Bio


My research investigates the causes, patterns, trends, and consequences of social and educational inequality. In particular, I study issues of residential and school segregation and of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement and educational success. In addition, my work develops methods of measuring social and educational inequality (including the measurement of segregation and achievement gaps) and methods of causal inference in educational and social science research.

Honors & Awards


  • Elected Member, The American Academy of Arts and Sciences
  • Elected Member, National Academy of Education

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Director, Stanford Interdisciplinary Doctoral Training Program in Quantitative Education Policy Analysis (2018 - Present)
  • Professor, Stanford Graduate School of Education (2004 - Present)
  • Assistant Professor, The Pennsylvania State University (1999 - 2004)

Professional Education


  • Ed.D., Harvard Graduate School of Education, Educational Administration, Planning, and Social Policy (1997)
  • M.Ed., Harvard Graduate School of Education, Educational Administration, Planning and Social Policy (1992)
  • M.A., University of Notre Dame, International Peace Studies (1991)
  • B.A., University of Notre Dame, Program of Liberal Studies; Minor in Honors Mathematics (1986)

Research Interests


  • Achievement
  • Data Sciences
  • Diversity and Identity
  • Economics and Education
  • Educational Policy
  • Poverty and Inequality
  • Sociology

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


The causes and patterns of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic achievement disparities;

The effects of school integration policies on segregation patterns and educational outcomes;

Income inequality and its educational and social consequences.

http://cepa.stanford.edu/sean-reardon

Projects


  • An ongoing study of the patterns of achievement and achievement gaps in every school district in the U.S.

    I am currently working on an ongoing study of the patterns of achievement and achievement gaps in every school district in the U.S.

    Location

    United States

    For More Information:

2019-20 Courses


Stanford Advisees


  • Doctoral Dissertation Reader (AC)
    Elise Dizon-Ross, Lily Fesler, Monique Harrison
  • Doctoral Dissertation Advisor (AC)
    Josh Gagné, Victoria Sosina
  • Orals Evaluator
    Ilana Horwitz
  • Doctoral Dissertation Co-Advisor (AC)
    Rebecca Gleit
  • Doctoral (Program)
    Jessica Boyle, Heewon Jang, Anne Podolsky, Victoria Sosina, Carrie Townley Flores, Kaylee Tuggle Matheny

All Publications


  • Gender Achievement Gaps in US School Districts AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL Reardon, S. F., Fahle, E. M., Kalogrides, D., Podolsky, A., Zarate, R. C. 2019; 56 (6): 2474–2508
  • Validation Methods for Aggregate-Level Test Scale Linking: A Case Study Mapping School District Test Score Distributions to a Common Scale JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL STATISTICS Reardon, S. F., Kalogrides, D., Ho, A. D. 2019
  • States as Sites of Educational (In)Equality: State Contexts and the Socioeconomic Achievement Gradient AERA OPEN Jang, H., Reardon, S. F. 2019; 5 (3)
  • From Census Tracts to Local Environments: An Egocentric Approach to Neighborhood Racial Change SPATIAL DEMOGRAPHY Lee, B. A., Farrell, C. R., Reardon, S. F., Matthews, S. A. 2019; 7 (1): 1–26
  • Editors' Note on Transparency and Reporting Standards INTRODUCTION JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Reardon, S. F., Stuart, E. A. 2019; 12 (1): 1–4
  • Educational Opportunity in Early and Middle Childhood: Using Full Population Administrative Data to Study Variation by Place and Age. The Russell Sage Foundation journal of the social sciences : RSF Reardon, S. F. 2019; 5 (2): 40–68

    Abstract

    I use standardized test scores from roughly forty-five million students to describe the temporal structure of educational opportunity in more than eleven thousand school districts in the United States. Variation among school districts is considerable in both average third-grade scores and test score growth rates. The two measures are uncorrelated, indicating that the characteristics of communities that provide high levels of early childhood educational opportunity are not the same as those that provide high opportunities for growth from third to eighth grade. This suggests that the role of schools in shaping educational opportunity varies across school districts. Variation among districts in the two temporal opportunity dimensions implies that strategies to improve educational opportunity may need to target different age groups in different places.

    View details for DOI 10.7758/RSF.2019.5.2.03

    View details for PubMedID 31168469

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6545991

  • The Geography of Racial/Ethnic Test Score Gaps(1) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY Reardon, S. F., Kalogrides, D., Shores, K. 2019; 124 (4): 1164–1221

    View details for DOI 10.1086/700678

    View details for Web of Science ID 000460582700005

  • From Census Tracts to Local Environments: An Egocentric Approach to Neighborhood Racial Change. Spatial demography Lee, B. A., Farrell, C. R., Reardon, S. F., Matthews, S. A. 2019; 7 (1): 1–26

    Abstract

    Most quantitative studies of neighborhood racial change rely on census tracts as the unit of analysis. However, tracts are insensitive to variation in the geographic scale of the phenomenon under investigation and to proximity among a focal tract's residents and those in nearby territory. Tracts may also align poorly with residents' perceptions of their own neighborhood and with the spatial reach of their daily activities. To address these limitations, we propose that changes in racial structure (i.e., in overall diversity and group-specific proportions) be examined within multiple egocentric neighborhoods, a series of nested local environments surrounding each individual that approximate meaningful domains of experience. Our egocentric approach applies GIS procedures to census block data, using race-specific population densities to redistribute block counts of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians across 50-meter by 50-meter cells. For each cell, we then compute the proximity-adjusted racial composition of four different-sized local environments based on the weighted average racial group counts in adjacent cells. The value of this approach is illustrated with 1990-2000 data from a previous study of 40 large metropolitan areas. We document exposure to increasing neighborhood racial diversity during the decade, although the magnitude of this increase in diversity-and of shifts in the particular races to which one is exposed-differs by local environment size and racial group membership. Changes in diversity exposure at the neighborhood level also depend on how diverse the metro area as a whole has become.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s40980-018-0044-5

    View details for PubMedID 31223641

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6585458

  • Has Income Segregation Really Increased? Bias and Bias Correction in Sample-Based Segregation Estimates. Demography Reardon, S. F., Bischoff, K., Owens, A., Townsend, J. B. 2018

    Abstract

    Several recent studies have concluded that residential segregation by income in the United States has increased in the decades since 1970, including a significant increase after 2000. Income segregation measures, however, are biased upward when based on sample data. This is a potential concern because the sampling rate of the American Community Survey (ACS)-from which post-2000 income segregation estimates are constructed-was lower than that of the earlier decennial censuses. Thus, the apparent increase in income segregation post-2000 may simply reflect larger upward bias in the estimates from the ACS, and the estimated trend may therefore be inaccurate. In this study, we first derive formulas describing the approximate sampling bias in two measures of segregation. Next, using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the bias-corrected estimators eliminate virtually all of the bias in segregation estimates in most cases of practical interest, although the correction fails to eliminate bias in some cases when the population is unevenly distributed among geographic units and the average within-unit samples are very small. We then use the bias-corrected estimators to produce unbiased estimates of the trends in income segregation over the last four decades in large U.S. metropolitan areas. Using these corrected estimates, we replicate the central analyses in four prior studies on income segregation. We find that the primary conclusions from these studies remain unchanged, although the true increase in income segregation among families after 2000 was only half as large as that reported in earlier work. Despite this revision, our replications confirm that income segregation has increased sharply in recent decades among families with children and that income inequality is a strong and consistent predictor of income segregation.

    View details for PubMedID 30328018

  • What Levels of Racial Diversity Can Be Achieved with Socioeconomic-Based Affirmative Action? Evidence from a Simulation Model JOURNAL OF POLICY ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT Reardon, S. F., Baker, R., Kasman, M., Klasik, D., Townsend, J. B. 2018; 37 (3): 630-+

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pam.22056

    View details for Web of Science ID 000434973000009

  • The Relationship Between Test Item Format and Gender Achievement Gaps on Math and ELA Tests in Fourth and Eighth Grades EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER Reardon, S. F., Kalogrides, D., Fahle, E. M., Podolsky, A., Zarate, R. C. 2018; 47 (5): 284–94
  • How Much Do Test Scores Vary Among School Districts? New Estimates Using Population Data, 2009-2015 EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER Fahle, E. M., Reardon, S. F. 2018; 47 (4): 221–34
  • Long-term trends in private school enrollments by family income AERA Open Murnane, R. J., Reardon, S. F. 2018; 4 (1): 2332858417751355
  • Race and stratification in college enrollment over time AERA Open Baker, R., Klasik, D., Reardon, S. F. 2018; 4 (1): 2332858417751896
  • Using Heteroskedastic Ordered Probit Models to Recover Moments of Continuous Test Score Distributions From Coarsened Data JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL STATISTICS Reardon, S. F., Shear, B. R., Castellano, K. E., Ho, A. D. 2017; 42 (1): 3-45
  • Estimating Causal Effects of Education Interventions Using a Two-Rating Regression Discontinuity Design: Lessons From a Simulation Study and an Application JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Porter, K. E., Reardon, S. F., Unlu, F., Bloom, H. S., Cimpian, J. R. 2017; 10 (1): 138-167
  • Can Socioeconomic Status Substitute for Race in Affirmative Action College Admissions Policies? Evidence From a Simulation Model UCLA: The Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles Reardon, S. F., Baker, R., Kasman, M., Klasik, D., Townsend, J. B. 2017
  • The Geography of Racial/Ethnic Test Score Gaps. CEPA Working Paper No. 16-10. Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis Reardon, S. F., Kalogrides, D., Shores, K. 2017
  • A continuous measure of the joint distribution of race and income among neighborhoods RSF Reardon, S. F., Townsend, J., Fox, L. 2017
  • Editors' Introduction: Theme Issue on Variation in Treatment Effects INTRODUCTION JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Reardon, S. F., Stuart, E. A. 2017; 10 (4): 671–74
  • Income Segregation Between Schools and School Districts AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL Owens, A., Reardon, S. F., Jencks, C. 2016; 53 (4): 1159-1197
  • The Promise of Two-Language Education EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP Umansky, I. M., Valentino, R. A., Reardon, S. F. 2016; 73 (5): 11-17
  • Agent-Based Simulation Models of the College Sorting Process JASSS-THE JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL SOCIETIES AND SOCIAL SIMULATION Reardon, S., Kasman, M., Klasik, D., Baker, R. 2016; 19 (1)
  • Recent trends in income, racial, and ethnic school readiness gaps at kindergarten entry AERA Open Reardon, S. F., Portilla, X. A. 2016; 2 (3): 2332858416657343
  • Patterns of cross-national variation in the association between income and academic achievement AERA Open Chmielewski, A. K., Reardon, S. F. 2016; 2 (3): 2332858416649593
  • Socioeconomic gaps in early childhood experiences: 1998 to 2010 AERA Open Bassok, D., Finch, J. E., Lee, R., Reardon, S. F., Waldfogel, J. 2016; 2 (3): 2332858416653924
  • Effectiveness of Four Instructional Programs Designed to Serve English Learners: Variation by Ethnicity and Initial English Proficiency EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS Valentino, R. A., Reardon, S. F. 2015; 37 (4): 612-637
  • Neighborhood Income Composition by Household Race and Income, 1990-2009 ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE Reardon, S. F., Fox, L., Townsend, J. 2015; 660 (1): 78-97
  • Practical Issues in Estimating Achievement Gaps From Coarsened Data JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL STATISTICS Reardon, S. F., Ho, A. D. 2015; 40 (2): 158-189
  • Reclassification Patterns Among Latino English Learner Students in Bilingual, Dual Immersion, and English Immersion Classrooms AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL Umansky, I. M., Reardon, S. F. 2014; 51 (5): 879-912
  • Bias and Bias Correction in Multisite Instrumental Variables Analysis of Heterogeneous Mediator Effects JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL STATISTICS Reardon, S. F., Unlu, F., Zhu, P., Bloom, H. S. 2014; 39 (1): 53-86
  • 60 Years After Brown: Trends and Consequences of School Segregation ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY, VOL 40 Reardon, S. F., Owens, A. 2014; 40: 199-218
  • Inequality matters William T. Grant Foundation Paper, New York: William T. Grant Foundation Carter, P. L., Reardon, S. F. 2014
  • Residential segregation by income, 1970-2009 Diversity and disparities: America enters a new century Bischoff, K., Reardon, S. F. 2014; 43
  • "Academic Redshirting" in Kindergarten: Prevalence, Patterns, and Implications EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS Bassok, D., Reardon, S. F. 2013; 35 (3): 283-297
  • The Widening Income Achievement Gap EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP Reardon, S. F. 2013; 70 (8): 10-16
  • Under What Assumptions Do Site-by-Treatment Instruments Identify Average Causal Effects? SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS & RESEARCH Reardon, S. F., Raudenbush, S. W. 2013; 42 (2): 143-163
  • Education and Inequality OCCUPY THE FUTURE Reardon, S. F., Grusky, D. B., McAdam, D., Reich, R., Satz, D. 2013: 89–97
  • No rich child left behind New York Times Reardon, S. F. 2013; 4 (28): 13
  • Patterns of Literacy among U.S. Students FUTURE OF CHILDREN Reardon, S. F., Valentino, R. A., Shores, K. A. 2012; 22 (2): 17-37

    Abstract

    How well do U.S. students read? In this article, Sean Reardon, Rachel Valentino, and Kenneth Shores rely on studies using data from national and international literacy assessments to answer this question. In part, the answer depends on the specific literacy skills assessed. The authors show that almost all U.S. students can "read" by third grade, if reading is defined as proficiency in basic procedural word-reading skills. But reading for comprehension--integrating background knowledge and contextual information to make sense of a text--requires a set of knowledge-based competencies in addition to word-reading skills. By the standards used in various large-scale literacy assessments, only about a third of U.S. students in middle school possess the knowledge-based competencies to "read" in this more comprehensive sense. This low level of literacy proficiency does not appear to be a result of declining performance over time. Literacy skills of nine-year-olds in the United States have increased modestly over the past forty years, while the skills of thirteen- and seventeen-year-olds have remained relatively flat. Literacy skills vary considerably among students, however. For example, the literacy skills of roughly 10 percent of seventeen-year-olds are at the level of the typical nine-year-old. This variation is patterned in part by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic background. Black and Hispanic students enter high school with average literacy skills three years behind those of white and Asian students; students from low-income families enter high school with average literacy skills five years behind those of high-income students. These are gaps that no amount of remedial instruction in high school is likely to eliminate. And while the racial and ethnic disparities are smaller than they were forty to fifty years ago, socioeconomic disparities in literacy skills are growing. Nor is the low level of literacy skills particularly a U.S. phenomenon. On international comparisons, American students perform modestly above average compared with those in other developed countries (and well above average among a larger set of countries). Moreover, there is no evidence that U.S. students lose ground relative to those in other countries during the middle school years. Thus, although literacy skills in the United States are lower than needed to meet the demands of modern society, the same is true in most other developed countries.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309434800002

    View details for PubMedID 23057129

  • Brown Fades: The End of Court-Ordered School Desegregation and the Resegregation of American Public Schools JOURNAL OF POLICY ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT Reardon, S. F., Grewal, E. T., Kalogrides, D., Greenberg, E. 2012; 31 (4): 876-U95

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pam.21649

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308638200005

  • Estimating Achievement Gaps From Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL STATISTICS Ho, A. D., Reardon, S. F. 2012; 37 (4): 489-517
  • Statistical Analysis for Multisite Trials Using Instrumental Variables With Random Coefficients JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Raudenbush, S. W., Reardon, S. F., Nomi, T. 2012; 5 (3): 303-332
  • Suburbanization and school segregation Research on schools, neighborhoods, and communities: Toward civic responsibility Reardon, S., Yun, J., Chmielewski, A. 2012: 85-102
  • Rejoinder: Probing Assumptions, Enriching Analysis JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Raudenbush, S. W., Reardon, S. F., Nomi, T. 2012; 5 (3): 342–44
  • Regression Discontinuity Designs With Multiple Rating-Score Variables JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Reardon, S. F., Robinson, J. P. 2012; 5 (1): 83-104
  • Income Inequality and Income Segregation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY Reardon, S. F., Bischoff, K. 2011; 116 (4): 1092-1153

    Abstract

    This article investigates how the growth in income inequality from 1970 to 2000 affected patterns of income segregation along three dimensions: the spatial segregation of poverty and affluence, race-specific patterns of income segregation, and the geographic scale of income segregation. The evidence reveals a robust relationship between income inequality and income segregation, an effect that is larger for black families than for white families. In addition, income inequality affects income segregation primarily through its effect on the large-scale spatial segregation of affluence rather than by affecting the spatial segregation of poverty or by altering small-scale patterns of income segregation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290005800002

    View details for PubMedID 21648248

  • The widening academic achievement gap between the rich and the poor: New evidence and possible explanations Whither opportunity Reardon, S. F. 2011: 91-116
  • The effects of socioeconomic school integration plans on racial school desegregation Integrating schools in a changing society: New policies and legal options for a multiracial generation Reardon, S. F., Rhodes, L. 2011: 187-208
  • The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations WHITHER OPPORTUNITY?: RISING INEQUALITY, SCHOOLS, AND CHILDREN'S LIFE CHANCES Reardon, S. F., Duncan, G. J., Murnane, R. J. 2011: 91–115
  • The Effects of Socioeconomic School Integration Policies on Racial School Desegregation INTEGRATING SCHOOLS IN A CHANGING SOCIETY: NEW POLICIES AND LEGAL OPTIONS FOR A MULTIRACIAL GENERATION Reardon, S. F., Rhodes, L., Frankenberg, E., Debray, E. 2011: 187–207
  • Effects of Failing a High School Exit Exam on Course Taking, Achievement, Persistence, and Graduation EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS Reardon, S. F., Arshan, N., Atteberry, A., Kurlaender, M. 2010; 32 (4): 498-520
  • Measuring the Strength of Teachers' Unions: An Empirical Application of the Partial Independence Item Response Approach JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL STATISTICS Strunk, K. O., Reardon, S. F. 2010; 35 (6): 629-670
  • ASSUMPTIONS OF VALUE-ADDED MODELS FOR ESTIMATING SCHOOL EFFECTS EDUCATION FINANCE AND POLICY Reardon, S. F., Raudenbush, S. W. 2009; 4 (4): 492-519
  • The Hispanic-White Achievement Gap in Math and Reading in the Elementary Grades AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL Reardon, S. F., Galindo, C. 2009; 46 (3): 853-891
  • Race and space in the 1990s: Changes in the geographic scale of racial residential segregation, 1990-2000 SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH Reardon, S. F., Farrell, C. R., Matthews, S. A., O'sullivan, D., Bischoff, K., Firebaugh, G. 2009; 38 (1): 57-72

    Abstract

    We use newly developed methods of measuring spatial segregation across a range of spatial scales to assess changes in racial residential segregation patterns in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas from 1990 to 2000. Our results point to three notable trends in segregation from 1990 to 2000: (1) Hispanic-white and Asian-white segregation levels increased at both micro- and macro-scales; (2) black-white segregation declined at a micro-scale, but was unchanged at a macro-scale; and (3) for all three racial groups and for almost all metropolitan areas, macro-scale segregation accounted for more of the total metropolitan area segregation in 2000 than in 1990. Our examination of the variation in these trends among the metropolitan areas suggests that Hispanic-white and Asian-white segregation changes have been driven largely by increases in macro-scale segregation resulting from the rapid growth of the Hispanic and Asian populations in central cities. The changes in black-white segregation, in contrast, appear to be driven by the continuation of a 30-year trend in declining micro-segregation, coupled with persistent and largely stable patterns of macro-segregation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2008.10.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262835300005

  • Race and space in the 1990s: changes in the geographic scale of racial residential segregation, 1990-2000. Social science research Reardon, S. F., Farrell, C. R., Matthews, S. A., O'sullivan, D., Bischoff, K., Firebaugh, G. 2009; 38 (1): 55-70

    Abstract

    We use newly developed methods of measuring spatial segregation across a range of spatial scales to assess changes in racial residential segregation patterns in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas from 1990 to 2000. Our results point to three notable trends in segregation from 1990 to 2000: (1) Hispanic-white and Asian-white segregation levels increased at both micro- and macro-scales; (2) black-white segregation declined at a micro-scale, but was unchanged at a macro-scale; and (3) for all three racial groups and for almost all metropolitan areas, macro-scale segregation accounted for more of the total metropolitan area segregation in 2000 than in 1990. Our examination of the variation in these trends among the metropolitan areas suggests that Hispanic-white and Asian-white segregation changes have been driven largely by increases in macro-scale segregation resulting from the rapid growth of the Hispanic and Asian populations in central cities. The changes in black-white segregation, in contrast, appear to be driven by the continuation of a 30-year trend in declining micro-segregation, coupled with persistent and largely stable patterns of macro-segregation.

    View details for PubMedID 19569292

  • The effect of Catholic schooling on math and reading development in kindergarten through fifth grade Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness Reardon, S. F., Cheadle, J. E., Robinson, J. P. 2009; 2 (1): 45-87
  • Measures of ordinal segregation Occupational and residential segregation Reardon, S. F. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. 2009: 129–155
  • Beyond the Census Tract: Patterns and Determinants of Racial Segregation at Multiple Geographic Scales AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW Lee, B. A., Reardon, S. F., Firebaugh, G., Farrell, C. R., Matthews, S. A., O'sullivan, D. 2008; 73 (5): 766-791

    Abstract

    The census tract-based residential segregation literature rests on problematic assumptions about geographic scale and proximity. We pursue a new tract-free approach that combines explicitly spatial concepts and methods to examine racial segregation across egocentric local environments of varying size. Using 2000 census data for the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas, we compute a spatially modified version of the information theory index H to describe patterns of black-white, Hispanic-white, Asian-white, and multi-group segregation at different scales. The metropolitan structural characteristics that best distinguish micro-segregation from macro-segregation for each group combination are identified, and their effects are decomposed into portions due to racial variation occurring over short and long distances. A comparison of our results to those from tract-based analyses confirms the value of the new approach.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259978300004

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4196718

  • The geographic scale of metropolitan racial segregation DEMOGRAPHY Reardon, S. F., Matthews, S. A., O'sullivan, D., Lee, B. A., Firebaugh, G., Farrell, C. R., Bischoff, K. 2008; 45 (3): 489-514

    Abstract

    This article addresses an aspect of racial residential segregation that has been largely ignored in prior work: the issue of geographic scale. In some metropolitan areas, racial groups are segregated over large regions, with predominately white regions, predominately black regions, and so on, whereas in other areas, the separation of racial groups occurs over much shorter distances. Here we develop an approach-featuring the segregation profile and the corresponding macro/micro segregation ratio-that offers a scale-sensitive alternative to standard methodological practice for describing segregation. Using this approach, we measure and describe the geographic scale of racial segregation in the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in 2000. We find considerable heterogeneity in the geographic scale of segregation patterns across both metropolitan areas and racial groups, a heterogeneity that is not evident using conventional "aspatial" segregation measures. Moreover, because the geographic scale of segregation is only modestly correlated with the level of segregation in our sample, we argue that geographic scale represents a distinct dimension of residential segregation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of our findings for investigating the patterns, causes, and consequences of residential segregation at different geographic scales.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259598400002

    View details for PubMedID 18939658

  • Beyond the Census Tract: Patterns and Determinants of Racial Segregation at Multiple Geographic Scales. American sociological review Lee, B. A., Reardon, S. F., Firebaugh, G., Farrell, C. R., Matthews, S. A., O'Sullivan, D. 2008; 73 (5): 766–91

    Abstract

    The census tract-based residential segregation literature rests on problematic assumptions about geographic scale and proximity. We pursue a new tract-free approach that combines explicitly spatial concepts and methods to examine racial segregation across egocentric local environments of varying size. Using 2000 census data for the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas, we compute a spatially modified version of the information theory index H to describe patterns of black-white, Hispanic-white, Asian-white, and multi-group segregation at different scales. The metropolitan structural characteristics that best distinguish micro-segregation from macro-segregation for each group combination are identified, and their effects are decomposed into portions due to racial variation occurring over short and long distances. A comparison of our results to those from tract-based analyses confirms the value of the new approach.

    View details for PubMedID 25324575

  • Patterns and trends in racial/ethnic and socioeconomic academic achievement gaps Handbook of research in education finance and policy Reardon, S. F., Robinson, J. P., Weathers, E. S. 2008: 497-516
  • Patterns of Hispanic Students' Math Skill Proficiency in the Early Elementary Grades JOURNAL OF LATINOS AND EDUCATION Reardon, S. F., Galindo, C. 2007; 6 (3): 229–51
  • Patterns of Hispanic students' math skill proficiency in the early elementary grades Journal of Latinos and Education Reardon, S. F., Galindo, C. 2007; 6 (3): 229-251
  • Retail tobacco outlet density and youth cigarette smoking: A propensity-modeling approach AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Novak, S. P., Reardon, S. F., Raudenbush, S. W., Buka, S. L. 2006; 96 (4): 670-676

    Abstract

    We examined whether retail tobacco outlet density was related to youth cigarette smoking after control for a diverse range of neighborhood characteristics.Data were gathered from 2116 respondents (aged 11 to 23 years) residing in 178 census tracts in Chicago, Ill. Propensity score stratification methods for continuous exposures were used to adjust for potentially confounding neighborhood characteristics, thus strengthening causal inferences.Retail tobacco outlets were disproportionately located in neighborhoods characterized by social and economic disadvantage. In a model that excluded neighborhood confounders, a marginally significant effect was found. Youths in areas at the highest 75th percentile in retail tobacco outlet density were 13% more likely (odds ratio [OR]=1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.99, 1.28) to have smoked in the past month compared with those living at the lowest 25th percentile. However, the relation became stronger and significant (OR=0.21; 95% CI=1.04, 1.41) after introduction of tract-level confounders and was statistically significant in the propensity score-adjusted model (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.001, 1.44). Results did not differ significantly between minors and those legally permitted to smoke.Reductions in retail tobacco outlet density may reduce rates of youth smoking.

    View details for DOI 10.2105/AJPH.2004.061622

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236429200029

    View details for PubMedID 16507726

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1470554

  • Implications of income-based school assignment policies for racial school segregation EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS Reardon, S. F., Yun, J. T., Kurlaender, M. 2006; 28 (1): 49-75
  • A partial independence item response model for surveys with filter questions SOCIOLOGICAL METHODOLOGY 2006, VOL 36 Reardon, S. F., Raudenbush, S. W. 2006; 36: 257-300
  • A conceptual framework for measuring segregation and its association with population outcomes Methods in social epidemiology Reardon, S. F. 2006; 1 (169): 169-192
  • Integrating neighborhoods, segregating schools - The retreat from school desegregation in the South, 1990-2000 Conference on the Resegregation of Southern Schools Reardon, S. F., Yun, J. T. UNIV NORTH CAROLINA PRESS. 2005: 51–69
  • Integrating Neighborhoods, Segregating Schools The Retreat from School Desegregation in the South, 1990-2000 SCHOOL RESEGREGATION: MUST THE SOUTH TURN BACK Reardon, S. F., Yun, J. T., Boger, J. C., Orfield, G. 2005: 51–69
  • Measures of spatial segregation SOCIOLOGICAL METHODOLOGY, 2004, VOL 34 Reardon, S. F., O'Sullivan, D. 2004; 34: 121-162
  • Measures of multigroup segregation Sociological methodology Reardon, S. F., Firebaugh, G. 2002; 32 (1): 33-67
  • Suburban racial change and suburban school segregation, 1987-95 Sociology of education Reardon, S. F., Yun, J. T. 2001: 79-101
  • The changing structure of school segregation: Measurement and evidence of multiracial metropolitan-area school segregation, 1989–1995 Demography Reardon, S. F., Yun, J. T., Eitle, T. M. 2000; 37 (3): 351-364