- Pediatric Endocrinology & Diabetes
- Pediatric Endocrinology
Clinical Assistant Professor, Pediatrics - Endocrinology and Diabetes
Clinical Instructor/Clinician Educator, Pediatric Endocrinology & Diabetes (2012 - Present)
Honors & Awards
LPCH Endowed Clinical Fellow in Endocrinology, Stanford University (2009-2010)
Stanford Society of Physician Scholars, Member, Stanford University (2010-present)
Dean's Postdoctoral Fellowship Award, Stanford University (2010-2011)
Pediatric Sponsored Fellowship Award - Siegelman Award, Stanford University (2010-2012)
Fellowship: Stanford University Pediatric Endocrinology Fellowship (2012) CA
Medical Education: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (2005) IL
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology (2013)
Internship: Rainbow Babies And Childrens (2006) OH
Residency: Rainbow Babies And Childrens (2008) OH
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2008)
Board Certificiation, American Board of Pediatrics, General Pediatrics (2008)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
My primary research interest is evaluating whether vitamin D supplementation can positively affect consequences of the metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese adolescents. Other research interests include evaluating the efficacy and biochemical profiles of various types of estrogen replacement in adolescent females.
Comparison of Transdermal and Oral Estrogens in Adolescent Girls With Ovarian Failure
To directly compare the safety (by laboratory evaluation) and efficacy (feminization and growth) of three commonly used estrogen preparations in adolescent patients with ovarian failure, either due to congenital causes (Turner syndrome) or medical therapies. We hypothesize that transdermal estrogen will have equivalent efficacy and a more favorable safety profile in comparison with conventional oral estrogen replacement.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sejal Shah, (650) 723 - 5791.
Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Inflammation and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents
Large studies of children show that over half of the children in the United States of America do not have enough vitamin D stored in their bodies. In children who are overweight or obese, the percentage of children who do not have enough vitamin D is even higher. Vitamin D is essential for the body to maintain normal calcium levels and strong bones. Recent research shows that through the actions of inflammatory markers, levels in the blood that measure inflammation in the body, vitamin D plays many other important roles in the body like helping to regulate the immune system, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and body fat. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers in obese and overweight adolescents. As a secondary goal, we would like to evaluate cardiometabolic risk factors and the correlation between body mass index, vitamin D stores and inflammatory cytokines. In an observed, randomized controlled trial over 6 months we will provide observed vitamin D supplementation or placebo to healthy obese and overweight adolescents and measure changes in inflammatory markers, lipids, blood pressure, and mean blood sugars. We hypothesize that administration of vitamin D to these patients will improve their inflammatory profile and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipid profile).
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sejal Shah, (650) 723 - 5791.
Use of Continuous Glucose Monitors in Publicly-Insured Youth With Type 2 Diabetes - A Pilot and Feasibility Study
The purpose of this pilot feasibility study is to provide continued CGM access to youth with type 2 diabetes and collect descriptive data about feasibility of use of CGM in youth with type 2 diabetes ages 4 years and older. From this study the investigators hope to learn if CGM use in youth with type 2 diabetes can be tolerated and sustained with good adherence and to describe blood glucose patterns in youth with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim will be to evaluate the feasibility of CGM start and continuation in youth with T2D and describe glucose metrics and patient reported outcomes (PROs). The investigators will pilot and refine a program to test the hypothesis that CGM start and continuation in youth with T2D is feasible and then evaluate glucose metrics and PROs.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sejal Shah, MD, (650) 498 - 7351.
Adrenoleukodystrophy: Guidance for Adrenal Surveillance in Males Identified by Newborn Screen.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Context: Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder associated with neurologic decompensation and adrenal insufficiency. Newborn screening for ALD has recently been implemented in five states with plans to expand to all 50 states in the US. Adrenal insufficiency ultimately develops in most males with ALD but the earliest age of onset is not well established.Objective: These clinical recommendations are intended to address screening for adrenal insufficiency in boys identified to have ALD by newborn screen.Participants: Seven members of the Pediatric Endocrine Society Drug and Therapeutics & Rare Diseases Committee, with clinical experience treating children with ALD and adrenal insufficiency, and a pediatric endocrinologist and laboratory director were selected to be on the working committee.Consensus Process: The authors comprised the working group and performed systematic reviews of the published literature regarding adrenal insufficiency and ALD. The recommendations were reviewed and approved by the larger Pediatric Endocrine Society Drug and Therapeutics & Rare Diseases Committee and then by the Pediatric Endocrine Society Board of Directors.Conclusions: There is limited literature evidence regarding monitoring of evolving adrenal insufficiency in male infants and children with ALD. The recommendations suggest initiating assessment of adrenal function at diagnosis with ALD and regular monitoring, in order to identify boys with adrenal insufficiency in a timely manner and prevent life-threatening adrenal crisis. These recommendations are intended to serve as an initial guide, with the understanding that additional experience will inform future guidelines.
View details for PubMedID 30289543
Large Doses of Vitamin D Fail to Increase 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels or to Alter Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents: A Pilot Study.
journal of adolescent health
2015; 57 (1): 19-23
Vitamin D deficiency and cardiometabolic risk factors are common in obese adolescents. Observational studies demonstrate an inverse relationship among serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammatory cytokines. This pilot study explores if vitamin D supplementation could reduce serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL] 6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α), adiponectin, lipids, hemoglobin A1C, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). A secondary aim was to determine the associations between baseline serum 25OHD concentrations and body mass index (BMI), hs-CRP, inflammatory cytokines, and lipids.Overweight and obese adolescents enrolled in this 24-week, randomized, double-blind study were given 150,000 IU ergocalciferol or placebo at baseline and 12 weeks. Outcome measurements included serum 25OHD, inflammatory cytokines, adiponectin, hs-CRP, lipids, hemoglobin A1C, and BMI at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks.Of 40 participants, 31 (78%) completed the study. Mean ± standard error 25OHD levels were similar in vitamin D and placebo groups at baseline (19.6 ± 5.3 vs. 25.8 ± 10.8 ng/mL) and 24 weeks (20.1 ± 3.4 vs. 24.6 ± 8.4 ng/mL). Inflammatory and cardiovascular markers were not significantly different between groups at 24 weeks. Serum 25OHD at baseline was associated with BMI (r = -.44 [95% confidence interval, -.66 to -.15]) but not with other outcome measures.Supplementation with vitamin D at 150,000 IU every 3 months failed to increase serum 25OHD or alter inflammatory markers and lipids in overweight and obese youth. Further studies are needed to establish the dose of vitamin D required to increase 25OHD and determine potential effects on metabolic risk factors in obese teens.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.02.006
View details for PubMedID 25873553
A randomized trial of transdermal and oral estrogen therapy in adolescent girls with hypogonadism.
International journal of pediatric endocrinology
2014; 2014 (1): 12-?
Adolescent females with ovarian failure require estrogen therapy for induction of puberty and other important physiologic effects. Currently, health care providers have varying practices without evidence-based standards, thus investigating potential differences between oral and transdermal preparations is essential. The purpose of this study was to compare the differential effects of treatment with oral conjugated equine estrogen (OCEE), oral 17β estradiol (OBE), or transdermal 17β estradiol (TBE) on biochemical profiles and feminization in girls with ovarian failure.20 prepubertal adolescent females with ovarian failure, ages 12-18 years, were randomized to OCEE (n = 8), OBE (n = 7), or TBE (n = 5) for 24 months. Estrogen replacement was initiated at a low dose (0.15 mg OCEE, 0.25 mg OBE, or 0.0125 mg TBE) and doubled every 6 months to a maximum dose of 0.625 mg/d OCEE, 1 mg/d OBE, or 0.05 mg/d TBE. At 18 months, micronized progesterone was added to induce menstrual cycles. Biochemical markers including sex hormones, inflammatory markers, liver enzymes, coagulation factors, and lipids were obtained at baseline and 6 month intervals. Differences in levels of treatment parameters between the groups were evaluated with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The effect of progesterone on biochemical markers was evaluated with the paired t-test.Mean (±SE) estradiol levels at maximum estrogen dose (18 months) were higher in the TBE group (53 ± 19 pg/mL) compared to OCEE (14 ± 5 pg/mL) and OBE (12 ± 5 pg/mL) (p ≤ 0.01). The TBE and OBE groups had more effective feminization (100% Tanner 3 breast stage at 18 months). There were no statistical differences in other biochemical markers between treatment groups at 18 months or after the introduction of progesterone.Treatment with transdermal 17β estradiol resulted in higher estradiol levels and more effective feminization compared to oral conjugated equine estrogen but did not result in an otherwise different biochemical profile in this limited number of heterogeneous patients. OBE and TBE provide safe and effective alternatives to OCEE to induce puberty in girls, but larger prospective randomized trials are required.NCT01023178.
View details for DOI 10.1186/1687-9856-2014-12
View details for PubMedID 24982681
The Impact of Telehealth Adoption During COVID-19 Pandemic on Patterns of Pediatric Subspecialty Care Utilization
2022; 22 (8): 1375-1383
View details for Web of Science ID 000889963700018
The Impact of Telehealth Adoption During COVID-19 Pandemic on Patterns of Pediatric Subspecialty Care Utilization.
OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic prompted health systems to rapidly adopt telehealth for clinical care. We examined the impact of demography, subspecialty characteristics, and broadband availability on the utilization of telehealth in pediatric populations before and after the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic.METHODS: Outpatients scheduled for subspecialty visits at sites affiliated with a single quaternary academic medical center between March - June 2019 and March - June 2020 were included. The contribution of demographic, socioeconomic, and broadband availability to visit completion and telehealth utilization were examined in multivariable regression analyses.RESULTS: Among visits scheduled in 2020 compared to 2019, in-person visits fell from 23,318 to 11,209, while telehealth visits increased from 150 to 7,675. Visits among established patients fell by 15% and new patients by 36% (p<.0001). Multivariable analysis revealed that completed visits were reduced for Hispanic patients and those with reduced broadband; high income, private non-HMO insurance, and those requesting an interpreter were more likely to complete visits. Of those with visits scheduled in 2020, established patients, those with reduced broadband, and patients older than 1 year were more likely to complete TH appointments. Cardiology, oncology, and pulmonology patients were less likely to complete scheduled TH appointments.CONCLUSIONS: Following COVID-19 onset, outpatient pediatric subspecialty visits shifted rapidly to telehealth. However, the impact of this shift on social disparities in outpatient utilization was mixed with variation among subspecialties. A growing reliance on telehealth will necessitate insights from other healthcare settings serving populations of diverse social and technological character.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2022.03.010
View details for PubMedID 35318159
Closing Disparities in Pediatric Diabetes Telehealth Care: Lessons From Telehealth Necessity During the COVID-19 Pandemic.
Clinical diabetes : a publication of the American Diabetes Association
2022; 40 (2): 153-157
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic necessitated using telehealth to bridge the clinical gap, but could increase health disparities. This article reports on a chart review of diabetes telehealth visits occurring before COVID-19, during shelter-in-place orders, and during the reopening period. Visits for children with public insurance and for those who were non-English speaking were identified. Telehealth visits for children with public insurance increased from 26.2% before COVID-19 to 37.3% during shelter-in-place orders and 34.3% during reopening. Telehealth visits for children who were non-English speaking increased from 3.5% before COVID-19 to 17.5% during shelter-in-place orders and remained at 15.0% during reopening. Pandemic-related telehealth expansion included optimization of workflows to include patients with public insurance and those who did not speak English. Increased participation by those groups persisted during the reopening phase, indicating that prioritizing inclusive telehealth workflows can reduce disparities in access to care.
View details for DOI 10.2337/cd20-0123
View details for PubMedID 35669301
DKA PATHWAY TO KEEP ERRORS AT BAY: STANDARDIZING DKA MANAGEMENT IN A PICU
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022: 632
View details for Web of Science ID 000777939301496
Heterogeneity in the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Disparities in Pediatric Endocrine Care
KARGER. 2021: 51-52
View details for Web of Science ID 000696303300078
- Adrenal Suppression from Topical and Subconjunctival Steroids after Pediatric Cataract Surgery. Ophthalmology 2018; 125 (10): 1644–45
Effectiveness of Early Intensive Therapy on beta-Cell Preservation in Type 1 Diabetes
2013; 36 (12): 4030-4035
To assess effectiveness of inpatient hybrid closed-loop control (HCLC) followed by outpatient sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy initiated within 7 days of diagnosis of type 1 diabetes on the preservation of β-cell function at 1 year.Sixty-eight individuals (mean age 13.3 ± 5.7 years; 35% female, 92% Caucasian) were randomized to HCLC followed by SAP therapy (intensive group; N = 48) or to the usual-care group treated with multiple daily injections or insulin pump therapy (N = 20). Primary outcome was C-peptide concentrations during mixed-meal tolerance tests at 12 months.Intensive-group participants initiated HCLC a median of 6 days after diagnosis for a median duration of 71.3 h, during which median participant mean glucose concentration was 140 mg/dL (interquartile range 134-153 mg/dL). During outpatient SAP, continuous glucose monitor (CGM) use decreased over time, and at 12 months, only 33% of intensive participants averaged sensor use ≥6 days/week. In the usual-care group, insulin pump and CGM use were initiated prior to 12 months by 15 and 5 participants, respectively. Mean HbA1c levels were similar in both groups throughout the study. At 12 months, the geometric mean (95% CI) of C-peptide area under the curve was 0.43 (0.34-0.52) pmol/mL in the intensive group and 0.52 (0.32-0.75) pmol/mL in the usual-care group (P = 0.49). Thirty-seven (79%) intensive and 16 (80%) usual-care participants had a peak C-peptide concentration ≥0.2 pmol/mL (P = 0.30).In new-onset type 1 diabetes, HCLC followed by SAP therapy did not provide benefit in preserving β-cell function compared with current standards of care.
View details for DOI 10.2337/dc13-1074
View details for Web of Science ID 000327211500053
View details for PubMedID 24130350
Newborn with prenatally diagnosed choroidal fissure cyst and panhypopituitarism and review of the literature.
2011; 1 (2): 111-114
Little has been reported on fetal diagnosis of choroidal fissure cysts and prediction of the clinical complications that can result. We describe the case of a near-term male infant with prenatally diagnosed choroidal fissure cyst and bilateral clubfeet. His prolonged course in the neonatal intensive care nursery was marked by severe panhypopituitarism, late-onset diabetes insipidus, placement of a cystoperitoneal shunt, and episodes of sepsis. Postnatal genetic evaluation also revealed an interstitial deletion involving most of band 10q26.12 and the proximal half of band 10q26.13. The patient had multiple readmissions for medical and surgical indications and died at 6 months of age. This case represents the severe end of the spectrum of medical complications for children with choroidal fissure cysts. It highlights not only the importance of comprehensive evaluation and multidisciplinary management and counseling in such cases, but also the need for heightened vigilance in these patients.
View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0031-1293512
View details for PubMedID 23705098
Interaction of PIMT with transcriptional coactivators CBP, p300, and PBP differential role in transcriptional regulation
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
2002; 277 (22): 20011-20019
PIMT (PRIP-interacting protein with methyltransferase domain), an RNA-binding protein with a methyltransferase domain capable of binding S-adenosylmethionine, has been shown previously to interact with nuclear receptor coactivator PRIP (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-interacting protein) and enhance its coactivator function. We now report that PIMT strongly interacts with transcriptional coactivators, CBP, p300, and PBP but not with SRC-1 and PGC-1alpha under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The PIMT binding sites on CBP and p300 are located in the cysteine-histidine-rich C/H1 and C/H3 domains, and the PIMT binding site on PBP is in the region encompassing amino acids 1101-1560. The N-terminal of PIMT (residues 1-369) containing the RNA binding domain interacts with both C/H1 and C/H3 domains of CBP and p300 and with the C-terminal portion of PBP that encompasses amino acids 1371-1560. The C-terminal of PIMT (residues 611-852), which binds S-adenosyl-l-methionine, interacts respectively with the C/H3 domain of CBP/p300 and with a region encompassing amino acids 1101-1370 of PBP. Immunoprecipitation data showed that PIMT forms a complex in vivo with CBP, p300, PBP, and PRIP. PIMT appeared to be co-localized in the nucleus with CBP, p300, and PBP. PIMT enhanced PBP-mediated transcriptional activity of the PPARgamma, as it did for PRIP, indicating synergism between PIMT and PBP. In contrast, PIMT functioned as a repressor of CBP/p300-mediated transactivation of PPARgamma. Based on these observations, we suggest that PIMT bridges the CBP/p300-anchored coactivator complex with the PBP-anchored coactivator complex but differentially modulates coactivator function such that inhibition of the CBP/p300 effect may be designed to enhance the activity of PBP and PRIP.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M201739200
View details for Web of Science ID 000175894800101
View details for PubMedID 11912212