Conditional cash transfers to improve health-focused outcomes: a global scoping review.
Global public health
This scoping review assesses the use of conditional cash transfer (CCT) interventions - direct distribution of money to individuals conditional on their compliance to certain requirements - in randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies and large community-based randomised trials with health-focused outcomes. Five databases were searched to identify 68 records published 2004-2021 from 25 countries (8 low- (32%), 5 lower middle- (20%), 6 upper middle- (24%) and 6 high-income (24%), according to the World Bank Categorisation (2017). Forty-six studies were unique (after excluding multiple publications on a single study). The most common outcomes assessed were infectious diseases (30%); maternal health (24%); vaccination rates (17%); and childhood developmental measures (17%). The number of participants receiving CCT in each study ranged from 47 to 5,788, with a median of 487 individuals. The number of total participants ranged from 72 to 14,000, with a median of 1,289 individuals. Fifteen percent of studies involved mobile CCT disbursement. More than a quarter of payments were greater than 50 USD (29%), and most payments were 20 USD or less (58%). Seventy-eight percent of unique full-length studies reported statistically significant CCT effects. Although CCTs remain controversial, a growing evidence base is emerging for their potential impact in specific health conditions.
View details for DOI 10.1080/17441692.2022.2092186
View details for PubMedID 35727705
The great recession and job loss spillovers: impact of tradable employment shocks on supporting services.
The Annals of regional science
This paper explores the spillover effects of job losses via input-output linkages during the Great Recession. Exploiting exogenous variation in tradable employment shocks across US counties, the paper finds that job losses in a county's tradable industries cause further job losses in the county's supporting services. A 10% exogenous decline in tradable employment reduces supporting industries' employment by 3.1%. In addition, a county's regional supporting services are relatively less affected by its tradable job losses than its local supporting services, reinforcing the argument that the spillovers are due to input-output linkages.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00168-021-01104-8
View details for PubMedID 35068666
Encephalitis and meningitis in Western Africa: a scoping review of pathogens.
Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH
2021; 26 (4): 388-396
To give an overview of the recently reported literature on the aetiologies of meningitis and encephalitis in western sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a scoping review following PRISMA guidance on published meningitis and encephalitis cases in the 16 countries of the United Nations-defined western sub-Saharan African region as identified in cohort studies, case series, and case reports, published 01/01/2000-08/01/2020, and available in four databases in August 2020 with an abstract in English, French or Italian.There were 38 distinct pathogens identified from 91 cohort studies' data and 48 case reports or case series' data. In cohort-level data, the majority of cases were caused by Neisseria meningitidis (71.5%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.6%) and Haemophilus influenzae (7.3%). In case report- and case series-level data, 40.5% of patients were <18 years old, 28.6% were female, and 28.6% were known to be immunocompromised. The case fatality rate was 39.3%. The most commonly reported pathogens among immunocompetent patients were Salmonella species (13 cases) and Ebola virus (9 cases), and the most commonly reported pathogen among immunocompromised patients was Cryptococcus neoformans (18 cases). Most cohort cases (52.3%) derived from Niger followed by Burkina Faso (28.6%). Most cases from single reports or series were reported from Nigeria (21.4%), Mali (20.2%) and Burkina Faso (19.0%).Given the small number of pathogens reported, our findings underscore the need to better screen, diagnose and monitor populations in western sub-Saharan Africa for additional CNS pathogens, including those posing significant outbreak risks.
View details for DOI 10.1111/tmi.13539
View details for PubMedID 33340211
Practical needs and considerations for refugees and other forcibly displaced persons with neurological disorders: Recommendations using a modified Delphi approach.
Gates open research
2021; 5: 178
Background: There are >70 million forcibly displaced people worldwide, including refugees, internally displaced persons, and asylum seekers. While the health needs of forcibly displaced people have been characterized in the literature, more still needs to be done globally to translate this knowledge into effective policies and actions, particularly in neurology. Methods: In 2020, a global network of published experts on neurological disease and refugees was convened. Nine physician experts from nine countries (2 low, 1 lower-middle income, 5 upper-middle, 1 high income) with experience treating displaced people originating from 18 countries participated in three survey and two discussion rounds in accordance with the Delphi method. Results: A consensus list of priority interventions for treating neurological conditions in displaced people was created, agnostic to cost considerations, with the ten highest ranking tests or treatments ranked as: computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging scans, levetiracetam, acetylsalicylic acid, carbamazepine, paracetamol, sodium valproate, basic blood tests, steroids and anti-tuberculous medication. The most important contextual considerations (100% consensus) were all economic and political, including the economic status of the displaced person's country of origin, the host country, and the stage in the asylum seeking process. The annual cost to purchase the ten priority neurological interventions for the entire displaced population was estimated to be 220 million USD for medications and 4.2 billion USD for imaging and tests. Conclusions: A need for neuroimaging and anti-seizure medications for forcibly displaced people was emphasized. These recommendations could guide future research and investment in neurological care for forcibly displaced people.
View details for DOI 10.12688/gatesopenres.13447.2
View details for PubMedID 35299829
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8901583.2
Impact of COVID-19 on U.S. and Canadian neurologists' therapeutic approach to multiple sclerosis: a survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices.
Journal of neurology
2020; 267 (12): 3467-3475
To report the understanding and decision-making of neuroimmunologists and their treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) during the early stages of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) outbreak.A survey instrument was designed and distributed online to neurologists in April 2020.There were 250 respondents (response rate 21.8%). 243 saw > = 10 MS patients in the prior 6 months (average 197 patients) and were analyzed further (92% USA, 8% Canada; average practice duration 16 years; 5% rural, 17% small city, 38% large city, 40% highly urbanized). Patient volume dropped an average of 79% (53-11 per month). 23% were aware of patients self-discontinuing a DMT due to fear of COVID-19 with 43% estimated to be doing so against medical advice. 65% of respondents reported deferring > = 1 doses of a DMT (49%), changing the dosing interval (34%), changing to home infusions (20%), switching a DMT (9%), and discontinuing DMTs altogether (8%) as a result of COVID-19. Changes in DMTs were most common with the high-efficacy therapies alemtuzumab, cladribine, ocrelizumab, rituximab, and natalizumab. 35% made no changes to DMT prescribing. 98% expressed worry about their patients contracting COVID-19 and 78% expressed the same degree of worry about themselves. > 50% believed high-efficacy DMTs prolong viral shedding of SARS-CoV-2 and that B-cell therapies might prevent protective vaccine effects. Accelerated pace of telemedicine and practice model changes were identified as major shifts in practice.Reported prescribing changes and practice disruptions due to COVID-19 may be temporary but could have a lasting influence on MS care.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00415-020-10045-9
View details for PubMedID 32638107
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7339100
Neuromyelitis optica practice and prescribing changes in the setting of Covid19: A survey of neurologists.
Journal of neuroimmunology
2020; 346: 577320
This study reports and analyzes the findings from the responses of 192 neurologists in the United States and Canada to a new survey instrument distributed in April 2020 to assess NMO practice and prescribing changes during the Covid19 pandemic.92% of responding neurologists considered their NMO patients to be at an elevated risk of acquiring Covid19. They also indicated sharp declines in visits, delays in treatment and related services, and several unmet needs deterring treatment.There is a need for evidence-based, comprehensive guidelines for treating NMO patients amid healthcare crises moving forward.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2020.577320
View details for PubMedID 32682142
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7351672