Dr Shanthi Kappagoda is a board certified infectious disease physician. She specializes in the care of patients in the ICU with infectious diseases and also has a clinic where she treats general infectious diseases including tuberculosis, urinary tract infections, endocarditis, MRSA infections, pneumonia, coccidioidomycosis and tropical diseases. She has a special interest in bone and joint infections and left ventricular assist device infections. She is involved in Stanford's COVID-19 response including developing treatment guidelines for the infectious disease division and the department of medicine. She was an investigator in a clinical trial of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19 and in an expanded access program for convalescent plasma for patients with severe disease.
- Infectious Disease
Clinical Associate Professor, Medicine - Infectious Diseases
Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2020)
Fellowship: Stanford University Pediatric Infectious Disease Fellowship (2013) CA
Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Infectious Disease (2011)
Residency: Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School (2007) MA
Internship: Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School (2005) MA
Medical Education: University of California Davis School of Medicine (2004) CA
Board Certification, American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2007)
Fellowship, Stanford University, Infectious Disease Fellowship (2013)
MS, Stanford University, Health Services Research (2013)
MS, Harvard School of Public Health, Tropical Public Health (1999)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
Completed a Masters degree in Health Services Research in 2012. Research focused on using network models to develop a clinical research agenda for neglected tropical diseases.
Vaccination patterns, disparities, and policy among Asian-Americans and Asians living in the USA.
The Lancet. Global health
2022; 10 Suppl 1: S27
Although Asian-American individuals have higher rates of some vaccine-preventable diseases such as hepatitis B, vaccination rates among them are low compared with those of non-Hispanic White individuals. Most vaccine research looks at Asian-American people as a single category despite large within-group heterogeneity in health-seeking behaviours. Little is known about vaccination coverage among disaggregated Asian-American ethnic subgroups, although such information could inform policies focused on increasing vaccine uptake. Therefore, we aimed to assess vaccination coverage for several vaccines among disaggregated Asian-American subgroups.We examined National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 2015-18 to analyse the vaccination status of Chinese, Asian Indian, Filipino, other Asian, and non-Hispanic White adults (n=253 626) for seven vaccines recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B (HBV), influenza, tetanus, tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis (Tdap), shingles, and the pneumococcal vaccine. We used NHIS data from 2006-18 (n=880 210) to analyse changes in vaccination rates for each ethnic group over time. We used logistic regression to estimate differences in vaccination rates while controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables.Among the seven vaccines, HPV and shingles vaccines had the lowest uptake, whereas Tdap had the highest uptake among all groups. Compared with the non-Hispanic White group, Asian Indians were almost half as likely to receive the HPV vaccine (odds ratio 0·61, 95% CI 0·41-0·92), whereas Filipinos (1·51, 1·02-2·25) and other Asians (1·42, 1·02-1·97) were more likely to receive it. The Filipino (1·50, 1·21-1·88) and other Asian groups (1·42, 1·19-1·71) were more likely to receive the HBV vaccine than the non-Hispanic White group. For the influenza vaccine, the Asian Indian (1·28, 1·05-1·56), Filipino (1·44, 1·17-1·79) and other Asian (1·38, 1·16-1·65) groups were more likely to receive the vaccine than the non-Hispanic White group. For the pneumococcal vaccine, the Chinese (0·57, 0·34-0·94) and other Asian (0·66, 0·47-0·92) groups were less likely to receive the vaccine than the non-Hispanic White group.Among US adults, we found significant disparities in vaccine uptake among different Asian and Asian-American ethnic groups. US policy makers trying to improve vaccine uptake among Asian and Asian-American people could learn from successful international immunisation programmes to develop culturally appropriate interventions to improve vaccine uptake in Asian and Asian-American individuals.None.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S2214-109X(22)00156-5
View details for PubMedID 35362432
Vaccination patterns, disparities, and policy among Asian-Americans and Asians living in the USA
ELSEVIER SCI LTD. 2022: 27
View details for Web of Science ID 000779259700028
Prosthetic joint infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex: a series of five cases.
Journal of bone and joint infection
2022; 7 (4): 137-141
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a rare entity. There is limited guidance on management strategies and outcomes. In this paper, we describe the demographics, comorbidities, and clinical course of five patients at two academic institutions, constituting the largest series described to date.
View details for DOI 10.5194/jbji-7-137-2022
View details for PubMedID 35855286
Articulating vs Static Spacers for Native Knee Infection in the Setting of Degenerative Joint Disease.
2021; 8: 138–44
Background: Patients with advanced knee arthritis who develop a septic joint are not adequately treated with irrigation and debridement and intravenous antibiotics because of antecedent cartilage damage. The gold standard treatment has been a 2-stage approach. The periprosthetic joint infection literature has demonstrated the superiority of articulating spacers, and metal-on-poly (MOP) spacers are being used with increasing frequency. The purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative outcomes of patients with infected, arthritic knees treated by a 2-stage approach to those of patients who received single-stage treatment with a MOP spacer.Methods: Sixteen patients with native knee septic arthritis treated with an antibiotic spacer between 1998 and 2019 were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical data, knee motion, Knee Society score, Timed-Up-and-Go, and pain scores were collected. Survivorship of final implants was compared.Results: Six of 16 knees (38%) received single-stage treatment, and 10 received 2-stage treatment (62%). Five of 6 MOP spacers (83%) were retained at a mean follow-up of 3 ± 1.2 years. Nine of 10 (90%) receiving static spacers had subsequent reconstruction, with 9 (100%) surviving at mean follow-up of 7 ± 3.2 years. The patients who received MOP spacers trended toward greater terminal flexion, higher Knee Society score, and faster Timed-Up-and-Go at final follow-up.Conclusion: Infection in a native, arthritic knee may be effectively treated using single-stage MOP spacer. Postoperative outcomes of single-stage MOP spacers compare favorably to staged static spacers and with those undergoing revision surgery for other indications. Longer follow-up is needed to evaluate durability of MOP spacers.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.artd.2021.01.009
View details for PubMedID 33748374
Lactate and Procalcitonin Levels in Peripartum Women with Intraamniotic Infection.
American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM
Serum biomarkers are used to diagnose and manage severe infections, but data on their utility during labor are limited. We compared lactate and procalcitonin levels in women with and without intraamniotic infection to determine if they are useful biomarkers for infection during labor.We performed a prospective observational cohort study of term, singleton pregnancies admitted with planned vaginal delivery in 2019 at a university medical center. Lactate and procalcitonin levels were drawn in early labor, within 2 hours following delivery, and postpartum day 1. Women with intraamniotic infection additionally had lactate and procalcitonin levels drawn following intraamniotic infection diagnosis. Samples were processed immediately in the hospital clinical laboratory. Primary outcome was mean lactate level following delivery. Secondary outcomes were lactate and procalcitonin levels at other time points. Comparisons based on infection status were performed using multivariate linear regression.22 women with intraamniotic infection and 29 uninfected women were included. Early labor mean lactate level (1.47 vs 1.49 mmol/L) and mean procalcitonin level (0.048 vs 0.039 ng/mL) did not differ and were normal in uninfected and intraamniotic infection groups. Mean lactate level was highest following delivery for women in uninfected and intraamniotic infection groups (2.00 vs 2.33 mmol/L, adjusted p=0.08, 95% CI 0.98-1.53). Lactate level returned to normal by postpartum day 1 and did not significantly differ based on the infection status at any time point in adjusted models. Procalcitonin level following delivery was higher among women with intraamniotic infection versus without infection (0.142 vs 0.091 ng/mL, adjusted p=0.03). Procalcitonin level rose further in both intraamniotic infection and uninfected groups on postpartum day 1 (0.737 vs 0.408 ng/mL, adjusted p=0.05).Lactate level is not significantly elevated in intraamniotic infection above the physiologic increase at delivery observed in women without infection. Procalcitonin level is elevated at delivery in women with intraamniotic infection and warrants further investigation as a peripartum infection marker.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2021.100367
View details for PubMedID 33831586
Active surveillance of serious adverse events following transfusion of COVID-19 convalescent plasma.
The reported incidence of adverse reactions following Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP) transfusion has generally been lower than expected based on the incidence of transfusion reactions that have been observed in studies of conventional plasma transfusion. This raises the concern for under-reporting of adverse events in studies of CCP that rely on passive surveillance strategies.Our institution implemented a protocol to actively identify possible adverse reactions to CCP transfusion. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of inpatients who received CCP at Stanford Hospital between May 13, 2020 and January 31, 2021. We determined the incidence of adverse events following CCP transfusion.A total of 49 patients received CCP. Seven patients (14%) had an increased supplemental oxygen requirement within 4 h of transfusion completion, including one patient who was intubated during the transfusion. An additional 11 patients (total of 18, 37%) had increased oxygen requirements within 24 h of transfusion, including 3 patients who were intubated. Six patients (12%) fulfilled criteria for transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO).Using an active surveillance strategy, we commonly observed adverse events following the transfusion of CCP to hospitalized patients. It was not possible to definitively determine whether or not these adverse events are related to CCP transfusion. TACO was likely over-diagnosed given overlap with the manifestations of COVID-19. Nevertheless, these results suggest that the potential adverse effects of CCP transfusion may be underestimated by reports from passive surveillance studies.
View details for DOI 10.1111/trf.16711
View details for PubMedID 34677830
- Use of Remdesivir for Pregnant Patients with Severe Novel 2019 Coronavirus Disease. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 2020
Recurrent Multifocal Mycoplasma orale Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient: A Case Report and Review.
Case reports in infectious diseases
2020; 2020: 8852115
A young woman with mixed connective tissue disease complicated by erosive arthritis, secondary hypogammaglobulinemia due to rituximab, and a history of many infectious complications developed multiple nonhealing wounds, polyarticular joint pain, and leukocytosis. Radiographic studies demonstrated multiple scattered areas of osteomyelitis and complex abscesses. Purulent fluid drained from multiple sites did not yield a microbiologic diagnosis by standard culture technique, but Mycoplasma orale was ultimately identified using 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplification and sequencing. We describe this unique case and review the literature.
View details for DOI 10.1155/2020/8852115
View details for PubMedID 32850161
Characteristics and outcomes of coronavirus disease patients under nonsurge conditions, northern California, USA, March–April 2020
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Limited data are available on the clinical presentation and outcomes of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients in the United States hospitalized under normal-caseload or nonsurge conditions. We retrospectively studied 72 consecutive adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 2 hospitals in the San Francisco Bay area, California, USA, during March 13-April 11, 2020. The death rate for all hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 8.3%, and median length of hospitalization was 7.5 days. Of the 21 (29% of total) intensive care unit patients, 3 (14.3% died); median length of intensive care unit stay was 12 days. Of the 72 patients, 43 (59.7%) had underlying cardiovascular disease and 19 (26.4%) had underlying pulmonary disease. In this study, death rates were lower than those reported from regions of the United States experiencing a high volume of COVID-19 patients.
View details for DOI 10.3201/eid2608.201776
The routine use of synovial alpha-defensin is not necessary.
The bone & joint journal
2020; 102-B (5): 593–99
To establish the utility of adding the laboratory-based synovial alpha-defensin immunoassay to the traditional diagnostic work-up of a prosthetic joint infection (PJI).A group of four physicians evaluated 158 consecutive patients who were worked up for PJI, of which 94 underwent revision arthroplasty. Each physician reviewed the diagnostic data and decided on the presence of PJI according to the 2014 Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria (yes, no, or undetermined). Their initial randomized review of the available data before or after surgery was blinded to each alpha-defensin result and a subsequent randomized review was conducted with each result. Multilevel logistic regression analysis assessed the effect of having the alpha-defensin result on the ability to diagnose PJI. Alpha-defensin was correlated to the number of synovial white blood cells (WBCs) and percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (%PMN).Intraobserver reliability and interobserver agreement did not change when the alpha-defensin result was available. Positive alpha-defensin results had greater synovial WBCs (mean 31,854 cells/μL, SD 32,594) and %PMN (mean 93.0%, SD 5.5%) than negative alpha-defensin results (mean 974 cells/μL, SD 3,988; p < 0.001 and mean 39.4% SD 28.6%; p < 0.001). Adding the alpha-defensin result did not alter the diagnosis of a PJI using preoperative (odds ratio (OR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 1.88; p = 0.315) or operative (OR 0.52, CI 0.18 to 1.55; p = 0.242) data when clinicians already decided that PJI was present or absent with traditionally available testing. However, when undetermined with traditional preoperative testing, alpha-defensin helped diagnose (OR 0.44, CI 0.30 to 0.64; p < 0.001) or rule out (OR 0.41, CI 0.17 to 0.98; p = 0.044) PJI. Of the 27 undecided cases with traditional testing, 24 (89%) benefited from the addition of alpha-defensin testing.The laboratory-based synovial alpha-defensin immunoassay did not help diagnose or rule out a PJI when added to routine serologies and synovial fluid analyses except in cases where the diagnosis of PJI was unclear. We recommend against the routine use of alpha-defensin and suggest using it only when traditional testing is indeterminate. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(5):593-599.
View details for DOI 10.1302/0301-620X.102B5.BJJ-2019-0473.R3
View details for PubMedID 32349594
West Nile virus encephalitis in GATA2 deficiency.
Allergy, asthma, and clinical immunology : official journal of the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
2019; 15: 5
We report a male with longstanding warts who presented with severe West Nile virus encephalitis (WNVE) and recovered after interferon alfa-2b and intravenous immunoglobulin. He was later found to have GATA2 deficiency and underwent successful hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
View details for PubMedID 30697248
Fatal Emmonsia sp Infection and Fungemia after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation
EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2017; 23 (2): 346–49
We report a fatal case of disseminated Emmonsia sp. infection in a 55-year-old man who received an orthotopic liver transplant. The patient had pneumonia and fungemia, and multisystem organ failure developed. As human habitats and the number of immunocompromised patients increase, physicians must be aware of this emerging fungal infection.
View details for DOI 10.3201/eid2302.160799
View details for Web of Science ID 000393088600032
View details for PubMedID 28098544
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5324819
Prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases: overview of randomized trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization
2014; 92 (5): 356-366C
To analyse evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and to identify areas where evidence is lacking.The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed were searched for RCTs and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PubMed were searched for meta-analyses and systematic reviews, both from inception to 31 December 2012.Overall, 258 RCTs were found on American trypanosomiasis, Buruli ulcer, dengue, geohelminth infection, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis or trachoma. No RCTs were found on cysticercosis, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, foodborne trematodes, or human African trypanosomiasis. The most studied diseases were geohelminth infection (51 RCTs) and leishmaniasis (46 RCTs). Vaccines, chemoprophylaxis and interventions targeting insect vectors were evaluated in 113, 99 and 39 RCTs, respectively. Few addressed how best to deliver preventive chemotherapy, such as the choice of dosing interval (10) or target population (4), the population coverage needed to reduce transmission (2) or the method of drug distribution (1). Thirty-one publications containing 32 systematic reviews (16 with and 16 without meta-analyses) were found on American trypanosomiasis, dengue, geohelminths, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis or trachoma. Together, they included only 79 of the 258 published RCTs (30.6%). Of 36 interventions assessed, 8 were judged effective in more than one review.Few RCTs on the prevention or control of the principal NTDs were found. Trials on how best to deliver preventive chemotherapy were particularly rare.
View details for DOI 10.2471/BLT.13.129601
View details for PubMedID 24839325
Neglected tropical diseases: survey and geometry of randomised evidence
BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL
To assess the quantity and distribution of evidence from randomised controlled trials for the treatment of the major neglected tropical diseases and to identify gaps in the evidence with network analysis.Systematic review and network analysis.Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed from inception to 31 August 2011.Randomised controlled trials that examined treatment of 16 neglected tropical diseases or complications thereof published in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, or Dutch.We identified 971 eligible randomised trials. Leishmaniasis (184 trials, 23,039 participants) and geohelminth infections; 160 trials, 46,887 participants) were the most studied, while dracunculiasis (nine trials, 798 participants) and Buruli ulcer (five trials, 337 participants) were least studied. Relative to its global burden of disease, lymphatic filariasis had the fewest trials and participants. Only 11% of trials were industry funded. Either a single trial or trials with fewer than 100 participants comprised the randomised evidence for first or second line treatments for Buruli ulcer, human African trypanosomiasis, American trypanosomiasis, cysticercosis, rabies, echinococcosis, New World cutaneous leishmaniasis, and each of the foodborne trematode infections. Among the 10 disease categories with more than 40 trials, five lacked sufficient head to head comparisons between first or second line treatments.There is considerable variation in the amount of evidence from randomised controlled trials for each of the 16 major neglected tropical diseases. Even in diseases with substantial evidence, such as leishmaniasis and geohelminth infections, some recommended treatments have limited supporting data and lack head to head comparisons.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmj.e6512
View details for PubMedID 23089149
Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection among lung transplant recipients: a 15-year cohort study
TRANSPLANT INFECTIOUS DISEASE
2012; 14 (5): 452-460
The incidence of infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) after lung transplant is insufficiently defined. Data on the impact of NTM infection on lung transplant survival are conflicting.To quantify the incidence and outcomes of colonization and disease with NTM in patients after lung transplantation, the medical records, chest imaging, and microbiology data of 237 consecutive lung transplant recipients between 1990 and 2005 were reviewed. American Thoracic Society (ATS)/Infectious Diseases Society of America and Centers for Disease Control criteria were used to define pulmonary NTM disease and NTM surgical-site infections (SSI), respectively. Incidence rates for NTM colonization and disease were calculated. Comparisons of median survival were done using the log-rank test.NTM were isolated from 53 of 237 patients (22.4%) after lung transplantation over a median of 25.2 months of follow-up. The incidence rate of NTM isolation was 9.0/100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI), 6.8-11.8), and the incidence rate of NTM disease was 1.1/100 person-years (95% CI 0.49-2.2). The most common NTM isolated was Mycobacterium avium complex (69.8%), followed by Mycobacterium abscessus (9.4%), and Mycobacterium gordonae (7.5%). Among these 53 patients, only 2 patients met ATS criteria for pulmonary disease and received treatment for M. avium. One patient had recurrent colonization after treatment, the other one was cured. Four of the 53 patients developed SSI, 3 caused by M. abscessus and 1 caused by Mycobacterium chelonae. Three of these patients had persistent infection requiring chronic suppressive therapy and one died from progressive disseminated disease. A total of 47 (89%) patients who met microbiologic but not radiographic criteria for pulmonary infection were not treated and were found to have only transient colonization. Median survival after transplantation was not different between patients with transient colonization who did not receive treatment and those who never had NTM isolated.Episodic isolation of NTM from lung transplant recipients is common. Most isolates occur among asymptomatic patients and are transient. Rapidly growing NTM can cause significant SSI, which may be difficult to cure. NTM disease rate is higher among lung transplant recipients than in the general population. In this cohort, NTM isolation was not associated with increased post-transplantation mortality.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2012.00753.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000309239500018
View details for PubMedID 22676720
MAYO CLINIC PROCEEDINGS
2011; 86 (6): 561-583
Parasitic diseases affect more than 2 billion people globally and cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly among the world's poorest people. This overview focuses on the treatment of the major protozoan and helminth infections in humans. Recent developments in antiparasitic therapy include the expansion of artemisinin-based therapies for malaria, new drugs for soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa, expansion of the indications for antiparasitic drug treatment in patients with Chagas disease, and the use of combination therapy for leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis.
View details for DOI 10.4065/mcp.2011.0203
View details for Web of Science ID 000291288400012
View details for PubMedID 21628620
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3104918
Low uptake of antiretroviral therapy after admission with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TUBERCULOSIS AND LUNG DISEASE
2010; 14 (7): 903-908
A prospective cohort study was conducted among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected in-patients with tuberculosis (TB) or other opportunistic infections (OIs) in South Africa to estimate subsequent antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake and survival.Logistic regression modeling explored associations between baseline characteristics and starting ART, and ART exposure-adjusted incidence of death was estimated over 6 months of follow-up.Among 49 participants enrolled, median CD4 cell count at hospital discharge was 42 cells/microl and the most common presenting OIs were TB (76%), Pneumocystis pneumonia (8%), chronic diarrhea (8%), cryptococcal meningitis (6%), and Toxoplasma gondii (4%). By 6 months, only 20 (45%) patients had initiated ART, and four (8%) were lost to follow-up. ART uptake was independently associated with previous use of traditional medicine (OR 7.2, 95%CI 1.4-55.1) and with less advanced HIV infection (baseline CD4 count per 50 cells/microl increase OR 1.4, 95%CI 0.9-2.2). A total of 14 (31%) patients died before initiating ART; the monthly incidence of death did not decrease over the 6-month interval.The high mortality observed within the 6 months following hospitalization with TB or other acute OIs indicate that mechanisms are needed to expedite ART for patients after an acquired immune-deficiency syndrome defining illness.
View details for Web of Science ID 000279489000019
View details for PubMedID 20550776