I am a clinical exercise physiologist and sport biomechanist interested in human exercise and sports performance. I am a certified performance and sport scientist (CPSS) and a certified strength and conditioning specialist with distinction (CSCS, *D) by the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA). In 2022, I was honored with the 2022 Wu Tsai Human Performance Alliance Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship. As a research exercise and sport scientist, I am interested in understanding the mechanical, molecular, and physiological mechanisms of human performance. Additionally, I am interested in creating new and practical training methods to improve human exercise and sports performance.

Honors & Awards

  • 1st Place on Scientific Poster Presentations, 2nd International Student Congress of Exercise Sciences in Monterrey, Mexico. (2018)
  • National Sports Award "Luchador Olmeca", Confederación Deportiva Mexicana (2011)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Post Doctoral Fellow, Wu Tsai Human Performance Alliance (2022 - Present)
  • Post-Doc, Stanford Cardiovascular Institute (2022 - Present)
  • Member, National Strength and Conditioning Association (2018 - Present)
  • Member, American College of Sports Medicine (2018 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship, Stanford University, Wu Tsai Human Performance Alliance Post-Doctoral Fellowship (2022)
  • Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Texas at El Paso, Interdisciplinary Health Sciences - Strength and Conditioning (2021)
  • Master of Science, The University of Texas at El Paso, Kinesiology - Clinical Exercise Physiology (2015)
  • Bachelor of Science, The University of Texas at El Paso, Kinesiology - Physical Education (2011)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Commercial Smart Watches and Heart Rate Monitors: A Concurrent Validity Analysis. Journal of strength and conditioning research Montalvo, S., Martinez, A., Arias, S., Lozano, A., Gonzalez, M. P., Dietze-Hermosa, M. S., Boyea, B. L., Dorgo, S. 2023


    Montalvo, S, Martinez, A, Arias, S, Lozano, A, Gonzalez, MP, Dietze-Hermosa, MS, Boyea, BL, and Dorgo, S. Smartwatches and commercial heart rate monitors: a concurrent validity analysis. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-The purpose of this study was to explore the concurrent validity of 2 commercial smartwatches (Apple Watch Series 6 and 7) against a clinical criterion device (12-lead electrocardiogram [ECG]) and a field criterion device (Polar H-10) during exercise. Twenty-four male collegiate football players and 20 recreationally active young adults (10 men and 10 women) were recruited and participated in a treadmill-based exercise session. The testing protocol included 3 minutes of standing still (resting), then walking at low intensity, jogging at a moderate intensity, running at a high intensity, and postexercise recovery. The intraclass correlation (ICC2,k), and Bland-Altman plot analyses showed a good validity of the Apple Watch Series 6 and Series 7 with increased error (bias) as jogging and running speed increased in the football and recreational athletes. The Apple Watch Series 6 and 7 are highly valid smartwatches at rest and different exercise intensities, with validity decreasing with increased running speed. Strength and conditioning professionals and athletes can confidently use the Apple Watch Series 6 and 7 when tracking heart rate; however, caution must be taken when running at moderate or higher speeds. The Polar H-10 can surrogate a clinical ECG for practical applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1519/JSC.0000000000004482

    View details for PubMedID 36862131

  • Dynamic stretching improves muscle activation and pain pressure threshold but not isometric hand strength when compared to static stretching Journal of Physical Education and Sport Montalvo, S., Conde, D., Sanchez, M., Martinez, P., Trevizo, R., Ibarra-Mejia, G. 2023; 2 (23): 293 - 300

    View details for DOI 10.7752/jpes.2023.02035

  • Differences in sprint profile, sprint completion times, and jumping performance between division I track and field sprinters Journal of Physical Education and Sport Dietze-Hermosa, M., Montalvo, S., Gonzales, M. P., Cubillos, N. R., Dorgo, S. 2023; 20: 2076-2085

    View details for DOI 10.7752/jpes.2020.s3280

  • Near Infrared Spectroscopy is not a Surrogate of Venous Occlusion Plethysmography to Assess Microvascular Resting Blood Flow and Function. International journal of exercise science Gomez, M., Montalvo, S., Gurovich, A. N. 2022; 15 (2): 1616-1626


    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive technique that measures tissue perfusion using red blood cells oxygen saturation and venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) is the gold standard to assess microvascular blood flow and function. The purpose of this study was to determine if NIRS can surrogate the microvascular blood flow assessment after an ischemic challenge obtained via VOP. Twenty apparently healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females), aged 18 to 35 years, were recruited for this single session study. NIRS probes were placed 40mm apart along the epicondylar muscles on the right forearm and on the tibialis anterior on the right lower leg, while VOP strain gauges were placed on the largest circumference on both right forearm and calf. Blood flow via VOP and NIRS variables (hemoglobin saturation (SO2), oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2), and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) slopes) were assessed before and after 5-min ischemic challenge. Person's correlations and intra-class correlations (ICC2k) were conducted for each of the NIRS variables vs VOP. There were moderate associations between of SO2 and HbO2 slopes and VOP (r = 0.59, p < 0.01 and r = 0.53, p < 0.05, respectively) at the lower body during resting conditions. There was a poor agreement between NIRS SO2 and VOP at the resting condition in the lower body (ICC2k = 0.45). There were no other associations between any of the other NIRS variables and VOP of the lower and upper body at resting or post-ischemic conditions. In conclusion, NIRS cannot surrogate VOP for measurements of microvascular blood flow at resting or post-ischemic conditions.

    View details for PubMedID 36582307

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9762160

  • Differences in Blood Flow Patterns and Endothelial Shear Stress at the Carotid Artery Using Different Exercise Modalities and Intensities FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY Montalvo, S., Gomez, M., Lozano, A., Arias, S., Rodriguez, L., Morales-Acuna, F., Gurovich, A. N. 2022; 13: 857816


    Endothelial dysfunction is the first pathophysiological step of atherosclerosis, which is responsible for 90% of strokes. Exercise programs aim to reduce the risk of developing stroke; however, the majority of the beneficial factors of exercise are still unknown. Endothelial shear stress (ESS) is associated with endothelial homeostasis. Unfortunately, ESS has not been characterized during different exercise modalities and intensities in the carotid artery. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine exercise-induced blood flow patterns in the carotid artery. Fourteen apparently healthy young adults (males = 7, females = 7) were recruited for this repeated measures study design. Participants completed maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) tests on a Treadmill, Cycle-ergometer, and Arm-ergometer, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) tests of the Squat, Bench Press (Bench), and Biceps Curl (Biceps) on separate days. Thereafter, participants performed each exercise at 3 different exercise intensities (low, moderate, high) while a real-time ultrasound image and blood flow of the carotid artery was obtained. Blood flow patterns were assessed by estimating ESS via Womersley's estimation and turbulence via Reynold's number (Re). Data were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. Pairwise comparisons with Holm-Bonferroni correction were conducted with Hedge's g effect size to determine the magnitude of the difference. There was a main effect of intensity, exercise modality, and intensity * exercise modality interaction on both ESS (p < 0.001). Treadmill at a high intensity yielded the greatest ESS when compared to the other exercise modalities and intensities, while Bench Press and Biceps curls yielded the least ESS. All exercise intensities across all modalities resulted in turbulent blood flow. Clinicians must take into consideration how different exercise modalities and intensities affect ESS and Re of the carotid artery.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fphys.2022.857816

    View details for Web of Science ID 000799590100001

    View details for PubMedID 35620608

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9127153

  • Changes in vertical jump performance and body composition before and after COVID-19 lockdown Journal of Human Exercise and Sport Tan, E., Montalvo, S., Gonzales, M. P., Dietze-Hermosa, M. S., MIN, S., Dorgo, S. 2022; 18 (1): 224-241
  • Association and Predictive Ability of Jump Performance with Sprint Profile of Collegiate Track and Field Athletes SPORTS BIOMECHANICS Dietze-Hermosa, M., Montalvo, S., Gonzalez, M. P., Rodriguez, S., Cubillos, N. R., Dorgo, S. 2021: 1-20


    This study examined the relationship between broad jump (BJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and light load countermovement jump (LL-CMJ) performance and sprint performance and Sprint Profile measures in athletes. Additionally, this study aimed to determine the predictive ability of jump measures on Sprint Profile components. Twenty-five athletes performed BJ, CMJ, LL-CMJ, 30-metre acceleration and 30-metre maximal speed fly-by sprints. Results revealed moderate to very large correlations between BJ, CMJ and LL-CMJ performance with acceleration sprint completion times (r = -0.423 to -0.807; p < 0.05), fly-by sprint completion times (r = -0.452 to -0.838; p < 0.05) and maximal sprint speed (r = 0.424 to 0.794; p < 0.05). Additionally, associations were observed with multiple jumping measures and components of the Sprint Profile (r = 0.431 to 0.777; p < 0.05) during acceleration sprints. Furthermore, the BJ distance was the best predictor of Sprint Profile components during acceleration sprints (R2 = 0.57-0.76; p < 0.01) and maximal speed fly-by sprints (R2 = 0.775; p < 0.001). The forces and the manner of force application during the BJ to propel the athlete forwards and upwards are similar to those necessary to exhibit superior sprint performance. This may be due to the rapid generation of forces and orientation of force application during both movements.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/14763141.2021.2000022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000722553000001

    View details for PubMedID 34818989

  • Effects of Augmented Eccentric Load Bench Press Training on One Repetition Maximum Performance and Electromyographic Activity in Trained Powerlifters JOURNAL OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING RESEARCH Montalvo, S., Gruber, L. D., Gonzalez, M. P., Dietze-Hermosa, M. S., Dorgo, S. 2021; 35 (6): 1512-1519


    Montalvo, S, Gruber, LD, Gonzalez, MP, Dietze-Hermosa, MS, and Dorgo, S. Effects of augmented eccentric load bench press training on one repetition maximum performance and electromyographic activity in trained powerlifters. J Strength Cond Res 35(6): 1512-1519, 2021-Augmented eccentric load (AEL) training has been shown to elicit greater lower-body muscular strength increases and faster performance improvements compared with traditional strength training. However, it is unknown whether AEL training could provide similar improvements in upper-body muscular strength. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of a 4-week AEL training program on bench press one repetition maximum (1RM) strength, bar kinetics and kinematics, and surface electromyography (EMG) activity. Eight competitive powerlifters completed 5 training sessions consisting of 7 sets of a single repetition with up to 5 minutes rest between sets. Each session was completed at a predetermined AEL percentage consisting of 90% 1RM for concentric and supramaximal loads ranging from 105 to 125% 1RM during the eccentric phase with the use of eccentric hooks. After 4 weeks of AEL training, 1RM performance significantly increased from pretest to posttest (116.62 ± 27.48-124.28 ± 26.96 kg, p = 0.001). In addition, EMG amplitude of the pectoralis major decreased during the 125% AEL session to 59.86 ± 15.36% of pretest 1RM EMG values (p = 0.049, effect sizes [ESs] = 0.69). Furthermore, peak power of 1RM increased by 36.67% from pretest to posttest (p = 0.036, ES = 0.58). These study findings suggest that incorporating AEL bench press training into a 4-week training cycle may be a novel strategy to improve 1RM performance in competitive powerlifters in a short period.

    View details for DOI 10.1519/JSC.0000000000004030

    View details for Web of Science ID 000711779600005

    View details for PubMedID 34027918

  • Common Vertical Jump and Reactive Strength Index Measuring Devices: A Validity and Reliability Analysis JOURNAL OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING RESEARCH Montalvo, S., Gonzalez, M. P., Dietze-Hermosa, M. S., Eggleston, J. D., Dorgo, S. 2021; 35 (5): 1234-1243


    Montalvo, S, Gonzalez, MP, Dietze-Hermosa, M, Eggleston, JD, and Dorgo, S. Common vertical jump and reactive strength index measuring devices: A validity and reliability analysis. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1234-1243, 2021-Several field-test devices exist to assess vertical jump, but they either lack proper validation or have been validated for the countermovement jump (CMJ) only. This study aimed to quantify the validity and reliability of metrics, including jump height and the calculated reactive strength index (RSI), obtained using the flight-time method from 4 different assessment devices with 3 different vertical jump modalities in comparison to a force platform (criterion assessment). The Optojump, Push-Band 2.0, MyJump2 mobile application, and What'sMyVert mobile application were used synchronously and together with the force platforms. Thirty subjects (17 males and 13 females; age ± SD: 23.37 ± 1.87 years) performed 5 repetitions of CMJ, squat jump (SQJ), and drop jump (DJ) with a standardized 90° knee flexion for all jumps. Relative reliability was determined by intraclass correlation (ICC) and absolute reliability by coefficient of variation (CV) analyses. Excellent reliability was considered as ICC > 0.9 and CV < 10%. Validity was obtained through an ordinary least products regression, ICC, and CV. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Reliability was excellent on jump height for the CMJ (ICC ≥ 0.98; CV ≤ 8.14%) for all instruments. With the exception of the Optojump, all instruments also had excellent reliability for the SQJ (ICC ≥ 0.98; CV ≤ 6.62) and DJ (ICC ≥ 0.94; CV ≤ 8.19). For the RSI metric, all instruments had excellent relative reliability (ICC ≥ 0.92), but none had excellent absolute reliability (CV ≥ 12.5%). The MyJump2 and What'sMyVert apps showed excellent validity on all jump modalities and RSI. The Optojump and Push-Band 2.0 devices both showed system and proportional bias for several jump modalities and RSI. Overall, both mobile applications may provide coaches with a cost-effective and reliable measurement of various vertical jumps.

    View details for DOI 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003988

    View details for Web of Science ID 000658820300011

    View details for PubMedID 33629975

  • Association Between the Modified Functional Movement Screen Scores, Fear of Falling, and Self-Perceived Balance in Active Older Adults TOPICS IN GERIATRIC REHABILITATION Dietze-Hermosa, M. S., Montalvo, S., Gonzalez, M. P., Dorgo, S. 2021; 37 (2): 64-73
  • Physical fitness in older adults: Is there a relationship with the modified Functional Movement Screen (TM)? JOURNAL OF BODYWORK AND MOVEMENT THERAPIES Dietze-Hermosa, M., Montalvo, S., Gonzalez, M. P., Dorgo, S. 2021; 25: 28-34


    The modified Functional Movement Screen™ (mFMS) has been used to screen for mobility, stability, motor control, and balance in older adults, yet, its relationship to measures of physical fitness is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between mFMS scores and measures of physical fitness in older adults. A secondary aim was to determine physical fitness differences depending on mFMS Lower Body Motor Control Screen scores.One hundred and eight older adults completed this cross-sectional study. Measurements of physical fitness included: Handgrip Strength (HG), Back-Leg Strength Dynamometer (BLS), 8 foot Up and Go (8UG), Vertical Jump (VJ), Medicine Ball Throw (MBT), Chair Stand (CST), Arm Curl (AC), and 6-Minute Walk test (6 MW). The mFMS consisted of four screens: Shoulder Mobility Screen (SMS), Deep Squat (DS), Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR), and a Lower Body Motor Control Screen (LB-MCS). Spearman's R correlations determined associations between physical fitness tests and mFMS scores (DS, SMS, ASLR). Independent t-tests or Mann Whitney U tests determined whether individuals who passed the LB-MCS displayed higher physical fitness scores.The DS was significantly correlated with all fitness measures (p < 0.05). Higher DS scores were associated with better HG (r = 0.31), BLS (r = 0.49), VJ height (r = 0.54), MBT (r = 0.41), CST (r = 0.57), AC (r = 0.30), 6 MW (r = 0.50), and 8UG (r = -0.61) performance. Individuals who passed the LB-MCS displayed superior BLS, 8UG test, and 6 MW test performance (p < 0.05).Higher DS scores are associated with higher physical fitness scores. Individuals who passed the LB-MCS displayed better physical fitness scores. Practitioners may desire to use the mFMS to measure physical fitness in older adults.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbmt.2020.11.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000631984400005

    View details for PubMedID 33714507

  • Heart rate percentage as a method for determining intra-set resting during a post-activation performance enhancement exercise to increase vertical jump performance Journal of Physical Education and Sport Montalvo, S., Conde, D., Gonzales, M. P., Dietze-Hermosa, M. S., Ibarra-Mejia, G., Dorgo, S. 2021; 21 (5): 730 – 2736

    View details for DOI 10.7752/jpes.2021.05363

  • Sprint Training on a Treadmill vs. Overground Results in Modality-Specific Impact on Sprint Performance but Similar Positive Improvement in Body Composition in Young Adults JOURNAL OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING RESEARCH Dorgo, S., Perales, J. J., Boyle, J. B., Hausselle, J., Montalvo, S. 2020; 34 (2): 463-472


    Dorgo, S, Perales, JJ, Boyle, JB, Hausselle, J, and Montalvo, S. Sprint training on a treadmill vs. overground results in modality-specific impact on sprint performance but similar positive improvement in body composition in young adults. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The effects of different sprint training modalities on body composition are not yet known, and the effectiveness of using motorized treadmills for sprint training is yet to be assessed accurately. The following study investigated the effects of motorized treadmill and overground training on sprint performance and body composition. Sixty-four young adults (33 men and 31 women) completed 12 sprint training sessions over a 6-week period either on a treadmill (TM) or overground (TR), or followed their normal exercise routine (CONTROL). Fifty-yard sprint time, 20-yard maximal sprint speed split time, and maximal treadmill speed were used as sprint performance indicators. Body composition and sprint performance assessments were completed before and after the 6-week intervention. On completion of the 6-week training program, maximal treadmill speed significantly increased for all 3 groups, while split sprint time significantly decreased for the TR group. The CONTROL group's 50-yd sprint time and split sprint time significantly worsened after 6 weeks. Improvements in sprint time and speed were significantly greater for the TR and TM groups compared with the CONTROL group for 50-yd sprint time, 20-yard maximal sprint speed split time, and maximal treadmill sprint speed. The change in maximal treadmill sprint speed for the TM group was significantly greater than that of the TR group. TR and TM subjects also showed significant decrease in total body fat and increase in leg lean muscle mass. These findings indicate that although overground sprint training resulted in the greatest performance improvements within overground sprint tests, sprint training on a motorized treadmill may be a beneficial alternative modality to overground sprint training and may also positively impact subjects' body composition.

    View details for DOI 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000524362300022

    View details for PubMedID 30741862

  • Association and predictive ability of vertical countermovement jump performance on unilateral agility in recreationally trained individuals Journal of Physical Education and Sport Dietze-Hermosa, M., Montalvo, S., Cubillo, N. R., Gonzales, M. P., Dorgo, S. 2020; 20: 2076-2085

    View details for DOI 10.7752/jpes.2020.s3280

  • The effect of different stretching protocols on vertical jump measures in college age gymnasts JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS Montalvo, S., Dorgo, S. 2019; 59 (12): 1956-1962


    Gymnastics is a sport that requires rapid display of explosive power expressed through the vertical jump. Recent studies have shown that a static-stretching based warm-up is ineffective for explosive power development. The aim of this study was to compare different stretching protocols and their effect on vertical jump measures.Eleven gymnasts (9 males, 2 females; 23.18±2.52 yrs) participated in this randomized crossover study. Participants were measured on the countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SQJ), and depth jump (DJ) at baseline (no warm-up). Participants were then randomly placed into one of four stretching protocols: Static (ST), dynamic (DY), static + dynamic (ST+DY), and dynamic + static (DY+ST) and tested on the CMJ, SQJ, and DJ. A photoelectric cell device was used to measure vertical jump height (VJH), flight time (FT), power output (PO), and Reactive Strength Index (RSI). The non-parametric Friedman test was used to test differences between stretching protocols.The DY protocol showed significant improvements in VJH, FT, and PO in the CMJ. The ST, ST+DY, and DY+ST protocols did not show any significant improvements.A warm-up consisting of dynamic movements that resemble those used in the sport of gymnastics can improve vertical jump measures, as reflected through the CMJ.

    View details for DOI 10.23736/S0022-4707.19.09561-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000507479700004

    View details for PubMedID 31933341

  • Validity of Vertical Jump Measuring Devices International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings Montalvo, S., Dorgo, S., Tune, C. H., Sapien, A. C., Gonzalez, M. P., Sanchez, J. A. 2018
  • The Effects of Overground and Treadmill Sprint Training on Body Composition National Strength and Conditioning Association Conference Proceedings Dorgo, S., Perales, J., Montalvo, S. 2018
  • The Effects of Two Different Sprint Training Modalities on Sprint Speed, Aerobic Fitness and Body Composition International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings Amador, M., Montalvo, S., Perales, J., Dorgo, S., Bajpeyi, S. 2016
  • Effects of Treadmill and Overground Sprint Training Modes on Sprint Speed, Body Composition and Aerobic Power National Strength and Conditioning Conference Association Proceeding Dorgo, S., Perales, J., Montalvo, S., Amador, M., Bajpeyi, B. 2016