- Internal Medicine
Clinical Scholar, Medicine
Residency: Stanford University Internal Medicine Residency (2023) CA
Medical Education: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (2020) IL
Dietary Exposures and Interventions in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Current Evidence and Emerging Concepts.
2023; 15 (3)
Diet is intimately linked to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and has potent effects on intestinal immune homeostasis. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the GI tract. The therapeutic implications of diet in patients with IBD have received significant attention in recent years. In this review, we provide a contemporary and comprehensive overview of dietary exposures and interventions in IBD. Epidemiological studies suggest that ultra-processed foods, food additives, and emulsifiers are associated with a higher incidence of IBD. Exclusion and elimination diets are associated with improved symptoms in patients with IBD, but no effects on objective markers of inflammation. Specific dietary interventions (e.g., Mediterranean, specific carbohydrate, high fiber, ketogenic, anti-inflammatory diets) have been shown to reduce symptoms, improve inflammatory biomarkers, and quality of life metrics to varying degrees, but these studies are limited by study design, underpowering, heterogeneity, and confounding. To date, there is no robust evidence that any dietary intervention alone may replace standard therapies in patients with IBD. However, diet may play an adjunct role to induce or maintain clinical remission with standard IBD therapies. The results of novel dietary trials in IBD such as personalized fiber, intermittent fasting, and time-restricted diets are eagerly awaited.
View details for DOI 10.3390/nu15030579
View details for PubMedID 36771288
Relationship of circulating immune cells with lifestyle factors and cancer recurrence in early-stage breast cancer
BREAST CANCER RESEARCH AND TREATMENT
2021; 186 (2): 561-568
To evaluate the relationship of circulating immune cells with recurrence and metabolic/lifestyle factors in patients with early-stage breast cancer.Patients with early-stage breast cancer were identified from the electronic record and institutional registry. Lymphocyte and monocyte counts were obtained from blood samples at time of diagnosis prior to any chemotherapy. Correlations between lymphocyte and monocyte and recurrence were assessed in the entire cohort and among obese patients, those reporting alcohol consumption and smoking. Competing risk regression was used to analyze time to recurrence.A total of 950 patients with ≥ 5 years of follow-up were identified; 433 had complete data and were eligible for analysis. 293 (68%) had hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, 82 (19%) HER2 positive, and 53 (13%) triple negative. Patients in the highest quintile of lymphocytes compared to the lowest quintile had lower risk of recurrence (subhazard ratio (SHR) = 0.17, 95% CI [0.03-0.93], p = 0.041) while patients in the highest quintile of monocytes had lower risk for recurrence (SHR = 0.19, 95% CI [0.04, 0.92], p = 0.039). Higher monocytes were more strongly associated with lower recurrence among those reporting alcohol consumption (HR = 0.10, 95% CI [0.01, 0.91], p = 0.04). In obese patients, higher lymphocytes were associated with lower risk of recurrence (p = 0.046); in non-obese patients, higher monocytes were associated with lower risk of recurrence (p = 0.02). There were no correlations among patients who reported tobacco use.High lymphocyte and monocyte counts are associated with lower recurrence rate in early-stage breast cancer, particularly in obese patients and those reporting alcohol consumption.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10549-020-06016-3
View details for Web of Science ID 000589476600001
View details for PubMedID 33185832
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9271265
Circulating immune cell dynamics in patients with triple negative breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy
2020; 9 (19): 6954-6960
Lymphopenia has been associated with inferior cancer outcomes, but there is limited data in breast cancer. We describe the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on circulating immune cells and its association with pathological complete response (pCR) rates in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC).We constructed a database of patients with early stage TNBC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Circulating lymphocytes and monocytes were assessed before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. These were correlated with pCR rates and disease-free survival (DFS) using Fisher's exact test, logistic regression, and the log-rank test.From 2000 to 2015, we identified 95 eligible patients. Median age was 50; 29 (31%) were treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy; and 66 (69%) with nonplatinum-containing chemotherapy (anthracycline-taxane, or either alone). About 32 (34%) patients achieved a pCR; and 33 (35%) had recurrence events. Median follow-up time was 47 months. No significant associations were found between changes in lymphocytes and pCR or DFS. There was a correlation between lower monocyte levels after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pCR (mean monocyte 0.56 in those with no-pCR vs 0.46 in those with pCR, P = .049, multivariate P = .078) and DFS (median DFS in highest monocyte quartile was 30 vs 107 months in lowest quartile, P = .022, multivariate P = .023). In patients who received nonplatinum regimens, DFS was better among those who had larger decreases in monocytes.Development of lymphopenia from neoadjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with pCR in patients with TNBC. However, lower absolute circulating monocytes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with improved outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1002/cam4.3358
View details for Web of Science ID 000555607200001
View details for PubMedID 32757467
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7541144
Systematic review and meta-analysis of selected toxicities of approved ALK inhibitors in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.
2018; 9 (31): 22137-22146
INTRODUCTION: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors are the mainstay treatment for patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harboring a rearrangement of the ALK gene or the ROS1 oncogenes. With the recent publication of pivotal trials leading to the approval of these compounds in different indications, their toxicity profile warrants an update.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in July 2017. Studies evaluating US FDA approved doses of one of the following ALK inhibitors: Crizotinib, Ceritinib, Alectinib or Brigatinib as monotherapy were included. Data were analyzed using random effects meta-analysis for absolute risks (AR), study heterogeneity, publication bias and differences among treatments.RESULTS: Fifteen trials with a total of 2,005 patients with evaluable toxicity data were included in this report. There was significant heterogeneity amongst different studies. The pooled AR of death and severe adverse events were 0.5% and 34.5%, respectively. Grade 3/4 nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation were uncommon: 2.6%, 2.5%, 2.7%, 1.2%, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: ALK inhibitors have an acceptable safety profile with a low risk of treatment-related deaths. Important differences in toxicity profile were detected amongst the different drugs.
View details for DOI 10.18632/oncotarget.25154
View details for PubMedID 29774128
An Extremely Rapid Case of Pneumonitis with the Use of Nivolumab for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
CASE REPORTS IN ONCOLOGICAL MEDICINE
2018; 2018: 6314392
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cancer death in the United States despite comprising a small percentage of the total number of cancer cases. The estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) for patients with distant metastatic disease is approximately 3%. New treatment options are an unmet need and remain an area of active investigation. A 53-year-old male with metastatic pancreatic cancer presented to the hospital with acute-on-chronic respiratory failure approximately 24 hours after receiving a novel therapeutic combination. Chest imaging showed marked changes as concerning for pneumonitis. Infectious workup was negative. The patient had initial clinical improvement after receiving initial intravenous steroids and oxygen support but eventually deteriorated later opting for supportive measures only. With infection ruled out, drug-induced pneumonitis was felt to be the likely cause of the radiologic and clinical changes. The rapidity of onset of symptoms is the aspect being highlighted in this case.
View details for DOI 10.1155/2018/6314392
View details for Web of Science ID 000430252500001
View details for PubMedID 29808141
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5902098
Meta-analysis of selected toxicity endpoints of CDK4/6 inhibitors: Palbociclib and ribociclib
2017; 35: 1-7
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors such as palbociclib and ribociclib are associated with distinct adverse effects (AEs) compared to other targeted therapies. This meta-analysis of clinical trials summarizes these agents' toxicity profile.A librarian-guided literature search was conducted in March of 2017. The trials needed to have at least one of the study arms consisting of palbociclib or ribociclib monotherapy at currently FDA approved dose regimens. Heterogeneity across studies was analyzed using I2 statistics. Data were analyzed using random effects meta-analysis for absolute risks.Seven randomized trials and 1,332 patients were included in our meta-analysis. There was evidence of significant heterogeneity between studies for serious AEs but not for death. The pooled absolute risk (AR) for all-causality serious AEs and treatment-related death were 16% and 0%, respectively. Patients treated with CDK 4/6 inhibitors had an AR of grade 3/4 neutropenia of 61%; neutropenic fever and infections were rare (1% and 3%, respectively). Grade 3/4 nausea, vomiting, and rash were rare. There was no significant correlation between age of patients at study entry and the risk of grade 3/4 neutropenia.Treatment with CDK 4/6 inhibitors is well tolerated and associated with a low risk of treatment-related deaths. There is an increased AR of grade 3/4 neutropenia but a low AR of associated infections.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.breast.2017.05.016
View details for Web of Science ID 000410705500001
View details for PubMedID 28618307
Analyses of selected safety endpoints in phase 1 and late-phase clinical trials of anti-PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors: prediction of immune-related toxicities
2017; 8 (40): 67782-67789
Anti-PD1 and PD-L1 antibodies are associated with immune-related adverse effects (irAEs). This analysis aims to assess the discrepancies between frequencies of irAEs observed in phase 1 trials with those seen in late-phase trials and to evolve the field of drug development.PubMed search was conducted for articles published until December of 2016. Trials needed to have at least one of the study arms consisting of nivolumab, pembrolizumab or atezolizumab monotherapy. Trials were matched based on compound used and similarity of populations. All toxicities were reported as frequencies and percentages. P-values to assess differences between matches and non-matches of phase 1 and late-phase trials and between early and late-phase trials themselves were obtained via Fisher's exact test. Odds ratios were obtained via logistic regression.Our search yielded 15 late-phase and 10 matching phase 1 trials; n = 4823 and n = 1650, respectively. The most common AEs seen in phase 1 trials were also observed in late-phase trials except for phase 1 trials (median n = 118) with < 118 patients (P = 0.048). Rash, pruritus, and diarrhea were the most frequently irAEs reported. Only colitis was more frequent in late-phase studies (P = 0.045).Toxicities of anti-PD-1 and PD-L1 observed in phase 1 trials and late-phase trials are similar. There is positive correlation between phase 1 trial sample size and concordance of toxicity frequencies seen in late-phase studies. In conclusion, current immunotherapy phase 1 trials are appropriate in assessing safety profile of anti-PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies.
View details for Web of Science ID 000410790500079
View details for PubMedID 28978071
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5620211
Interstitial Pneumonitis Secondary to Trastuzumab: A Case Report and Literature Review
CASE REPORTS IN ONCOLOGY
2017; 10 (2): 524-530
Interstitial lung disease is a rare complication of trastuzumab-based breast cancer treatment with few case reports published. Herein, we report the case of a 67-year-old female with early-stage HER2-postitive breast cancer who developed interstitial pneumonitis during cycle 5 of treatment with trastuzumab combined with carboplatin and docetaxel. After supportive care and treatment with prednisone, the patient showed rapid improvement of respiratory symptoms. Retreatment with trastuzumab as a single agent led to worsening of symptoms and required a second course of treatment with prednisone combined with cyclophosphamide, which was followed by improvement of symptoms. In conclusion, interstitial pneumonitis is a rare but life-threatening adverse event from trastuzumab breast cancer treatment.
View details for DOI 10.1159/000477340
View details for Web of Science ID 000410072000021
View details for PubMedID 28690527
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5498939