Mark Nicolls, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Abnormal Lymphatic Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Signaling Aggravates Lymphatic Dysfunction and Tissue Inflammation.
Lymphedema is a global health problem with no effective drug treatment. Enhanced T-cell immunity and abnormal lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) signaling are promising therapeutic targets for this condition. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) mediates a key signaling pathway required for normal LEC function, and altered S1P signaling in LECs could lead to lymphatic disease and pathogenic T-cell activation. Characterizing this biology is relevant for developing much needed therapies.Human and mouse lymphedema was studied. Lymphedema was induced in mice by surgically ligating the tail lymphatics. Lymphedematous dermal tissue was assessed for S1P signaling. To verify the role of altered S1P signaling effects in lymphatic cells, LEC-specific S1pr1-deficient (S1pr1LECKO) mice were generated. Disease progression was quantified by tail-volumetric and -histopathologic measurements over time. LECs from mice and humans, with S1P signaling inhibition, were then cocultured with CD4 T cells, followed by an analysis of CD4 T-cell activation and pathway signaling. Last, animals were treated with a monoclonal antibody specific to P-selectin to assess its efficacy in reducing lymphedema and T-cell activation.Human and experimental lymphedema tissues exhibited decreased LEC S1P signaling through S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1). LEC S1pr1 loss-of-function exacerbated lymphatic vascular insufficiency, tail swelling, and increased CD4 T-cell infiltration in mouse lymphedema. LECs, isolated from S1pr1LECKO mice and cocultured with CD4 T cells, resulted in augmented lymphocyte differentiation. Inhibiting S1PR1 signaling in human dermal LECs promoted T-helper type 1 and 2 (Th1 and Th2) cell differentiation through direct cell contact with lymphocytes. Human dermal LECs with dampened S1P signaling exhibited enhanced P-selectin, an important cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated vascular cells. In vitro, P-selectin blockade reduced the activation and differentiation of Th cells cocultured with shS1PR1-treated human dermal LECs. P-selectin-directed antibody treatment improved tail swelling and reduced Th1/Th2 immune responses in mouse lymphedema.This study suggests that reduction of the LEC S1P signaling aggravates lymphedema by enhancing LEC adhesion and amplifying pathogenic CD4 T-cell responses. P-selectin inhibitors are suggested as a possible treatment for this pervasive condition.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.123.064181
View details for PubMedID 37609838
Autophagy mediates an amplification loop during ferroptosis.
Cell death & disease
2023; 14 (7): 464
Ferroptosis, a programmed cell death, has been identified and associated with cancer and various other diseases. Ferroptosis is defined as a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death related to iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation, which is different from apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, and other forms of cell death. However, accumulating evidence has revealed a link between autophagy and ferroptosis at the molecular level and has suggested that autophagy is involved in regulating the accumulation of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation and ROS during ferroptosis. Understanding the roles and pathophysiological processes of autophagy during ferroptosis may provide effective strategies for the treatment of ferroptosis-related diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the regulatory mechanisms underlying ferroptosis, including iron and lipid metabolism, and its association with the autophagy pathway. In addition, we discuss the contribution of autophagy to ferroptosis and elucidate the role of autophagy as a ferroptosis enhancer during ROS-dependent ferroptosis.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41419-023-05978-8
View details for PubMedID 37491375
View details for PubMedCentralID 6997353
Abnormal lymphatic S1P signaling aggravates lymphatic dysfunction and tissue inflammation.
medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences
BACKGROUND: Lymphedema is a global health problem with no effective drug treatment. Enhanced T cell immunity and abnormal lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) signaling are promising therapeutic targets for this condition. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) mediates a key signaling pathway required for normal LEC function, and altered S1P signaling in LECs could lead to lymphatic disease and pathogenic T cell activation. Characterizing this biology is relevant for developing much-needed therapies.METHODS: Human and mouse lymphedema was studied. Lymphedema was induced in mice by surgically ligating the tail lymphatics. Lymphedematous dermal tissue was assessed for S1P signaling. To verify the role of altered S1P signaling effects in lymphatic cells, LEC-specific S1pr1 -deficient ( S1pr1 LECKO ) mice were generated. Disease progression was quantified by tail-volumetric and -histopathological measurements over time. LECs from mice and humans, with S1P signaling inhibition, were then co-cultured with CD4 T cells, followed by an analysis of CD4 T cell activation and pathway signaling. Finally, animals were treated with a monoclonal antibody specific to P-selectin to assess its efficacy in reducing lymphedema and T cell activation.RESULTS: Human and experimental lymphedema tissues exhibited decreased LEC S1P signaling through S1PR1. LEC S1pr1 loss-of-function exacerbated lymphatic vascular insufficiency, tail swelling, and increased CD4 T cell infiltration in mouse lymphedema. LECs, isolated from S1pr1 LECKO mice and co-cultured with CD4 T cells, resulted in augmented lymphocyte differentiation. Inhibiting S1PR1 signaling in human dermal LECs (HDLECs) promoted T helper type 1 and 2 (Th1 and Th2) cell differentiation through direct cell contact with lymphocytes. HDLECs with dampened S1P signaling exhibited enhanced P-selectin, an important cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated vascular cells. In vitro , P-selectin blockade reduced the activation and differentiation of Th cells co-cultured with sh S1PR1 -treated HDLECs. P-selectin-directed antibody treatment improved tail swelling and reduced Th1/Th2 immune responses in mouse lymphedema.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that reduction of the LEC S1P signaling aggravates lymphedema by enhancing LEC adhesion and amplifying pathogenic CD4 T cell responses. P-selectin inhibitors are suggested as a possible treatment for this pervasive condition.Clinical Perspective: What is New?: Lymphatic-specific S1pr1 deletion exacerbates lymphatic vessel malfunction and Th1/Th2 immune responses during lymphedema pathogenesis. S1pr1 -deficient LECs directly induce Th1/Th2 cell differentiation and decrease anti-inflammatory Treg populations. Peripheral dermal LECs affect CD4 T cell immune responses through direct cell contact.LEC P-selectin, regulated by S1PR1 signaling, affects CD4 T cell activation and differentiation.P-selectin blockade improves lymphedema tail swelling and decreases Th1/Th2 population in the diseased skin.What Are the Clinical Implications?: S1P/S1PR1 signaling in LECs regulates inflammation in lymphedema tissue.S1PR1 expression levels on LECs may be a useful biomarker for assessing predisposition to lymphatic disease, such as at-risk women undergoing mastectomyP-selectin Inhibitors may be effective for certain forms of lymphedema.
View details for DOI 10.1101/2023.06.08.23291175
View details for PubMedID 37398237
Inhibition of mitoNEET induces Pink1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy
2022; 55 (7): 354-359
MitoNEET, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein containing the Asn-Glu-Glu-Thr (NEET) sequence, controls the formation of intermitochondrial junctions and confers autophagy resistance. Moreover, mitoNEET as a mitochondrial substrate undergoes ubiquitination by activated Parkin during the initiation of mitophagy. Therefore, mitoNEET is linked to the regulation of autophagy and mitophagy. Mitophagy is the selective removal of the damaged or unnecessary mitochondria, which is crucial to sustaining mitochondrial quality control. In numerous human diseases, the accumulation of damaged mitochondria by impaired mitophagy has been observed. However, the therapeutic strategy targeting of mitoNEET as a mitophagy-enhancing mediator requires further research. Herein, we confirmed that mitophagy is indeed activated by mitoNEET inhibition. CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone), which leads to mitochondrial depolarization, induces mitochondrial dysfunction and superoxide production. This, in turn, contributes to the induction of mitophagy; mitoNEET protein levels were initially increased before an increase in LC3-Ⅱ protein following CCCP treatment. Pharmacological inhibition of mitoNEET using mitoNEET Ligand-1 (NL-1) promoted accumulation of Pink1 and Parkin, which are mitophagy-associated proteins, and activation of mitochondria-lysosome crosstalk, in comparison to CCCP alone. Inhibition of mitoNEET using NL-1, or mitoNEET shRNA transfected into RAW264.7 cells, abrogated CCCP-induced ROS and mitochondrial cell death; additionally, it activated the expression of PGC-1α and SOD2, regulators of oxidative metabolism. In particular, the increase in PGC-1α, which is a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, promotes mitochondrial quality control. These results indicated that mitoNEET is a potential therapeutic target in numerous human diseases to enhance mitophagy and protect cells by maintaining a network of healthy mitochondria. [BMB Reports 2022; 55(7): 354-359].
View details for DOI 10.5483/BMBRep.2022.55.7.040
View details for Web of Science ID 000834791200007
View details for PubMedID 35725011
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9340089
Inhibition of mitoNEET attenuates LPS-induced inflammation and oxidative stress
CELL DEATH & DISEASE
2022; 13 (2): 127
MitoNEET (mitochondrial protein containing Asn-Glu-Glu-Thr (NEET) sequence) is a 2Fe-2S cluster-containing integral membrane protein that resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane and participates in a redox-sensitive signaling and Fe-S cluster transfer. Thus, mitoNEET is a key regulator of mitochondrial oxidative capacity and iron homeostasis. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play critical roles in inflammatory diseases such as sepsis. Increased iron levels mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction lead to oxidative damage and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increasing evidence suggests that targeting mitoNEET to reverse mitochondrial dysfunction deserves further investigation. However, the role of mitoNEET in inflammatory diseases is unknown. Here, we investigated the mechanism of action and function of mitoNEET during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Levels of mitoNEET protein increased during microbial or LPS-induced sepsis. Pharmacological inhibition of mitoNEET using mitoNEET ligand-1 (NL-1) decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in animal models of sepsis, as well as LPS-induced inflammatory responses by macrophages in vitro. Inhibition of mitoNEET using NL-1 or mitoNEET shRNA abrogated LPS-induced ROS formation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, mitochondrial iron accumulation led to generation of LPS-induced ROS, a process blocked by NL-1 or shRNA. Taken together, these data suggest that mitoNEET could be a key therapeutic molecule that targets mitochondrial dysfunction during inflammatory diseases and sepsis.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41419-022-04586-2
View details for Web of Science ID 000755216400006
View details for PubMedID 35136051
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8825830
Regulatory Activities of Dopamine and Its Derivatives toward Metal-Free and Metal-Induced Amyloid-beta Aggregation, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Alzheimer's Disease
ACS CHEMICAL NEUROSCIENCE
2018; 9 (11): 2655-2666
A catecholamine neurotransmitter, dopamine (DA), is suggested to be linked to the pathology of dementia; however, the involvement of DA and its structural analogues in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, composed of multiple pathogenic factors has not been clear. Herein, we report that DA and its rationally designed structural derivatives (1-6) based on DA's oxidative transformation are able to modulate multiple pathological elements found in AD [i.e., metal ions, metal-free amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-bound Aβ (metal-Aβ), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)], with demonstration of detailed molecular-level mechanisms. Our multidisciplinary studies validate that the protective effects of DA and its derivatives on Aβ aggregation and Aβ-mediated toxicity are induced by their oxidative transformation with concomitant ROS generation under aerobic conditions. In particular, DA and the derivatives (i.e., 3 and 4) show their noticeable anti-amyloidogenic ability toward metal-free Aβ and/or metal-Aβ, verified to occur via their oxidative transformation that facilitates Aβ oxidation. Moreover, in primary pan-microglial marker (CD11b)-positive cells, the major producers of inflammatory mediators in the brain, DA and its derivatives significantly diminish inflammation and oxidative stress triggered by lipopolysaccharides and Aβ through the reduced induction of inflammatory mediators as well as upregulated expression of heme oxygenase-1, the enzyme responsible for production of antioxidants. Collectively, we illuminate how DA and its derivatives could prevent multiple pathological features found in AD. The overall studies could advance our understanding regarding distinct roles of neurotransmitters in AD and identify key interactions for alleviation of AD pathology.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00122
View details for Web of Science ID 000451496200016
View details for PubMedID 29782798