories from Black pregnant and postpartum people residing in Fresno County (July-September 2020). All interviews were conducted on Zoom without video and were audio recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to group codes into larger themes.Of the 34 participants included in this analysis, 76.5% identified as Black only, and 23.5% identified as multiracial including Black. Their mean age was 27.2 years [SD, 5.8]. Nearly half (47%) reported being married or living with their partner; all were eligible for Medi-Cal insurance. Interview times ranged from 23 to 96 min. Five themes emerged: (1) Tensions about Heightened Exposure of Black Lives Matter Movement during the pandemic; (2) Fear for Black Son's Safety; (3) Lack of Communication from Health Care Professionals; (4) Disrespect from Health Care Professionals; and (5) Misunderstood or Judged by Health Care Professionals. Participants stressed that the Black Lives Matter Movement is necessary and highlighted that society views their Black sons as a threat. They also reported experiencing unfair treatment and harassment while seeking perinatal care.Black women and birthing people shared that exposure to racism has heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic, increasing their levels of stress and anxiety. Understanding how racism impacts Black birthing people's lives and care experiences is critical to reforming the police force and revising enhanced prenatal care models to better address their needs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.socscimed.2023.115813

    View details for PubMedID 36881972

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9968447

  • Racial disparities in the development of comorbid conditions after preterm birth: A narrative review. Seminars in perinatology Karvonen, K. L., Goronga, F., McKenzie-Sampson, S., Rogers, E. E. 2022; 46 (8): 151657


    Despite recognition and attempts to reduce racial disparities in perinatal outcomes, Black infants are still disproportionately represented among those who are born preterm. Postnatal investigations of racial disparities in comorbidities and outcomes after preterm birth are increasing, although their results and interpretations are conflicting. In the present review, we 1.) identify important methodological limitations of that literature 2.) summarize the conflicting literature investigating racial disparities, specifically Black-white differences, in postnatal comorbidities and outcomes after preterm birth 3.) describe mechanisms by which racism operates to contextualize our understanding to inform future work to actively reduce disparities in preterm birth and subsequently, its complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151657

    View details for PubMedID 36153273

  • Psychometric validation of a patient-reported experience measure of obstetric racism© (The PREM-OB Scale™ suite). Birth (Berkeley, Calif.) White VanGompel, E., Lai, J. S., Davis, D. A., Carlock, F., Camara, T. L., Taylor, B., Clary, C., McCorkle-Jamieson, A. M., McKenzie-Sampson, S., Gay, C., Armijo, A., Lapeyrolerie, L., Singh, L., Scott, K. A. 2022; 49 (3): 514-525


    Perinatal quality improvement lacks valid tools to measure adverse hospital experiences disproportionately impacting Black mothers and birthing people. Measuring and mitigating harm requires using a framework that centers the lived experiences of Black birthing people in evaluating inequitable care, namely, obstetric racism. We sought to develop a valid patient-reported experience measure (PREM) of Obstetric Racism© in hospital-based intrapartum care designed for, by, and with Black women as patient, community, and content experts.PROMIS© instrument development standards adapted with cultural rigor methodology. Phase 1 included item pool generation, modified Delphi method, and cognitive interviews. Phase 2 evaluated the item pool using factor analysis and item response theory.Items were identified or written to cover 7 previously identified theoretical domains. 806 Black mothers and birthing people completed the pilot test. Factor analysis concluded a 3 factor structure with good fit indices (CFI = 0.931-0.977, RMSEA = 0.087-0.10, R2  > .3, residual correlation < 0.15). All items in each factor fit the IRT model and were able to be calibrated. Factor 1, "Humanity," had 31 items measuring experiences of safety and accountability, autonomy, communication, and empathy. A 12-item short form was created to ease respondent burden. Factor 2, "Racism," had 12 items measuring experiences of neglect and mistreatment. Factor 3, "Kinship," had 7 items measuring hospital denial and disruption of relationships between Black mothers and their child or support system.The PREM-OB Scale™ suite is a valid tool to characterize and quantify obstetric racism for use in perinatal improvement initiatives.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/birt.12622

    View details for PubMedID 35301757

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9544169

  • Clinicians' Perspectives on Racism and Black Women's Maternal Health. Women's health reports (New Rochelle, N.Y.) Chambers, B. D., Taylor, B., Nelson, T., Harrison, J., Bell, A., O'Leary, A., Arega, H. A., Hashemi, S., McKenzie-Sampson, S., Scott, K. A., Raine-Bennett, T., Jackson, A. V., Kuppermann, M., McLemore, M. R. 2022; 3 (1): 476-482


    The objective of this study was to explore clinician perceptions of how racism affects Black women's pregnancy experiences, perinatal care, and birth outcomes.We conducted 25 semi-structured interviews with perinatal care clinicians practicing in the San Francisco Bay Area (January to March 2019) who serve racially diverse women. Participants were primarily recruited through "Dear Perinatal Care Provider" email correspondences sent through department listservs. Culturally concordant, qualitatively trained research assistants conducted all interviews in person. The interviews ranged from 30 to 60 minutes and were audio-recorded and professionally transcribed verbatim. We used the constant comparative method consistent with grounded theory to analyze data.Most participants were obstetrician/gynecologists (n = 11, 44%) or certified nurse midwives (n = 8, 32%), had worked in their current role for 1 to 5 years (n = 10, 40%), and identified as white (n = 16, 64%). Three themes emerged from the interviews: provision of inequitable care (e.g., I had a woman who had a massive complication during her labor course and felt like she wasn't being treated seriously); surveillance of Black women and families (e.g., A urine tox screen on the Black baby even though it was not indicated, and they didn't do it on the white baby when, in fact, it was indicated); and structural care issues (e.g., the history of medical racial experimentation).Clinicians' views about how racism is currently operating and negatively impacting Black women's care experiences, health outcomes, and well-being in medical institutions will be used to develop a racial equity training for perinatal care clinicians in collaboration with Black women and clinicians.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/whr.2021.0148

    View details for PubMedID 35651994

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9148644

  • Racial disparities in emergency mental healthcare utilization among birthing people with preterm infants. American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM Karvonen, K. L., Baer, R. J., Blebu, B., Calthorpe, L., Fuchs, J. D., Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L., Karasek, D., McKenzie-Sampson, S., Oltman, S. P., Rand, L., Shannon, M. T., Washington, T. E., Woolridge, T., Rogers, E. E., Pantell, M. S. 2022; 4 (2): 100546


    Birthing people of color are more likely to deliver low birthweight and preterm infants, populations at significant risk of morbidity and mortality. Birthing people of color are also at higher risk for mental health conditions and emergency mental healthcare utilization postpartum. Although this group has been identified as high risk in these contexts, it is not known whether racial and ethnic disparities exist in mental healthcare utilization among birthing people who have delivered preterm.We sought to determine if racial and ethnic disparities exist in postpartum mental healthcare-associated emergency department visits or hospitalizations for birthing people with preterm infants in a large and diverse population.This population-based historic cohort study used a sample of Californian live-born infants born between 2011 and 2017 with linked birth certificates and emergency department visit and hospital admission records from the California Statewide Health Planning and Development database. The sample was restricted to preterm infants (<37 weeks' gestation). Self-reported race and ethnicity groups included Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic White, and non-Hispanic others. Mental health diagnoses were identified from the International Classification of Diseases Ninth and Tenth revision codes recorded in emergency department and hospital discharge records. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between mental health-related emergency department visits and rehospitalizations by race or ethnicity compared with non-Hispanic White birthing people and controlling for the following characteristics and health condition covariates: age, parity, previous preterm birth, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, hypertension, diabetes, previous mental health diagnosis, and prenatal care.Of 204,539 birthing people who delivered preterm infants in California, 1982 visited the emergency department and 836 were hospitalized in the first year after preterm birth for a mental health-related illness. Black birthing people were more likely to have a mental health-related emergency department visit and hospitalization (risk ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.0 and risk ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3, respectively) within the first postpartum year than White birthing people. Hispanic and Asian birthing people were less likely to have mental health-related emergency department visits (adjusted risk ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-0.8 and adjusted risk ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.3, respectively) and hospitalizations (adjusted risk ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.7 and adjusted risk ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.3, respectively). When controlling for birthing people with a previous mental health diagnosis and those without, the disparities remained the same.Racial and ethnic disparities exist in emergency mental healthcare escalation among birthing people who have delivered preterm infants. Our findings highlight a need for further investigation into disparate mental health conditions, exacerbations, access to care, and targeted hospital and legislative policies to prevent emergency mental healthcare escalation and reduce disparities.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2021.100546

    View details for PubMedID 34871781

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8939261

  • Mortality and Major Neonatal Morbidity in Preterm Infants with Serious Congenital Heart Disease. The Journal of pediatrics Steurer, M. A., Baer, R. J., Chambers, C. D., Costello, J., Franck, L. S., McKenzie-Sampson, S., Pacheco-Werner, T. L., Rajagopal, S., Rogers, E. E., Rand, L., Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L. L., Peyvandi, S. 2021; 239: 110-116.e3


    To investigate the trends of 1-year mortality and neonatal morbidities in preterm infants with serious congenital heart disease (CHD).This cohort study used a population-based administrative dataset of all liveborn infants of 26-36 weeks gestational age with serious CHD born in California between 2011 and 2017. We assessed 1-year mortality and major neonatal morbidities (ie, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage grade >2, and periventricular leukomalacia) across the study period and compared these outcomes with those in infants without CHD.We identified 1921 preterm infants with serious CHD. The relative risk (RR) of death decreased by 10.6% for each year of the study period (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.95), and the RR of major neonatal morbidity increased by 8.3% for each year (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.15). Compared with preterm neonates without any CHD (n = 234 522), the adjusted risk difference (ARD) for mortality was highest at 32 weeks of gestational age (9.7%; 95% CI, 8.3%-11.2%), that for major neonatal morbidity was highest at 28 weeks (21.9%; 95% CI, 17.0%-26.9%), and that for the combined outcome was highest at 30 weeks (26.7%; 95% CI, 23.3%-30.1%).Mortality in preterm neonates with serious CHD decreased over the last decade, whereas major neonatal morbidities increased. Preterm infants with a gestational age of 28-32 weeks have the highest mortality or morbidity compared with their peers without CHD. These results support the need for specialized and focused medical neonatal care in preterm neonates with serious CHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.08.039

    View details for PubMedID 34454949

  • Risk and Protective Factors for Preterm Birth Among Black Women in Oakland, California. Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities McLemore, M. R., Berkowitz, R. L., Oltman, S. P., Baer, R. J., Franck, L., Fuchs, J., Karasek, D. A., Kuppermann, M., McKenzie-Sampson, S., Melbourne, D., Taylor, B., Williams, S., Rand, L., Chambers, B. D., Scott, K., Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L. L. 2021; 8 (5): 1273-1280


    This project examines risk and protective factors for preterm birth (PTB) among Black women in Oakland, California. Women with singleton births in 2011-2017 (n = 6199) were included. Risk and protective factors for PTB and independent risk groups were identified using logistic regression and recursive partitioning. Having less than 3 prenatal care visits was associated with highest PTB risk. Hypertension (preexisting, gestational), previous PTB, and unknown Women, Infant, Children (WIC) program participation were associated with a two-fold increased risk for PTB. Maternal birth outside of the USA and participation in WIC were protective. Broad differences in rates, risks, and protective factors for PTB were observed.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s40615-020-00889-2

    View details for PubMedID 33034878

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8079235

  • The association of COVID-19 infection in pregnancy with preterm birth: A retrospective cohort study in California. Lancet Regional Health. Americas Karasek, D., Baer, R. J., McLemore, M. R., Bell, A. J., Blebu, B. E., Casey, J. A., Coleman-Phox, K., Costello, J. M., Felder, J. N., Flowers, E., Fuchs, J. D., Gomez, A. M., Karvonen, K., Kuppermann, M., Liang, L., McKenzie-Sampson, S., McCulloch, C. E., Oltman, S. P., Pantell, M. S., Piao, X., Prather, A. A., Schmidt, R. J., Scott, K. A., Spellen, S., Stookey, J. D., Tesfalul, M., Rand, L., Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L. L. 2021; 2: 100027


    INTRODUCTION: Our understanding of the association between coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and preterm or early term birth among racially and ethnically diverse populations and people with chronic medical conditions is limited.METHODS: We determined the association between COVID-19 and preterm (PTB) birth among live births documented by California Vital Statistics birth certificates between July 2020 and January 2021 (n=240,147). We used best obstetric estimate of gestational age to classify births as very preterm (VPTB, <32 weeks), PTB (< 37 weeks), early term (37 and 38 weeks), and term (39-44 weeks), as each confer independent risks to infant health and development. Separately, we calculated the joint effects of COVID-19 diagnosis, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity on PTB and VPTB.FINDINGS: COVID-19 diagnoses on birth certificates increased for all racial/ethnic groups between July 2020 and January 2021 and were highest for American Indian/Alaska Native (12.9%), Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (11.4%), and Latinx (10.3%) birthing people. COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of VPTB (aRR 1.6, 95% CI [1.4, 1.9]), PTB (aRR 1.4, 95% CI [1.3, 1.4]), and early term birth (aRR 1.1, 95% CI [1.1, 1.2]). There was no effect modification of the overall association by race/ethnicity or insurance status. COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with elevated risk of PTB in people with hypertension, diabetes, and/or obesity.INTERPRETATION: In a large population-based study, COVID-19 diagnosis increased the risk of VPTB, PTB, and early term birth, particularly among people with medical comorbidities. Considering increased circulation of COVID-19 variants, preventative measures, including vaccination, should be prioritized for birthing persons.FUNDING: UCSF-Kaiser Department of Research Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health Program (BIRCWH) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) [K12 HD052163] and the California Preterm Birth Initiative, funded by Marc and Lynn Benioff.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.lana.2021.100027

    View details for PubMedID 34642685

  • Pain and Functional Limitations Among Midlife and Older Canadians: The Role of Discrimination, Race and Sense of Belonging. The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences Vang, Z. M., Chau, S., Kobayashi, K., Owen, M. J., McKenzie-Sampson, S., Mayrand-Thibert, J., Brass, G. 2021


    We drew on fundamental cause theory and the weathering hypothesis to examine how discrimination influences aging for midlife and older adults in Canada.Using nationally representative data, we assessed the associations between discrimination and pain and functional limitations among adults 45 years of age and older. Discrimination was measured using a modified version of the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Chi-square tests were performed to check for baseline differences in the dependent and key predictor variables by race. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations of discrimination, race, and sense of belonging with pain and functional limitations, net of sociodemographic characteristics and SES.Indigenous respondents showed a clear health disadvantage, with higher rates of pain and functional limitations compared to Whites and Asians. Self-reported discrimination was also higher for Indigenous midlife and older adults than for their White and Asian age counterparts. Discrimination had a direct and robust association with pain (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.31, 1.87) and functional limitations (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.29, 1.87). However, race moderated the impact of discrimination on functional limitations for Blacks. Finally, a strong sense of belonging to one's local community was protective against pain and functional limitations for all racial groups.Future research needs to further examine the impact of discrimination on Indigenous peoples' aging process. High rates of discrimination coupled with a greater burden of pain means that Indigenous midlife and older adults may require additional and targeted health and social service resources to age successfully.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/geronb/gbab137

    View details for PubMedID 34282848

  • Gestational diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease up to 25 years after pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study. Acta diabetologica McKenzie-Sampson, S., Paradis, G., Healy-Profitós, J., St-Pierre, F., Auger, N. 2018; 55 (4): 315-322


    The risk of cardiovascular disease in women with gestational diabetes is poorly understood. We sought to determine whether gestational diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular disease more than two decades after pregnancy.We carried out a retrospective cohort study of 1,070,667 women who delivered infants in hospitals within Quebec, Canada, between 1989 and 2013. We followed 67,356 women with gestational diabetes and 1,003,311 without gestational diabetes for a maximum of 25.2 years after the index delivery. The main outcome measures were hospitalization for ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft, and other cardiovascular disorders. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing women with gestational diabetes to no gestational diabetes, adjusted for age, parity, socioeconomic deprivation, time period, and preeclampsia.Women with gestational diabetes had a higher cumulative incidence of hospitalization for cardiovascular disease 25 years after delivery (190.8 per 1000 women) compared with no gestational diabetes (117.8 per 1000 women). Gestational diabetes was associated with a higher risk of ischemic heart disease (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.12-1.36), myocardial infarction (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.15-2.47), coronary angioplasty (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.87-2.65), and coronary artery bypass graft (HR 3.16, 95% CI 2.24-4.47).In this population of pregnant women, gestational diabetes was associated with an increased risk of heart disease 25 years after delivery. Women with gestational diabetes may merit closer monitoring for cardiovascular disease prevention after pregnancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00592-017-1099-2

    View details for PubMedID 29327149