Bio


Sheri Sheppard teaches both undergraduate and graduate design-related classes, and conducts research on fracture mechanics and applied finite element analysis, and on how people become engineers. From 1999-2008 she served as a Senior Scholar at the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, leading the Foundation’s engineering study. In addition to publishing technical papers, reports, and textbooks, she has led or co-led several large, multi-institutional projects to build new educational research programs and related resources, such as the Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education (CAEE), The National Center for Engineering Pathways to Innovation (Epicenter), and a program on summer research experiences for high school teachers. Her industry experience includes engineering positions at Detroit's "Big Three” — Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, and Chrysler Corporation. She earned her bachelors degree from the University of Wisconsin, and her PhD at the University of Michigan. At Stanford she has served a chair of the faculty senate, as associate vice provost for graduate education, and is the longtime faculty founder of and adviser to the graduate student group MEwomen. Her work has been recognized with numerous honors and awards, including the Walter J. Gores Award, Stanford University's highest award for excellence in teaching and the Chester F. Carlson and Ralph Coats Roe Awards of the American Society for Engineering Education in recognition of distinguished accomplishment in engineering education, and for outstanding teaching and notable contributions to the mechanical engineering profession.

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Ralph Coats Roe Award, American Society for Engineering Education (2012)
  • The Walter J. Gores Award, Stanford University (2010)
  • Chester F. Carlson Award, American Society for Engineering Education (2004)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Advisory Board, Journal of Engineering Education (2014 - Present)

Professional Education


  • PhD, Michigan, Mechanical Engineering (1985)
  • MS, Univ. of Michigan-Dearborn, Mechanical Engineering (1980)
  • BS, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Engineering Mechanics (1978)

2016-17 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • What Does It Take to Become a Good Engineer? Identifying Cross-National Engineering Student Profiles According to Perceived Importance of Skills International Journal of Engineering Education Haase, S., Chen, H., L., Sheppard, S., Kolmos, A., Meljgaard, N. 2013; 29 (3): 698–713
  • From freshmen engineering students to practicing professionals: Changes in beliefs about important skills over time. Winters, K., E., Matusovich, H., M., Brunhaver, S., Chen, H., L., Yasuhara, K., Sheppard, S. 2013
  • Research-Informed Practices for Inclusive Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Classrooms: Strategies for Educators to Close the Gender Gap Scutt, H. I., Gilmartin, S. K., Sheppard, S., Brunhaver, S. 2013
  • Not all the same: A look at early career engineers employed in different sub-occupations. Brunhaver, S., Gilmartin, S., K., Chen, H., L., Grau, M., M., Warner, M., Sheppard, S. 2013
  • Bending Moments to Business Models: Integrating an Entrepreneurship Case Study as Part of Core Mechanical Engineering Curriculum. Schar, M., F., Sheppard, S., Brunhaver, S., Cuson, M., Grau, M., M. 2013
  • Fostering an Enterprising Learning Ecology for Engineers INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Brunhaver, S. R., Lande, M., Sheppard, S. D., Carryer, J. E. 2012; 28 (2): 355-363
  • The Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education: A Review of Results and Resources INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Atman, C. J., Sheppard, S. D., Turns, J., Adams, R. S., Yasuhara, K., Lund, D. 2012; 28 (5): 1095-1108
  • Educating Engineering Entrepreneurs: A Multi-Institution Analysis INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Yasuhara, K., Lande, M., Chen, H. L., Sheppard, S. D., Atman, C. J. 2012; 28 (2): 436-447
  • Work in Progress - Engineering Pathways Study: The College-Career Transition 2011 FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION CONFERENCE (FIE) Sheppard, S., Matusovich, H. M., Atman, C., Streveler, R. A., Miller, R. L. 2011
  • Outcomes of a Longitudinal Administration of the Persistence in Engineering Survey JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Eris, O., Chachra, D., Chen, H. L., Sheppard, S., Ludlow, L., Rosca, C., Bailey, T., Toye, G. 2010; 99 (4): 371-395
  • Comparing the Undergraduate Experience of Engineers to All Other Majors: Significant Differences are Programmatic JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Lichtenstein, G., McCormick, A. C., Sheppard, S. D., Puma, J. 2010; 99 (4): 305-317
  • Exploring the Engineering Student Experience: Findings from the Academic Pathways of People Learning Engineering Survey (APPLES) (CAEE-TR-10-01). Seattle, WA: Center for the Advancement for Engineering Education. Sheppard, S., Gilmartin, S., Chen, H., L., Donaldson, K., Lichtenstein, G., Eriş, Ö. 2010
  • Cost of an Engineering Major JEE Selects in Prism Lichtenstein, G., McCormick, A., Sheppard, S. 2010: 47
  • Students Improving: Identifying Factors That Seem to Matter. Otto, E., Chen, Helen, L., Sheppard, Sheri, D. 2010
  • Students Improving: Identifying Factors That Seem to Matter. Otto, E., Chen, Helen, L., Sheppard, Sheri, D. 2010
  • Enabling Engineering Student Success: The Final Report for the Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education. Atman, C., Sheppard, et al., S. San Rafael CA: Morgan & Claypool Publishers. 2010
  • ENABLING ENGINEERING STUDENT SUCCESS: The Final Report for the Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education CAEE-TR-10-02 Atman, Cynthia, J., Sheppard, Sheri, D., Turns, J., Adams, Robin, S., Fleming, Lorraine, N., Stevens, R. 2010
  • An Overview of the Academic Pathways Study: Research Processes and Procedures Technical Report #CAEE-TR-09-03 Summer 2003 – Fall 2008 Sheppard, S., Atman, C., Fleming, L., Miller, R., Smith, K., Stevens, R. 2010
  • An Engineering Major Does Not (Necessarily) an Engineer Make: Career Decision Making Among Undergraduate Engineering Majors JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Lichtenstein, G., Loshbaugh, H. G., Claar, B., Chen, H. L., Jackson, K., Sheppard, S. D. 2009; 98 (3): 227-234
  • A General Methodology to Predict Fatigue Life in Lead-Free Solder Alloy Interconnects JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING Pierce, D. M., Sheppard, S. D., Vianco, P. T. 2009; 131 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1115/1.3068313

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263718000008

  • More to Say: Analyzing Open-ended Student Responses to the Academic Pathways of People Learning Engineering Survey. Lande, M., Parikh, S., Sheppard, S., Toye, G., Chen, H., Donaldson, K. 2009
  • Does Major Matter? A Look at what Motivates Engineering Students in Different Majors. Parikh, S., Chen, H., Donaldson, K., Sheppard, S. 2009
  • On Becoming a 21st Century Engineer Foreword JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Sheppard, S. D., Pellegrino, J. W., Olds, B. M. 2008; 97 (3): 231-234
  • Persistence, Engagement, and Migration in Engineering Programs JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Ohland, M. W., Sheppard, S. D., Lichtenstein, G., Eris, O., Chachra, D., Layton, R. A. 2008; 97 (3): 259-278
  • Development of the damage state variable for a unified creep plasticity damage constitutive model of the 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0-6Cu lead-free solder JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING Pierce, D. M., Sheppard, S. D., Fossurn, A. F., Vianco, P. T., Neilsen, M. K. 2008; 130 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1115/1.2837513

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255132000002

  • Validation of a general fatigue life prediction methodology for sn-ag-cu lead-free solder alloy interconnects JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING Pierce, D. M., Sheppard, S. D., Vianco, P. T., Regent, J. A., Grazier, J. M. 2008; 130 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1115/1.2837515

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255132000003

  • Being and Becoming: Gender and Identity Formation of Engineering Students. Sheppard, S., Chachra, D., Kilgore, D., Loshbaugh, H., McCain, J., Chen, H. 2008
  • Moving From Pipeline Thinking to Understanding Pathways: Findings from the Academic Pathways Study of Engineering Undergraduates. Atman, C., Sheppard et al., S. 2008
  • Graduate School or Not: Engineering Students Consider Continuing Their Education in Co-terminal Programs. Jackson, K., Bailey, T., Sheppard, S., Chen, H. 2008
  • Socioeconomic Status and the Undergraduate Experience: Preliminary Findings from Four American Universities. Donaldson, K., Lichtenstein, G., Sheppard, Sheri, D. 2008
  • From PIE to APPLES: The Evolution of a Survey Instrument to Explore Engineering Student Pathways. Sheppard, S., Chen, H., L, Donaldson, et al., Krista 2008
  • From PIE to APPLES: The Evolution of a Survey Instrument to Explore Engineering Student Pathways. Chen, H., Donaldson, K., Eriş, O., Chachra, D., Lichtenstein, G., Sheppard, Sheri, D. 2008
  • Analyzing Large, Free-response Qualitative Data Sets: A Novel Quantitative-qualitative Hybrid Approach. Sheppard, S., Light, J., Yasuhara, K. 2008
  • Academic Pathways Study: Processes and Realities. Clark, M., Sheppard et al., Sheri, D. 2008
  • Academic Pathways Study: Processes and Realities. Clark, M., Sheppard, Sheri, D., Atman, Cynthia, J., Fleming, L., Miller, R., Stevens, R. 2008
  • Conceptualizing Engagement: Contributions of Faculty to Student Engagement in Engineering. Journal of Engineering Education. Sheppard, Sheri, D., Chen et al., Helen, L. 2008
  • Scaling Up: Taking the Academic Pathways of People Learning Engineering Survey (APPLES) National FIE: 2008 IEEE FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-3 Donaldson, K. M., Chen, H. L., Toye, G., Clark, M., Sheppard, S. D. 2008: 1078-1083
  • Special Session - Linking Research Findings on Engineering Student Learning and Engineering Teaching: Implications for Engineering Education FIE: 2008 IEEE FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-3 Atman, C., Fleming, L., Kilgore, D., Miller, R., Sheppard, S., Smith, K., Stevens, R., Streveler, R., Turns, J. 2008: 784-785
  • When understanding follows 'experiencing': A report from research in the field Hariharan, B., Shariq, S., Sheppard, S. TEMPUS PUBLICATIONS. 2008: 434-442
  • Panel Session - Improving Learning and Retention in Introductory Statics FIE: 2008 IEEE FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-3 Valle, C., Newstetter, W. C., Anderson, E. E., Litzinger, T. A., Sheppard, S. D. 2008: 897-898
  • Targeting undergraduate students for surveys: Lessons from the Academic Pathways of People Learning Engineering Survey (APPLES) 2007 37TH ANNUAL FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION CONFERENCE, GLOBAL ENGINEERING : KNOWLEDGE WITHOUT BORDERS - OPPORTUNITIES WITHOUT PASSPORTS, VOLS 1- 4 Donaldson, K. M., Chen, H. L., Toye, G., Sheppard, S. D. 2007: 1116-1122
  • Correlates of Persistence in Engineering Education: Preliminary Results from the Academic Pathways Study. Chachra, D., Eriş, O., Donaldson, K., Sheppard, S., Rosca, C., Ludlow, L. 2007
  • Targeting Undergraduate Students for Surveys: Lessons from the Academic Pathways of People Learning Engineering Survey (APPLES). Donaldson, K., Chen, Helen, L., Toye, G., Sheppard, Sheri, D. 2007
  • Portraying the Academic Experiences of Students in Engineering: Students’ Perceptions of Their Educational Experiences and Career Aspirations in Engineering. Sheppard, S., Korte, R., Smith, K. 2007
  • Exploring the Not-So-Talked-About Undergraduate Pathway: Migrating Into Engineering. Donaldson, K., Sheppard, Sheri, D. 2007
  • A Preliminary Analysis of Correlates of Engineering Persistence: Results from a Longitudinal Study. Eriş, Ö., Chachra, D., Chen, H., Rosca, C., Ludlow, L., Sheppard, Sheri, D. 2007
  • Special session - Academic Pathways Study: Special interactive session on findings and implications for engineering education and practice 2007 37TH ANNUAL FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION CONFERENCE, GLOBAL ENGINEERING : KNOWLEDGE WITHOUT BORDERS - OPPORTUNITIES WITHOUT PASSPORTS, VOLS 1- 4 Atman, C., Kilgore, D., Eris, O., Fleming, L., Miller, R. L., Sheppard, S. D., Smith, K., Stevens, R., Streveler, R., Amos, D. M., Bailey, T., Chachra, D., Chen, H., Donaldson, K., Geist, M., Jones, M., Korte, R., Ledbetter, S., Lichtenstein, G., Loshbaugh, H., Loucks, C., Lund, D., Matusovich, H., McCain, J., Morozov, A., Taylor, A., Turns, J., Williams, D., Yasuhara, K. 2007: 933-935
  • The National Engineering Education Research Colloquies JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Adams, R., Aldridge, D., Atman, C., Barker, L., Besterfield-Sacre, M., Bjorklund, S., Bransford, J., Breslow, L., Brophy, S., Burrows, V., Busch-Vishniac, I., Carlson, M., Carlson, L., Chen, H., Dahleh, M., Diefes-Dux, H., Duffy, T., Evangelou, D., Felder, R., Finelli, C., Follman, D., Forteriberry, N., Froyd, J., George, Y., Goff, R., Griffin, H., Haghighi, K., Harding, T., Harris, T., Hodge, D., Imbrie, P. K., Jamieson, L., Johnson, J., Jonassen, D., Katehi, L., Krause, S., Leigh-Mack, P., Litzinger, T., Lohmann, J., Maller, S., Martin, J., McKenna, A., Miller, R., Moye, A., Newstetter, W., Pellegrino, J., Pfatteicher, S., Prey, J., Redish, J., Reed-Rhoads, T., Rodriguez, O., Schimmel, K., Sheppard, S., Shuman, L., Smith, K., Somerville, M., Sorby, S., Streveler, R., Sullivan, J., Terpenny, J., Valles-Rosales, D., Wankat, P., Watson, K., Young, M., Adams, S., Anderegg, B., Boylan, M., Burkett, S., Gabriele, G., Kemnitzer, S., Olds, B., Pimmel, R., Watford, B. 2006; 95 (4): 257-258
  • Customer value chain analysis RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING DESIGN Donaldson, K. M., Ishii, K., Sheppard, S. D. 2006; 16 (4): 174-183
  • What is engineering practice? Sheppard, S., Colby, A., Macatangay, K., Sullivan, W. TEMPUS PUBLICATIONS. 2006: 429-438
  • Work in progress: Is engineering for me? A qualitative case study of first-year students 36TH ANNUAL FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION, CONFERENCE PROGRAM, VOLS 1-4 Bailey, T. L., Sheppard, S. D. 2006: 1537-1538
  • Pedagogies of engagement: Classroom-based practices JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Smith, K. A., Sheppard, S. D., Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T. 2005; 94 (1): 87-101
  • Development of the Persistence in Engineering (PIE) Survey Instrument. Sheppard, S., Eriş, Ö., Chen, H., Bailey, T., Engerman, K., Loshbaugh, H. 2005
  • A new Journal for a field in transition JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Felder, R. M., Sheppard, S. D., Smith, K. A. 2005; 94 (1): 7-10
  • Relationships between engineering student and faculty demographics and stakeholders working to affect change Johnson, M. J., Sheppard, S. D. AMER SOC ENGINEERING EDUCATION. 2004: 139-151
  • On designing engineering education: Lessons learned at Mudd Design Workshop IV Dym, C. L., Rossmann, J. S., Sheppard, S. D. TEMPUS PUBLICATIONS. 2004: 470-474
  • Studying the Engineering Experience: Design of a Longitudinal Study. Sheppard, S., Atman, Cynthia, J., Stevens, R., Fleming, L., Streveler, R., Adams, Robin, S. 2004
  • Taking stock: An analysis of the publishing record as represented by the Journal of Engineering Education JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Whitin, K., Sheppard, S. 2004; 93 (1): 5-12
  • Stress intensity factors in spot welds ENGINEERING FRACTURE MECHANICS Pan, N., Sheppard, S. D. 2003; 70 (5): 671-684
  • E-pals to enhance mechanics learning INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Donaldson, K., Sheppard, S. 2003; 19 (6): 836-846
  • Spot welds fatigue life prediction with cyclic strain range INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FATIGUE Pan, N., Sheppard, S. 2002; 24 (5): 519-528
  • Design education for the 21st century - Introduction and overview INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Dym, C. L., Sheppard, S. D. 2001; 17 (4-5): 322-323
  • Modification of a methodological design tool for the developing country scenario - A case study in product definition DESIGN MANAGEMENT - PROCESS AND INFORMATION ISSUES Donaldson, K. M., Sheppard, S. D. 2001: 505-512
  • Towards a science of engineering design teams DESIGN MANAGEMENT - PROCESS AND INFORMATION ISSUES Mabogunje, A., Carrizosa, K., Sheppard, S., Leifer, L. 2001: 465-472
  • The compatibility (or incompatibility) of how we teach engineering design and analysis Sheppard, S. D. TEMPUS PUBLICATIONS. 2001: 440-445
  • Design as cornerstone and capstone MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Sheppard, S. D. 1999: 44-47
  • Fatigue life prediction of resistance spot welds under variable amplitude loads FATIGUE AND FRACTURE MECHANICS: TWENTY-NINTH VOLUME Pan, N., Sheppard, S. D., Widmann, J. M. 1999; 1332: 802-814
  • Motor workshop: The role of interactivity in promoting learning 28TH ANNUAL FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION CONFERENCE - CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1-3 Reamon, D., Sheppard, S. 1998: 672-675
  • Assessment of technology-assisted learning in higher education: It requires new thinking by universities & colleges 28TH ANNUAL FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION CONFERENCE - CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1-3 Sheppard, S. D., Reamon, D., Friedlander, L., KERNS, C., Leifer, L., Marincovich, M., Toye, G. 1998: 141-145
  • Reality brings excitement to engineering education Leifer, L., Sheppard, S. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. 1998: 83-86
  • Examples of Freshman Design Education INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Sheppard, S., Jenison, R. 1997; 13 (4): 248-261
  • A model for peer and student involvement in course assessment Sheppard, S., Johnson, M., Leifer, L. I E E E. 1997: 193-200
  • The explicit approximation method for design optimization problems with implicit constraints ENGINEERING OPTIMIZATION Hsu, Y. L., Sheppard, S. D., WILDE, D. J. 1996; 27 (1): 21-42
  • Analytic problem solving methodology Reamon, D., Sheppard, S. IEEE. 1996: 484-488
  • Thoughts on freshman engineering design experiences Sheppard, S. D., Jenison, R. IEEE. 1996: 909-913
  • FATIGUE AND FRACTURE ESTIMATION FOR METALLIC COMPONENTS - SOME CURRENT METHODS AND FUTURE-DEVELOPMENTS JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN Nelson, D. V., Sheppard, S. D. 1995; 117: 121-127
  • THE CURVATURE FUNCTION-METHOD FOR 2-DIMENSIONAL SHAPE OPTIMIZATION UNDER STRESS CONSTRAINTS COMPUTERS & STRUCTURES Hsu, Y. L., Sheppard, S. D., WILDE, D. J. 1995; 55 (4): 647-657
  • DETERMINING THE CONSTITUTIVE PROPERTIES OF THE HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE IN A RESISTANCE SPOT WELD MODELLING AND SIMULATION IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Zuniga, S. M., Sheppard, S. D. 1995; 3 (3): 391-416
  • Students connecting engineering fundamentals and hardware design: Observations and implications for the design of curriculum and assessment methods Brereton, M., Sheppard, S., Leifer, L. I E E E. 1995: 950-956
  • A KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACH TO MODEL IDEALIZATION IN FEM Prabhakar, V., Sheppard, S. D. I E E E, COMPUTER SOC PRESS. 1994: 488-490
  • ELECTRICAL CONTACT RESISTANCE UNDER HIGH LOADS AND ELEVATED-TEMPERATURES WELDING JOURNAL Vogler, M., Sheppard, S. 1993; 72 (6): S231-S238
  • GROWTH OF SHEAR LIPS IN SURFACE CRACKED SHAFTS SUBJECTED TO FATIGUE LOADING ENGINEERING FRACTURE MECHANICS Thompson, K. D., Sheppard, S. D. 1992; 43 (1): 73-82
  • FATIGUE CRACK-GROWTH IN NOTCHED AND PLAIN SHAFTS SUBJECTED TO TORSION AND AXIAL LOADING ENGINEERING FRACTURE MECHANICS Thompson, K. D., Sheppard, S. D. 1992; 43 (1): 55-71
  • STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS IN SHAFTS SUBJECTED TO TORSION AND AXIAL LOADING ENGINEERING FRACTURE MECHANICS Thompson, K. D., Sheppard, S. D. 1992; 42 (6): 1019-1034
  • FATIGUE LIFE ESTIMATION IN RESISTANCE SPOT WELDS - INITIATION AND EARLY GROWTH-PHASE FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS & STRUCTURES Sheppard, S. D., Strange, M. 1992; 15 (6): 531-549
  • VERIFICATION OF FRACTURE PARAMETER FOR UNCOUPLED THERMOINELASTICITY ENGINEERING FRACTURE MECHANICS Wagner, D. A., Sendeckyj, G. P., Sheppard, S. D. 1992; 42 (3): 461-478
  • FIELD EFFECTS IN FATIGUE CRACK INITIATION - LONG LIFE FATIGUE-STRENGTH JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN Sheppard, S. D. 1991; 113 (2): 188-194
  • THE INFLUENCE OF CRACK FACE FRICTION AND TRAPPED FLUID ON SURFACE INITIATED ROLLING-CONTACT FATIGUE CRACKS JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME Tallian, T. E., Farris, T. N., Sheppard, S. D. 1989; 111 (2): 396-399
  • SUBSURFACE CRACKS UNDER CONDITIONS OF SLIP, STICK, AND SEPARATION CAUSED BY A MOVING COMPRESSIVE LOAD JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME Sheppard, S. D., Barber, J. R., COMNINOU, M. 1987; 54 (2): 393-398
  • SHORT SUBSURFACE CRACKS UNDER CONDITIONS OF SLIP AND STICK CAUSED BY A MOVING COMPRESSIVE LOAD JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME Sheppard, S., Barber, J. R., COMNINOU, M. 1985; 52 (4): 811-817
  • THE SUBSURFACE CRACK UNDER CONDITIONS OF SLIP AND STICK CAUSED BY A SURFACE NORMAL FORCE JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME Chang, F. K., COMNINOU, M., Sheppard, S., Barber, J. R. 1984; 51 (2): 311-316