Bio


Our group conducts research on sustainable, durable construction materials and their application to structures and construction. Two current areas of focus are damage-tolerant, high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composite materials, and bio-based fiber-reinforced polymeric composites that have a closed loop life-cycle. We are also developing methodologies for performance-based durability engineering with a focus on reducing the impacts of corrosion in structural concrete bridges and assessing the impact of climate change on the vulnerability of bridges to damage or collapse caused by scour. In the area of engineering education we are researching the impact of web-based activities on mechanics self-efficacy and achievement in an introductory course on solid mechanics.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Associate Chair, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering (2009 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Milligan Family University Fellow in Undergraduate Education, Stanford University (2012-present)
  • American Concrete Institute Fellow, American Concrete Institute (2006-present)
  • ACI Structural Engineering Award, American Concrete Institute (2002)
  • Fiona Li and Donald Li Excellence in Teaching Award, College of Engineering, Cornell University (2002)
  • ARC Career Development Award, ASCE's Civil Engineering Research Foundation (2000)
  • NSF Early Career Award, National Science Foundation (2000)
  • Fulbright Fellowship, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland (1990-1991)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Board Member, Structural Engineers Association of Northern California (2012 - 2014)
  • Board Member, Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation, Inc. (2006 - 2009)

Professional Education


  • PhD, University of Texas at Austin, Structural Engineering (1997)
  • MSE, University of Texas at Austin, Structural Engineering (1994)
  • BSE, Princeton University, Civil Engineering & Operations Research (1990)

Patents


  • Wilfred V. Srubar III, Sarah L. Billington. "United States Patent 8507588 PHBV/Ground Bone Meal and Pumice Powder Engineering Biobased Composite Materials for Construction", Aug 13, 2013
  • Sarah L. Billington, Craig S. Criddle, Margaret C. Morse, Sarah J. Christian, Allison J. Pieja. "United States Patent 7887893 Bacterial poly(hydroxy alkanoate) polymer and natural fiber composites", Feb 15, 2011

2014-15 Courses


Postdoctoral Advisees


Journal Articles


  • Incorporating spatiotemporal effects and moisture diffusivity into a multi-criteria materials selection methodology for wood-polymer composites CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS Srubar, W. V., Miller, S. A., Lepech, M. D., Billington, S. L. 2014; 71: 589-601
  • Nonlinear Constitutive Model for Anisotropic Biobased Composite Materials JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS Michel, A. T., Billington, S. L. 2014; 140 (11)
  • Design Concepts for Controlled Rocking of Self-Centering Steel-Braced Frames JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING Eatherton, M. R., Ma, X., Krawinkler, H., Mar, D., Billington, S., Hajjar, J. F., Deierlein, G. G. 2014; 140 (11)
  • Behavior of unreinforced masonry prisms and beams retrofitted with engineered cementitious composites MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES Kyriakides, M. A., Billington, S. L. 2014; 47 (9): 1573-1587
  • Mechanical Characterization and Modeling of Poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate)-co-poly(beta-hydroxyvalerate)-Alfa Fiber-Reinforced Composites POLYMER COMPOSITES Ben Cheikh, R., Michel, A., Billington, S. 2014; 35 (9): 1758-1766

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pc.22829

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342962200011

  • Tension stiffening in reinforced high performance fiber reinforced cement-based composites CEMENT & CONCRETE COMPOSITES Moreno, D. M., Trono, W., Jen, G., Ostertag, C., Billington, S. L. 2014; 50: 36-46
  • Influence of temporal resolution and processing of exposure data on modeling of chloride ingress and reinforcement corrosion in concrete MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES Flint, M., Michel, A., Billington, S. L., Geiker, M. R. 2014; 47 (4): 729-748
  • Seismic Retrofit of Steel Moment-Resisting Frames with High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Infill Panels: Large-Scale Hybrid Simulation Experiments JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING Lignos, D. G., Moreno, D. M., Billington, S. L. 2014; 140 (3)
  • Cyclic Response of Nonductile Reinforced Concrete Frames with Unreinforced Masonry Infills Retrofitted with Engineered Cementitious Composites JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING Kyriakides, M. A., Billington, S. L. 2014; 140 (2)
  • Simulating bond-slip effects in high-performance fiber-reinforced cement based composites under cyclic loads COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES, VOL 2 Bandelt, M. J., Billington, S. L. 2014: 1059-1066
  • A modular framework for performance-based durability engineering: From exposure to impacts STRUCTURAL SAFETY Flint, M. M., Baker, J. W., Billington, S. L. 2014; 50: 78-93
  • Application of multi-criteria material selection techniques to constituent refinement in biobased composites MATERIALS & DESIGN Miller, S. A., Lepech, M. D., Billington, S. L. 2013; 52: 1043-1051
  • A Renewable Lignin-Lactide Copolymer and Application in Biobased Composites ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING Chung, Y., Olsson, J. V., Li, R. J., Frank, C. W., Waymouth, R. M., Billington, S. L., Sattely, E. S. 2013; 1 (10): 1231-1238

    View details for DOI 10.1021/sc4000835

    View details for Web of Science ID 000325512000004

  • Shake-Table Tests of a 3-Story Masonry-Infilled RC Frame Retrofitted with Composite Materials JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING Koutromanos, I., Kyriakides, M., Stavridis, A., Billington, S., Shing, P. B. 2013; 139 (8): 1340-1351
  • A micromechanical model for moisture-induced deterioration in fully biorenewable wood-plastic composites COMPOSITES PART A-APPLIED SCIENCE AND MANUFACTURING Srubar, W. V., Billington, S. L. 2013; 50: 81-92
  • Behavior of Concrete and ECC Structures under Simulated Earthquake Motion JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE Gencturk, B., Elnashai, A. S., Lepech, M. D., Billington, S. 2013; 139 (3): 389-399
  • Improvement in environmental performance of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate)-co-(beta-hydroxyvalerate) composites through process modifications JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION Miller, S. A., Billington, S. L., Lepech, M. D. 2013; 40: 190-198
  • Seismic Retrofit of Steel Moment Resisting Frames With High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete Infill Panels: Large Scale Hybrid Simulation Experiments ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, published online Lignos, D., Moreno, D., Billington, S., L. 2013
  • Extruded foams from microbial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and its blends with cellulose acetate butyrate POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Liao, Q., Tsui, A., Billington, S., Frank, C. W. 2012; 52 (7): 1495-1508

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pen.23087

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305473100012

  • Moisture diffusion and its impact on uniaxial tensile response of biobased composites COMPOSITES PART B-ENGINEERING Christian, S. J., Billington, S. L. 2012; 43 (5): 2303-2312
  • Characterization of poly-hydroxybutyrate films and hemp fiber reinforced composites exposed to accelerated weathering POLYMER DEGRADATION AND STABILITY Michel, A. T., Billington, S. L. 2012; 97 (6): 870-878
  • Modeling the kinetics of water transport and hydroexpansion in a lignocellulose-reinforced bacterial copolyester POLYMER Srubar, W. V., Frank, C. W., Billington, S. L. 2012; 53 (11): 2152-2161
  • Simulation of Unreinforced Masonry Beams Retrofitted with Engineered Cementitious Composites in Flexure JOURNAL OF MATERIALS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Kyriakides, M. A., Hendriks, M. A., Billington, S. L. 2012; 24 (5): 506-515
  • Mechanisms and impact of fiber-matrix compatibilization techniques on the material characterization of PHBV/oak wood flour engineered biobased composites COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Srubar, W. V., Pilla, S., Wright, Z. C., Ryan, C. A., Greene, J. P., Frank, C. W., Billington, S. L. 2012; 72 (6): 708-715
  • Tension-Stiffening in Reinforced High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cement-Based Composites under Direct Tension HIGH PERFORMANCE FIBER REINFORCED CEMENT COMPOSITES 6 Moreno, D. M., Trono, W., JEN, G., Ostertag, C., Billington, S. L. 2012; 2: 263-270
  • Mechanical response of PHB- and cellulose acetate natural fiber-reinforced composites for construction applications COMPOSITES PART B-ENGINEERING Christian, S. J., Billington, S. L. 2011; 42 (7): 1920-1928
  • Performance-based earthquake engineering assessment of a self-centering, post-tensioned concrete bridge system EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING & STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS Lee, W. K., Billington, S. L. 2011; 40 (8): 887-902

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eqe.1065

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291497800004

  • Strain rate dependence of HPFRCC cylinders in monotonic tension MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES Douglas, K. S., Billington, S. L. 2011; 44 (1): 391-404
  • IMPLEMENTATION OF MULTISCALE MODELS IN A PROBABILISTIC FRAMEWORK FOR PERFORMANCE-BASED DURABILITY ENGINEERING MULTISCALE AND MULTIPHYSICS PROCESSES IN GEOMECHANICS Flint, M. M., Billington, S. L. 2011: 173-176
  • Engineered Biomaterials for Construction: A Cradle-to-Cradle Design Methodology for Green Material Development International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability Srubar, W., V., Michel, A., T., Criddle, C., S., Frank, C., W., Billington, S., L. 2011; 5 (7): 157-166
  • NONLINEAR MICROMECHANICAL MODELING OF HYGROTHERMAL EFFECTS ON STRUCTURAL BIOBASED COMPOSITE MATERIALS MULTISCALE AND MULTIPHYSICS PROCESSES IN GEOMECHANICS Srubar, W. V., Billington, S. L. 2011: 189-192
  • Effects of Natural Porous Additives on the Tensile Mechanical Performance and Moisture Absorption Behavior of PHBV-based Composites for Construction. Stanford Undergraduate Research Journal Alvarado, A., J., Morales, K., M., Srubar, W., V., Billington, S., L. 2011; 10
  • Cyclic behavior of precast, self-compacting ductile concrete infill panels for seismic retrofit of steel frame buildings ACI Structural Journal Olsen, E., C., Billington, S., L. 2011; 1 (108): 51-60
  • Modeling Residual Displacements of Concrete Bridge Columns under Earthquake Loads Using Fiber Elements JOURNAL OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING Lee, W. K., Billington, S. L. 2010; 15 (3): 240-249
  • Cyclic Response of Precast High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Infill Panels ACI STRUCTURAL JOURNAL OLSEN, E. C., Billington, S. L. 2010; 108 (1): 51-60
  • Residual Displacement Prediction for Structural Concrete Columns under Earthquake Loading ASCE J. Bridge Engineering Lee, W., K., Billington, S., L. 2009; 3 (15): 240-249
  • Evaluation of Sequentially Linear Finite Element Analysis to Simulate Nonlinear Behavior in Mortar and Engineered Cementitious Composites in Flexure ACI Special Publication Billington, S., L. 2009: 265-12
  • Creep and shrinkage of high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites ACI MATERIALS JOURNAL Rouse, J. M., Billington, S. L. 2007; 104 (2): 129-136
  • Simulation of self-centering, segmentally precast concrete columns for a probabilistic, performance-based assessment COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES Lee, W. K., Billington, S. L. 2006: 731-738
  • Investigation of infill panels made from engineered cementitious composites for seismic strengthening and retrofit JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE Kesner, K., Billington, S. L. 2005; 131 (11): 1712-1720
  • Seismic analysis of reinforced concrete frame buildings using interface modeling JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE Han, T. S., Billington, S. L. 2004; 130 (8): 1157-1168
  • Cyclic Response of Unbonded Posttensioned Precast Columns with Ductile Fiber-Reinforced Concrete JOURNAL OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING Billington, S. L., Yoon, J. K. 2004; 9 (4): 353-363
  • Seismic Analysis of Structural Concrete Frame Buildings Using Interface Modeling ASCE J. Structural Engineering Han, T., S., Billington, S., L. 2004; 8 (130): 1157-1168
  • Cyclic Response of Precast Bridge Columns with Ductile Fiber-reinforced Concrete ASCE J. Bridge Engineering Billington, S., L., Yoon, J., K. 2004; 4 (9): 353-363
  • Simulation of highly ductile fiber-reinforced cement-based composite components under cyclic loading ACI STRUCTURAL JOURNAL Han, T. S., Feenstra, P. H., Billington, S. L. 2003; 100 (6): 749-757
  • Cyclic response of highly ductile fiber-reinforced cement-based composites ACI MATERIALS JOURNAL Kesner, K. E., Billington, S. L., Douglas, K. S. 2003; 100 (5): 381-390
  • Influence of hysteretic behavior on equivalent period and damping of structural systems JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE Kwan, W. P., Billington, S. L. 2003; 129 (5): 576-585
  • Simulation of cyclically-loaded columns made with ductile cement-based composites COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES Billington, S. L., Yoon, J. K. 2003: 881-889
  • Unbonded Post-tensioned Bridge Piers: Part II - Seismic Analyses ASCE J. Bridge Engineering Kwan, W., P., Billington, S., L. 2003; 2 (8): 102-111
  • Unbonded Post-tensioned Bridge Piers: Part I - Monotonic and Cyclic Analyses ASCE J. Bridge Engineering Kwan, W., P., Billington, S., L. 2003; 2 (8): 92-101
  • Experimental Response of Precast Infill Panel Connections and Panels Made With DFRCC J. Advanced Concrete Technology Kesner, K., E., Billington, S., L. 2003; 3 (1): 1–7
  • Delamination buckling and propagation analysis of honeycomb panels using a cohesive element approach Int’l J. Fracture Han, T., S., Ural, A., Chen, Y., Zehnder, A., Ingraffea, A., I., Billington, S., L. 2002; 2 (115): 101-123
  • Simulation of Structural Concrete under Cyclic Load ASCE J. Structural Engineering Kwan, W., P., Billington, S., L. 2001; 12 (127): 1391-1401
  • Alternate Substructure Systems for Standard Highway Bridges ASCE J. Bridge Engineering Billington, S., L., Barnes, R., W., Breen, J., E. 2001; 2 (6): 87-94
  • Example Applications of Aesthetics and Efficiency Guidelines Concrete International Billington, S., L., Ratchye, S., B., Breen, J., E., Vernooy, D., A. 2000; 2 (22): 66-75
  • Improving Standard Highway Bridges with Attention to Cast-in-place Substructures ASCE J. Bridge Engineering Billington, S., L., Breen, J., E. 2000; 4 (5): 344-351
  • A Precast Segmental Substructure System for Standard Bridges J. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute Billington, S., L., Barnes, R., W., Breen, J., E. 1999; 4 (44): 56-73

Books and Book Chapters


  • Simulation Strategies to Predict Seismic Response of RC Structures ACI Special Publication, SP-205 Han, T., S., Billington, S., L., Ingraffea, A., I. 2001: 191-214

Conference Proceedings


  • Stimulation of High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites with Bond-Slip Effects EURO-C Bandelt, M., Billington, S. 2014
  • Evaluation of a modular framework for performance-based durability engineering through assessment of a coastal reinforced concrete structure Durability of Building Materials and Components XIII Flint, M. M., Billington, S. L. 2014
  • Biobased Materials for Sustainable Temporary Disaster-Relief Housing Third International Conference on Urban Disaster Reduction Michel, A. T., Srubar, W. V., Billington, S. L. EERI. 2014
  • Bond of Reinforcement in High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Seventh National Seismic Conference on Bridges & Highways Bandelt, M. J., Billington, S. L. 2013
  • Characterizing the effects of ambient aging on the mechanical and physical properties of two commercially available bacterial thermoplastics Srubar, W. V., Wright, Z. C., Tsui, A., Michel, A. T., Billington, S. L., Frank, C. W. ELSEVIER SCI LTD. 2012: 1922-1929
  • Simulation of Masonry Beams Retrofitted with Engineered Cementitious Composites EURO-C Kyriakides, M., Hendricks, M., Billington, S. 2010
  • Alternate Approaches to Simulating the Performance of Ductile Fiber-reinforced Cement-based Materials in Structural Applications EURO-C Billington, S. 2010
  • Impact of Moisture on Biobased Composites for Construction Applications Society for the Advancement of Material Process Engineering Christian, S., Billington, S. 2009
  • Simulation of Self-Centering Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Columns Lee, W., K., Billington, S., L. 2008
  • Post-Tensioned Structural Concrete Bridge Piers with Self-Centering Characteristics ASCE-SEI Structures Congress Lee, W., Jeong, H., Billington, S., Mahin, S., Sakai, J. 2007
  • Performance-Based Assessment of the Self-Centering Concrete Bridge Pier System for Seismic Regions 8th US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Lee, W., Billington, S. 2006
  • Analytical Assessment of the Post-Earthquake Condition of Self-Centering vs. Traditional Concrete Bridge Pier Systems 3rd International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management Lee, W., Billington, S. 2006
  • Modeling the Impact and Rate Dependence in HPFRCC Materials on the Behavior of Infill Panels 8th US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Douglas, K., Billington, S. 2006
  • Simulation of Self-Centering, Segmentally Precast Concrete Columns for Probabilistic, Performance-Based Assessment EURO-C Conference on Computational Modeling of Concrete Structures Lee, W., Billington, S. 2006
  • Impact of Long-Term Material Degradation on Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Bridge 8th US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Matsuki, S., Billington, S., Baker, J. 2006
  • Rate Dependence in High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cement-based Composites for Seismic Applications 5th International Conference on Construction Materials, ConMat05 Douglas, K., Billington, S. 2005
  • Damage-Tolerant Cement-Based Materials for Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering Design: Research Needs 5th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures Billington, S. 2004
  • Time-Dependent Response of Highly Ductile Fiber-Reinforced Cement-Based Composites 7th Symposium on Brittle Matrix Composites Billington, S., Rouse, J. 2003
  • Predicting Tunneling-induced Settlement Damage for a Concrete Frame Structure with Masonry Facade The EURO-C Douglas, K., Rots, J., Netzel, H., Billington, S. 2003: 695-705
  • Simulation of Cyclically Loaded Columns made with Ductile Cement-based Composites, Computational Modelling of Concrete Structures The EURO-C Billington, S., Yoon, J. 2003
  • Cyclic Response of Ductile Fiber-Reinforced Cement-Based Composites 4th International Workshop on HIgh Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cement-Based Composites, HPFRCC-4 Billington, S., Kesner, K. 2003