Simon Chow is the laboratory manager at the Goodman Lab who have obtained his MSc in Biomedical Engineering in 2009 and his PhD in Orthopaedics and Traumatology in 2014. He subsequently served as a Research Assistant Professor at the Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) from 2016 to 2022. Simon has had extensive experience 2005 in musculoskeletal aging related to muscle and bone regeneration; establishment of animal models for orthopaedic research; the role of inflammation in bone regeneration. His expertise extends from in vitro, in vivo pre-clinical studies to surgical and community-based clinical studies with proven published track record.

Current Role at Stanford

Laboratory Manager, Goodman Lab.

Education & Certifications

  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Orthopaedics and Traumatology (2016)
  • PhD, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Orthopaedics and Traumatology (2014)
  • MSc, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Biomedical Engineering (2009)
  • BSc, University of Toronto, Human Biology (2002)

Work Experience

  • Research Assistant Professor, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (9/1/2016 - 8/31/2022)


    Hong Kong

  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. (9/1/2014 - 8/31/2016)


    Hong Kong

  • Research Assistant, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (10/12/2005 - 8/31/2014)


    Hong Kong

Professional Affiliations and Activities

  • Editorial Board Member, Journal of Orthopaedic Research (2021 - Present)
  • Editorial Board Member, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorder (2023 - Present)
  • Editorial Board Member, Scientific Reports (2022 - Present)

All Publications

  • Does Exercise Influence Skeletal Muscle by Modulating Mitochondrial Functions via Regulating MicroRNAs? A Systematic Review. Ageing research reviews Long, Y. F., Chow, S. K., Cui, C., Wong, R. M., Zhang, N., Qin, L., Law, S. W., Cheung, W. H. 2023: 102048


    Sarcopenia is the accelerated loss of muscle mass, strength and function. Mitochondrial dysfunction was related to the progression of sarcopenia; meanwhile, microRNAs were regarded as core roles in regulating mitochondrial function. Physical exercise is a well-accepted approach to attenuate sarcopenia, yet very few studies depict the molecular mechanisms. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the potential relationships among physical exercise, mitochondrial function, and microRNAs, which may give new insight for retarding sarcopenia.A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. The keywords were combined as "(microRNA OR miR) AND mitochondri* AND muscle AND exercise" and searched in all fields. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Information was extracted from the included studies for review.In this review, 18 preclinical studies and 5 clinical studies were included. Most of the included studies suggested that effective physical exercise had positive effects on mitochondrial functions by regulating microRNAs. The results showed that 12 microRNAs improved mitochondrial functions, while 18 microRNAs suppressed them. Meanwhile, the results showed that 5 microRNAs improved muscle performance.This systematic review provides an up-to-date sequential overview and highlights the potential relationship among exercise, mitochondrial function, and microRNAs in muscle. Meanwhile, evidence revealed that physical exercise can improve muscle performance by up-regulating mitochondrial functions, especially mitochondrial biogenesis, through modulating microRNAs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.arr.2023.102048

    View details for PubMedID 37652311

  • Glycolytic reprogramming in macrophages and MSCs during inflammation. Frontiers in immunology Li, X., Shen, H., Zhang, M., Teissier, V., Huang, E. E., Gao, Q., Tsubosaka, M., Toya, M., Kushioka, J., Maduka, C. V., Contag, C. H., Chow, S. K., Zhang, N., Goodman, S. B. 2023; 14: 1199751


    Dysregulated inflammation is associated with many skeletal diseases and disorders, such as osteolysis, non-union of fractures, osteonecrosis, osteoarthritis and orthopaedic infections. We previously showed that continuous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contaminated polyethylene particles (cPE) caused prolonged inflammation and impaired bone formation. However, the metabolic and bioenergetic processes associated with inflammation of bone are unknown. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that modulate cell metabolism and orchestrate the inflammatory responses that involve both resident and recruited cells. Glycolytic reprogramming, the shift from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to glycolysis causes inappropriate cell activation and function, resulting in dysfunctional cellular metabolism. We hypothesized that impaired immunoregulation and bone regeneration from inflammatory states are associated with glycolytic reprogramming and mitochondrial dysfunction in macrophages (Mφ) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs).We used the Seahorse XF96 analyzer and real-time qPCR to study the bioenergetics of Mφ and MSCs exposed to cPE. To understand the oxygen consumption rate (OCR), we used Seahorse XF Cell Mito Stress Test Kit with Seahorse XF96 analyzer. Similarly, Seahorse XF Glycolytic Rate Assay Kit was used to detect the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and Seahorse XF Real-Time ATP Rate Assay kit was used to detect the real-time ATP production rates from OXPHOS and glycolysis. Real-time qPCR was performed to analyze the gene expression of key enzymes in glycolysis and mitochondrial biogenesis. We further detected the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines in Mφ and genes related to cell differentiation in MSC during the challenge of cPE.Our results demonstrated that the oxidative phosphorylation of Mφ exposed to cPE was significantly decreased when compared with the control group. We found reduced basal, maximal and ATP-production coupled respiration rates, and decreased proton leak in Mφ during challenge with cPE. Meanwhile, Mφ showed increased basal glycolysis and proton efflux rates (PER) when exposed to cPE. The percentage (%) of PER from glycolysis was higher in Mφ exposed to cPE, indicating that the contribution of the glycolytic pathway to total extracellular acidification was elevated during the challenge of cPE. In line with the results of OCR and ECAR, we found Mφ during cPE challenge showed higher glycolytic ATP (glycoATP) production rates and lower mitochondrial ATP (mitoATP) production rates which is mainly from OXPHOS. Interestingly, MSCs showed enhanced glycolysis during challenge with cPE, but no significant changes in oxygen consumption rates (OCR). In accordance, seahorse assay of real-time ATP revealed glycoATP rates were elevated while mitoATP rates showed no significant differences in MSC during challenge with cPE. Furthermore, Mφ and MSCs exposed to cPE showed upregulated gene expression levels of glycolytic regulators and Mφ exposed to cPE expressed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.This study demonstrated the dysfunctional bioenergetic activity of bone marrow-derived Mφ and MSCs exposed to cPE, which could impair the immunoregulatory properties of cells in the bone niche. The underlying molecular defect related to disordered mitochondrial function could represent a potential therapeutic target during the resolution of inflammation.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1199751

    View details for PubMedID 37675119

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10477714

  • CCL2 promotes osteogenesis by facilitating macrophage migration during acute inflammation. Frontiers in cell and developmental biology Toya, M., Zhang, N., Tsubosaka, M., Kushioka, J., Gao, Q., Li, X., Chow, S. K., Goodman, S. B. 2023; 11: 1213641


    Novel minimally invasive strategies are needed to obtain robust bone healing in complex fractures and bone defects in the elderly population. Local cell therapy is one potential option for future treatment. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are not only involved in osteogenesis but also help direct the recruitment of macrophages during bone regeneration via MSC-macrophage crosstalk. The C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is an inflammatory chemokine that is associated with the migration of macrophages and MSCs during inflammation. This study investigated the use of CCL2 as a therapeutic target for local cell therapy. MSCs and macrophages were isolated from 10 to 12 week-old BALB/c male mice. Genetically modified CCL2 over-expressing MSCs were produced using murine CCL2-secreting pCDH-CMV-mCCL2-copGFP expressing lentivirus vector. Osteogenic differentiation assays were performed using MSCs with or without macrophages in co-culture. Cell migration assays were also performed. MSCs transfected with murine CCL2-secreting pCDH-CMV-mCCL2-copGFP expressing lentivirus vector showed higher levels of CCL2 secretion compared to unaltered MSCs (p < 0.05). Genetic manipulation did not affect cell proliferation. CCL2 did not affect the osteogenic ability of MSCs alone. However, acute (1 day) but not sustained (7 days) stimulation with CCL2 increased the alizarin red-positive area when MSCs were co-cultured with macrophages (p < 0.001). Both recombinant CCL2 (p < 0.05) and CCL2 released from MSCs (p < 0.05) facilitated macrophage migration. We demonstrated that acute CCL2 stimulation promoted subsequent osteogenesis in co-culture of MSCs and macrophages. Acute CCL2 stimulation potentially facilitates osteogenesis during the acute inflammatory phase of bone healing by directing local macrophage migration, fostering macrophage-MSC crosstalk, and subsequently, by activating or licensing of MSCs by macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokines. The combination of CCL2, MSCs, and macrophages could be a potential strategy for local cell therapy in compromised bone healing.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fcell.2023.1213641

    View details for PubMedID 37457301

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10348816

  • Modulating macrophage polarization for the enhancement of fracture healing, a systematic review. Journal of orthopaedic translation Chow, S. K., Wong, C. H., Cui, C., Li, M. M., Wong, R. M., Cheung, W. H. 2022; 36: 83-90


    All fracture repairs start with the innate immune system with the inflammatory response known as the inflammatory stage guided and driven by the secretion of chemokine by the ruptured tissue, followed by the sequential recruitment of neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. These innate immune cells would infiltrate the fracture site and secrete inflammatory cytokines to stimulate recruitment of more immune cells to arrive at the fracture site coordinating subsequent stages of the repair process. In which, subsidence of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage and transformation to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages promotes osteogenesis that marks the start of the anabolic endochondral stage.Literature search was performed on Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases (last accessed 15th April 2021) using "macrophage AND fracture". Review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline.Eleven pre-clinical animal studies out of 429 articles were included in this systematic review according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of which investigated interventions targeting to modulate the acute inflammatory response and macrophage polarization as evident by various markers in association with fracture healing outcomes.This systematic review summarizes attempts to modulate the innate immune response with focuses on promoting macrophage polarization from M1 to M2 phenotype targeting the enhancement of fracture injury repair. Methods used to achieve the goal may include applications of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) or mechanical stimulation that hold high translational potentials for clinical application in the near future.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/

    View details for PubMedID 35979176

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9364046

  • HR-pQCT for the Evaluation of Muscle Quality and Intramuscular Fat Infiltration in Ageing Skeletal Muscle JOURNAL OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE Chow, S., van Mourik, M., Hung, V., Zhang, N., Li, M., Wong, R., Leung, K., Cheung, W. 2022; 12 (6)


    Myosteatosis is the infiltration of fat in skeletal muscle during the onset of sarcopenia. The quantification of intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) can be a feasible imaging modality for the clinical assessment of myosteatosis, important for the early identification of sarcopenia patients and timely intervention decisions. There is currently no standardized method or consensus for such an application. The aim of this study was to develop a method for the detection and analysis of IMAT in clinical HR-pQCT images of the distal tibia to evaluate skeletal muscle during the ageing process, validated with animal and clinical experimentation. A pre-clinical model of ovariectomized (OVX) rats with known intramuscular fat infiltration was used, where gastrocnemii were scanned by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) at an 8.4 μm isotropic voxel size, and the images were analyzed using our modified IMAT analysis protocol. IMAT, muscle density (MD), and muscle volume (MV) were compared with SHAM controls validated with Oil-red-O (ORO) staining. Furthermore, the segmentation and IMAT evaluation method was applied to 30 human subjects at ages from 18 to 81 (mean = 47.3 ± 19.2). Muscle-related parameters were analyzed with functional outcomes. In the animal model, the micro-CT adipose tissue-related parameter of IMAT% segmented at -600 HU to 100 HU was shown to strongly associate with the ORO-positively stained area (r = 0.898, p = 0.002). For the human subjects, at an adjusted threshold of -600 to -20 HU, moderate positive correlations were found between MV and MD (r = 0.642, p < 0.001), and between MV and IMAT volume (r = 0.618, p < 0.01). Moderate negative correlations were detected between MD and IMAT% (r = -0.640, p < 0.001). Strong and moderate associations were found between age and MD (r = -0.763, p < 0.01), and age and IMAT (r = 0.559, p < 0.01). There was also a strong correlation between IMAT% and chair rise time (r = 0.671, p < 0.01). The proposed HR-pQCT evaluation protocol for intramuscular adipose-tissue produced MD and IMAT results that were associated with age and physical performance measures, and were of good predictive value for the progression of myosteatosis or sarcopenia. The protocol was also validated on animal skeletal muscle samples that showed a good representation of histological lipid content with positive correlations, further supporting the clinical application for the rapid evaluation of muscle quality and objective quantification of skeletal muscle at the peripheral for sarcopenia assessment.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/jpm12061016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000819086000001

    View details for PubMedID 35743800

  • Diagnosis of sarcopenia by evaluating skeletal muscle mass by adjusted bioimpedance analysis validated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle Cheng, K. Y., Chow, S. K., Hung, V. W., Wong, C. H., Wong, R. M., Tsang, C. S., Kwok, T., Cheung, W. H. 2021; 12 (6): 2163-2173


    This study aimed to adjust and cross-validate skeletal muscle mass measurements between bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the screening of sarcopenia in the community and to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia in Hong Kong.Screening of sarcopenia was provided to community-dwelling older adults. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was evaluated by BIA (InBody 120 or 720) and/or DXA. Handgrip strength and/or gait speed were assessed. Diagnosis of sarcopenia was based on the 2019 revised Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia cut-offs. Agreement analysis was performed to cross-validate ASM measurements by BIA and DXA. Multiple regression was used to explore contribution of measured parameters in predicting DXA ASM from BIA.A total of 1587 participants (age = 72 ± 12 years) were recruited; 1065 participants were screened by BIA (InBody 120) with 18 followed up by DXA, while the remaining 522 participants were assessed by the BIA (InBody 720) and DXA. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) evaluated by BIA showed a mean difference of 2.89 ± 0.38 kg/m2 (InBody 120) and 2.97 ± 0.45 kg/m2 (InBody 720) against DXA gold standard. A significant overestimation of muscle mass was measured by BIA compared with DXA (P < 0.005). BIA data were adjusted using prediction equation and mean difference reduced to -0.02 ± 0.31 kg/m2 in cross-validation. Prevalence of sarcopenia in older adults ≥65 ranged from 39.4% (based on ASMI by DXA) to 40.8% (based on predicted DXA ASMI from BIA). Low ASMI by DXA was found in 68.5% of the older adults screened. The percentage of older adults exhibited low handgrip strength ranged from 31.3% to 56%, while 49% showed low gait speed.Bioimpedance analysis was found to overestimate skeletal muscle mass compared with DXA. With adjustment equations, BIA can be used as a quick and reliable tool for screening sarcopenia in community and clinical settings with limited access to better options.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jcsm.12825

    View details for PubMedID 34609065

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8718029

  • Acute Inflammatory Response in Osteoporotic Fracture Healing Augmented with Mechanical Stimulation is Regulated In Vivo through the p38-MAPK Pathway. International journal of molecular sciences Chow, S. K., Cui, C., Cheng, K. Y., Chim, Y. N., Wang, J., Wong, C. H., Ng, K. W., Wong, R. M., Cheung, W. H. 2021; 22 (16)


    Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) has previously been reported to modulate the acute inflammatory response of ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture healing. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of LMHFV on the inflammatory response and the role of the p38 MAPK mechanical signaling pathway in macrophages during the healing process. A closed femoral fracture SD rat model was used. In vivo results showed that LMHFV enhanced activation of the p38 MAPK pathway at the fracture site. The acute inflammatory response, expression of inflammatory cytokines, and callus formation were suppressed in vivo by p38 MAPK inhibition. However, LMHFV did not show direct in vitro enhancement effects on the polarization of RAW264.7 macrophage from the M1 to M2 phenotype, but instead promoted macrophage enlargement and transformation to dendritic monocytes. The present study demonstrated that p38 MAPK modulated the enhancement effects of mechanical stimulation in vivo only. LMHFV may not have exerted its enhancement effects directly on macrophage, but the exact mechanism may have taken a different pathway that requires further investigation in the various subsets of immune cells.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ijms22168720

    View details for PubMedID 34445423

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8395718

  • Inflammatory response in postmenopausal osteoporotic fracture healing. Bone & joint research Chow, S. K., Chim, Y. N., Wang, J. Y., Wong, R. M., Choy, V. M., Cheung, W. H. 2020; 9 (7): 368-385


    A balanced inflammatory response is important for successful fracture healing. The response of osteoporotic fracture healing is deranged and an altered inflammatory response can be one underlying cause. The objectives of this review were to compare the inflammatory responses between normal and osteoporotic fractures and to examine the potential effects on different healing outcomes. A systematic literature search was conducted with relevant keywords in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science independently. Original preclinical studies and clinical studies involving the investigation of inflammatory response in fracture healing in ovariectomized (OVX) animals or osteoporotic/elderly patients with available full text and written in English were included. In total, 14 articles were selected. Various inflammatory factors were reported; of those tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 are two commonly studied markers. Preclinical studies showed that OVX animals generally demonstrated higher systemic inflammatory response and poorer healing outcomes compared to normal controls (SHAM). However, it is inconclusive if the local inflammatory response is higher or lower in OVX animals. As for clinical studies, they mainly examine the temporal changes of the inflammatory stage or perform comparison between osteoporotic/fragility fracture patients and normal subjects without fracture. Our review of these studies emphasizes the lack of understanding that inflammation plays in the altered fracture healing response of osteoporotic/elderly patients. Taken together, it is clear that additional studies, preclinical and clinical, are required to dissect the regulatory role of inflammatory response in osteoporotic fracture healing. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2020;9(7):368-385.

    View details for DOI 10.1302/2046-3758.97.BJR-2019-0300.R2

    View details for PubMedID 32793332

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7393186

  • Vibration and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate treatment suppresses intramuscular fat infiltration and adipogenic differentiation in sarcopenic mice. Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle Wang, J., Cui, C., Chim, Y. N., Yao, H., Shi, L., Xu, J., Wang, J., Wong, R. M., Leung, K. S., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H. 2020; 11 (2): 564-577


    Sarcopenia is an aging-induced deterioration of skeletal muscle mass and function. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) was shown to improve muscle functions and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) to increase muscle mass and strength. Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) are progenitor cells important for muscle regeneration. We hypothesized that LMHFV and HMB could retard sarcopenia by reducing fat infiltration through inhibiting adipogenesis in MDSCs.Senescence-accelerated mouse P8 male mice were randomized into control (CTL), HMB, LMHFV (VIB), and combined (COM) groups. Interventions started at age of month 7 and assessed at 1, 2, and 3 months post-intervention by densitometry, histology, and functional tests. In vitro, MDSCs isolated from gastrocnemius of senescence-accelerated mouse P8 mice were characterized, randomized into CTL, VIB, HMB, and COM groups, and assessed by oil red O staining, mRNA, and protein expression.At 2 months post-intervention, percentage lean mass of HMB, VIB, and COM groups were significantly higher than CTL group. Twitch, tetanic, and specific tetanic forces of COM group were higher, while specific twitch force of both VIB and COM groups were higher. Grip strength of HMB, VIB, and COM groups were higher. Histologically, both VIB and COM groups presented lower oil red O area than CTL group. Type I muscle fibre in CTL group was higher than HMB, VIB, and COM groups. MDSC were detected in situ by immunofluorescence stain with stem cell antigen-1 signals confirmed with higher β-catenin expression in the COM group. The observations were also confirmed in vitro, MDSCs in the HMB, VIB, and COM groups presented lower adipogenesis vs. the CTL group. β-Catenin mRNA and protein expressions were lower in the CTL group while their relationship was further validated through β-catenin knock-down approach.Our results showed that combined LMHFV and HMB interventions enhanced muscle strength and decreased percentage fat mass and intramuscular fat infiltration as compared with either treatment alone. Additive effect of LMHFV and HMB was demonstrated in β-catenin expression than either treatment in MDSCs and altered cell fate from adipogenesis to myogenesis, leading to inhibition of intramuscular lipid accumulation. Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway was found to be the predominant regulatory mechanism through which LMHFV and HMB combined treatment suppressed MDSCs adipogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jcsm.12535

    View details for PubMedID 31994349

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7113529

  • Prevention of age-related neuromuscular junction degeneration in sarcopenia by low-magnitude high-frequency vibration. Aging cell Bao, Z., Cui, C., Liu, C., Long, Y., Wong, R. M., Chai, S., Qin, L., Rubin, C., Yip, B. H., Xu, Z., Jiang, Q., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H. 2024: e14156


    Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) degeneration is one of pathological factors of sarcopenia. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) was reported effective in alleviating the sarcopenia progress. However, no previous study has investigated treatment effects of LMHFV targeting NMJ degeneration in sarcopenia. We first compared morphological differences of NMJ between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic subjects, as well as young and old C57BL/6 mice. We then systematically characterized the age-related degeneration of NMJ in SAMP8 against its control strain, SAMR1 mice, from 3 to 12 months old. We also investigated effects of LMHFV in SAMP8 on the maintenance of NMJ during the onset of sarcopenia with respect to the Agrin-LRP4-MuSK-Dok7 pathway and investigated the mechanism related to ERK1/2 signaling. We observed sarcopenic/old NMJ presented increased acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) cluster fragmentation and discontinuity than non-sarcopenic/young NMJ. In SAMP8, NMJ degeneration (morphologically at 6 months and functionally at 8 months) was observed associated with the sarcopenia onset (10 months). SAMR1 showed improved NMJ morphology and function compared with SAMP8 at 10 months. Skeletal muscle performance was improved at Month 4 post-LMHFV treatment. Vibration group presented improved NMJ function at Months 2 and 6 posttreatment, accompanied with alleviated morphological degeneration at Month 4 posttreatment. LMHFV increased Dok7 expression at Month 4 posttreatment. In vitro, LMHFV could promote AChRs clustering in myotubes by increasing Dok7 expression through suppressing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, NMJ degeneration was observed associated with the sarcopenia onset in SAMP8. LMHFV may attenuate NMJ degeneration and sarcopenia progression by increasing Dok7 expression through suppressing ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/acel.14156

    View details for PubMedID 38532712

  • Correction: Pius et al. Effects of Aging on Osteosynthesis at Bone-Implant Interfaces. Biomolecules 2024, 14, 52. Biomolecules Pius, A. K., Toya, M., Gao, Q., Lee, M. L., Ergul, Y. S., Chow, S. K., Goodman, S. B. 2024; 14 (3)


    Max L. Lee was not included as an author in the original publication [...].

    View details for DOI 10.3390/biom14030340

    View details for PubMedID 38540803

  • Sex differences of NF-κB-targeted therapy for mitigating osteoporosis associated with chronic inflammation of bone. Bone & joint research Toya, M., Kushioka, J., Shen, H., Utsunomiya, T., Hirata, H., Tsubosaka, M., Gao, Q., Chow, S. K., Zhang, N., Goodman, S. B. 2024; 13 (1): 28-39


    Transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases in all organ systems. Despite its importance, NF-κB targeted drug therapy to mitigate chronic inflammation has had limited success in preclinical studies. We hypothesized that sex differences affect the response to NF-κB treatment during chronic inflammation in bone. This study investigated the therapeutic effects of NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) during chronic inflammation in male and female mice.We used a murine model of chronic inflammation induced by continuous intramedullary delivery of lipopolysaccharide-contaminated polyethylene particles (cPE) using an osmotic pump. Specimens were evaluated using micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses. Sex-specific osteogenic and osteoclastic differentiation potentials were also investigated in vitro, including alkaline phosphatase, Alizarin Red, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and gene expression using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Local delivery of NF-κB decoy ODN in vivo increased osteogenesis in males, but not females, in the presence of chronic inflammation induced by cPE. Bone resorption activity was decreased in both sexes. In vitro osteogenic and osteoclastic differentiation assays during inflammatory conditions did not reveal differences among the groups. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa Β ligand (Rankl) gene expression by osteoblasts was significantly decreased only in males when treated with ODN.We demonstrated that NF-κB decoy ODN increased osteogenesis in male mice and decreased bone resorption activity in both sexes in preclinical models of chronic inflammation. NF-κB signalling could be a therapeutic target for chronic inflammatory diseases involving bone, especially in males.

    View details for DOI 10.1302/2046-3758.131.BJR-2023-0040.R3

    View details for PubMedID 38194999

  • Biophysical and nutritional combination treatment for myosteatosis in patients with sarcopenia: a study protocol for single-blinded randomised controlled trial. BMJ open Li, M. C., Cheng, Y. K., Cui, C., Chow, S. K., Wong, R. M., Kwok, T. C., Siu, P. M., Yang, M., Tian, M., Rubin, C., Welch, A. A., Qin, L., Law, S. W., Cheung, W. H. 2024; 14 (1): e074858


    Sarcopenia is characterised by age-related loss of skeletal muscle and function and is associated with risks of adverse outcomes. The prevalence of sarcopenia increases due to ageing population and effective interventions is in need. Previous studies showed that β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplement and vibration treatment (VT) enhanced muscle quality, while the coapplication of the two interventions had further improved muscle mass and function in sarcopenic mice model. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of this combination treatment in combating sarcopenia in older people. The findings of this study will demonstrate the effect of combination treatment as an alternative for managing sarcopenia.In this single-blinded randomised controlled trial, subjects will be screened based on the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) 2019 definition. 200 subjects who are aged 65 or above and identified sarcopenic according to the AWGS algorithm will be recruited. They will be randomised to one of the following four groups: (1) Control+ONS; (2) HMB+ONS; (3) VT+ONS and (4) HMB+VT + ONS, where ONS stands for oral nutritional supplement. ONS will be taken in the form of protein formular once/day; HMB supplements will be 3 g/day; VT (35 Hz, 0.3 g, where g=gravitational acceleration) will be received for 20 mins/day and at least 3 days/week. The primary outcome assessments are muscle strength and function. Subjects will be assessed at baseline, 3-month and 6-month post treatment.This study was approved by Joint CUHK-NTEC (The Chinese University of Hong Kong and New Territories East Cluster) Clinical Research Management Office (Ref: CRE-2022.223-T) and conformed to the Declaration of Helsinki. Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated at academic conferences.NCT05525039.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-074858

    View details for PubMedID 38176874

  • Preclinical models for studying corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials Tsubosaka, M., Maruyama, M., Lui, E., Kushioka, J., Toya, M., Gao, Q., Shen, H., Li, X., Chow, S. K., Zhang, N., Yang, Y. P., Goodman, S. B. 2024; 112 (1): e35360


    Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a refractory condition that commonly results in femoral head collapse and degenerative arthritis of the hip. In the early stages, surgical procedures for hip preservation, including core decompression (CD), have been developed to prevent progressive collapse of the femoral head. Optimization of bone regeneration and biological augmentation may further enhance the therapeutic efficacy of CD for ONFH. Thus, combining CD with cell-based therapy has recently been proposed. In fact, patients treated with cell-based therapy using autologous bone marrow concentrate demonstrate improved survivorship of the femoral head, compared with conventional CD alone. Preclinical research studies to investigate adjunctive therapies for CD often utilize the rabbit model of corticosteroid-induced ONFH. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis, and decrease inflammation in bone. Local drug delivery systems have the potential to achieve targeted therapeutic effects by precisely controlling the drug release rate. Scaffolds can provide an osteoconductive structural framework to facilitate the repair of osteonecrotic bone tissue. We focused on the combination of both cell-based and scaffold-based therapies for bone tissue regeneration in ONFH. We hypothesized that combining CD and osteoconductive scaffolds would provide mechanical strength and structural cell guidance; and that combining CD and genetically modified (GM) MSCs to express relevant cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors would promote bone tissue repair. We developed GM MSCs that overexpress the anti-inflammatory, pro-reconstructive cytokines platelet-derived growth factor-BB to provide MSCs with additional benefits and investigated the efficacy of combinations of these GM MSCs and scaffolds for treatment of ONFH in skeletally mature male New Zealand white rabbits. In the future, the long-term safety, efficacy, durability, and cost-effectiveness of these and other biological and mechanical treatments must be demonstrated for the patients affected by ONFH.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbm.b.35360

    View details for PubMedID 38247252

  • Preclinical models for studying corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH PART B-APPLIED BIOMATERIALS Tsubosaka, M., Maruyama, M., Lui, E., Kushioka, J., Toya, M., Gao, Q., Shen, H., Li, X., Chow, S., Zhang, N., Yang, Y., Goodman, S. B. 2024; 112 (1)
  • Effects of Aging on Osteosynthesis at Bone-Implant Interfaces. Biomolecules Pius, A. K., Toya, M., Gao, Q., Ergul, Y. S., Chow, S. K., Goodman, S. B. 2023; 14 (1)


    Joint replacement is a common surgery and is predominantly utilized for treatment of osteoarthritis in the aging population. The longevity of many of these implants depends on bony ingrowth. Here, we provide an overview of current techniques in osteogenesis (inducing bone growth onto an implant), which is affected by aging and inflammation. In this review we cover the biologic underpinnings of these processes as well as the clinical applications. Overall, aging has a significant effect at the cellular and macroscopic level that impacts osteosynthesis at bone-metal interfaces after joint arthroplasty; potential solutions include targeting prolonged inflammation, preventing microbial adhesion, and enhancing osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/biom14010052

    View details for PubMedID 38254652

  • C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2 Enhances Macrophage Chemotaxis, Osteogenesis, and Angiogenesis during the Inflammatory Phase of Bone Regeneration. Biomolecules Shinohara, I., Tsubosaka, M., Toya, M., Lee, M. L., Kushioka, J., Murayama, M., Gao, Q., Li, X., Zhang, N., Chow, S. K., Matsumoto, T., Kuroda, R., Goodman, S. B. 2023; 13 (11)


    Local cell therapy has recently gained attention for the treatment of joint diseases and fractures. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are not only involved in osteogenesis and angiogenesis, but they also have immunomodulatory functions, such as inducing macrophage migration during bone regeneration via macrophage crosstalk. C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), a known inflammatory mediator, is associated with the migration of macrophages during inflammation. This study examined the utility of CCL2 as a therapeutic target for local cell therapy. Using lentiviral vectors for rabbit MSCs, genetically modified CCL2 overexpressing MSCs were generated. Osteogenic differentiation assays were performed using MSCs with or without macrophages in co-culture, and cell migration assays were also performed. Additionally, co-cultures were performed with endothelial cells (ECs), and angiogenesis was evaluated using a tube formation assay. Overexpression of CCL2 did not affect bone formation under monoculture conditions but promoted chemotaxis and osteogenesis when co-cultured with macrophages. Furthermore, CCL2-overexpression promoted tube formation in co-culture with ECs. These results suggest that CCL2 induces macrophage chemotaxis and osteogenesis by promoting crosstalk between MSCs and macrophages; CCL2 also stimulates ECs to induce angiogenesis. These findings indicate that CCL2 may be a useful therapeutic target for local cell therapy in areas of bone loss.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/biom13111665

    View details for PubMedID 38002347

  • Vibration Therapy as an Intervention for Enhancing Trochanteric Hip Fracture Healing in Elderly Patients: A Randomized Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial Wong, R., Chung, Y., Wong, H., Wong, P., Tang, N., Tso, C., Griffith, J., Liu, W., Ng, R., Chow, S., Cheung, W. MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC. 2023
  • Hydrogel Delivery of Liposomal-Vancomycin and DNase I to Eradicate Fracture-related Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection and Support Osteoporotic Fracture Healing Wong, R., Li, J., Chung, Y., Ip, M., Rupp, M., Alt, V., Yee, S., Leung, S., Chui, C., Chow, S., Cheung, W. MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC. 2023
  • Bone regeneration in inflammation with aging and cell-based immunomodulatory therapy. Inflammation and regeneration Kushioka, J., Chow, S. K., Toya, M., Tsubosaka, M., Shen, H., Gao, Q., Li, X., Zhang, N., Goodman, S. B. 2023; 43 (1): 29


    Aging of the global population increases the incidence of osteoporosis and associated fragility fractures, significantly impacting patient quality of life and healthcare costs. The acute inflammatory reaction is essential to initiate healing after injury. However, aging is associated with "inflammaging", referring to the presence of systemic low-level chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation impairs the initiation of bone regeneration in elderly patients. This review examines current knowledge of the bone regeneration process and potential immunomodulatory therapies to facilitate bone healing in inflammaging.Aged macrophages show increased sensitivity and responsiveness to inflammatory signals. While M1 macrophages are activated during the acute inflammatory response, proper resolution of the inflammatory phase involves repolarizing pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype associated with tissue regeneration. In aging, persistent chronic inflammation resulting from the failure of M1 to M2 repolarization leads to increased osteoclast activation and decreased osteoblast formation, thus increasing bone resorption and decreasing bone formation during healing.Inflammaging can impair the ability of stem cells to support bone regeneration and contributes to the decline in bone mass and strength that occurs with aging. Therefore, modulating inflammaging is a promising approach for improving bone health in the aging population. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties that may benefit bone regeneration in inflammation. Preconditioning MSCs with pro-inflammatory cytokines affects MSCs' secretory profile and osteogenic ability. MSCs cultured under hypoxic conditions show increased proliferation rates and secretion of growth factors. Resolution of inflammation via local delivery of anti-inflammatory cytokines is also a potential therapy for bone regeneration in inflammaging. Scaffolds containing anti-inflammatory cytokines, unaltered MSCs, and genetically modified MSCs can also have therapeutic potential. MSC exosomes can increase the migration of MSCs to the fracture site and enhance osteogenic differentiation and angiogenesis.In conclusion, inflammaging can impair the proper initiation of bone regeneration in the elderly. Modulating inflammaging is a promising approach for improving compromised bone healing in the aging population.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s41232-023-00279-1

    View details for PubMedID 37231450

    View details for PubMedCentralID 2880220

  • Sarcopenia and Ageing. Sub-cellular biochemistry Cheng, K. Y., Bao, Z., Long, Y., Liu, C., Huang, T., Cui, C., Chow, S. K., Wong, R. M., Cheung, W. H. 2023; 103: 95-120


    Musculoskeletal ageing is a major health challenge as muscles and bones constitute around 55-60% of body weight. Ageing muscles will result in sarcopenia that is characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes. In recent years, a few consensus panels provide new definitions for sarcopenia. It was officially recognized as a disease in 2016 with an ICD-10-CM disease code, M62.84, in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). With the new definitions, there are many studies emerging to investigate the pathogenesis of sarcopenia, exploring new interventions to treat sarcopenia and evaluating the efficacy of combination treatments for sarcopenia. The scope of this chapter is to summarize and appraise the evidence in terms of (1) clinical signs, symptoms, screening, and diagnosis, (2) pathogenesis of sarcopenia with emphasis on mitochondrial dysfunction, intramuscular fat infiltration and neuromuscular junction deterioration, and (3) current treatments with regard to physical exercises and nutritional supplement.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/978-3-031-26576-1_6

    View details for PubMedID 37120466

  • Hydrogel Delivery of DNase I and Liposomal Vancomycin to Eradicate Fracture-related Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection and Support Osteoporotic Fracture Healing. Acta biomaterialia Li, J., Leung, S. Y., Chung, Y. L., Chow, S. K., Alt, V., Rupp, M., Brochausen, C., Chui, C. S., Ip, M., Cheung, W. H., Wong, R. M. 2023


    Fracture-related infection (FRI) is a devastating complication in orthopedic surgery. A recent study showed that FRI causes more severe infection and further delays healing in osteoporotic bone. Moreover, bacterial biofilm formed on implants cannot be eradicated by systemic antibiotics, warranting novel treatments. Here, we developed a DNase I and Vancomycin hydrogel delivery vehicle to eradicate Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in vivo. Vancomycin was encapsulated in liposomes, and DNase I and Vancomycin/liposomal-Vancomycin was loaded on thermosensitive hydrogel. In vitro drug release test showed a burst release of DNase I (77.2%) within 72 hours and sustained release of Vancomycin (82.6%) up to day 14. The in vivo efficacy was evaluated in a clinically relevant ovariectomy (OVX) induced osteoporotic metaphyseal fracture model with MRSA infection, and a total of 120 Sprague Dawley rats were used. In the OVX with infection group, biofilm development caused a drastic inflammatory response, trabecular bone destruction, and non-union. In the DNase I and Vancomycin co-delivery hydrogel group (OVX-Inf-DVG), bacteria on bone and implant were eradicated. X-ray and micro-CT showed preservation of trabecular bone and bone union. HE staining showed the absence of inflammatory necrosis, and fracture healing was restored. The local elevation of TNF-α and IL-6 and increased number of osteoclasts were prevented in the OVX-Inf-DVG group. Our findings suggest that dual release of DNase I and Vancomycin initially followed by Vancomycin only later up to 14 days effectively eliminates MRSA infection, prevents biofilm development and provides a sterile environment to promote fracture healing in osteoporotic bone with FRI. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The biofilm formation on the implant is difficult to eradicate, causing recurrent infection and non-union in fracture-related infection (FRI). Here we developed a hydrogel therapy with high in vivo efficacy to eliminate MRSA biofilm infection in a clinically-relevant FRI model in osteoporotic bone. By loading DNase I and vancomycin/liposomal-vancomycin on thermosensitive poly-(DL-lactic acidco-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-PLGA hydrogel, a dual release of DNase I and Vancomycin was achieved whilst preserving enzyme activity. In this model, the progressive development of infection caused a drastic inflammatory response, osteoclastogenesis, trabecular bone destruction, and non-union of fracture. These pathological changes were successfully prevented by the dual delivery of DNase I and vancomycin. Our findings provide a promising strategy for FRI in osteoporotic bone.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.actbio.2023.03.044

    View details for PubMedID 37019168

  • The role of obesity in sarcopenia and the optimal body composition to prevent against sarcopenia and obesity. Frontiers in endocrinology Liu, C., Cheng, K. Y., Tong, X., Cheung, W. H., Chow, S. K., Law, S. W., Wong, R. M. 2023; 14: 1077255


    Elderly people with low lean and high fat mass, are diagnosed with sarcopenic obesity (SO), and often have poor clinical outcomes. This study aimed to explore the relationship between obesity and sarcopenia, and the optimal proportion of fat and muscle for old individuals.Participants aged 60 years or above were instructed to perform bioelectrical impedance analysis to obtain the muscle and fat indicators, and handgrip strength was also performed. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to predicted appendicular skeletal muscle mass and function. Body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) were used to define obesity. The association of muscle and fat indicators were analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Pearson Chi-Square test was utilized to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) on the risk of sarcopenia according to obesity status.1637 old subjects (74.8 ± 7.8 years) participated in this study. Not only fat mass, but also muscle indicators were positively correlated to BMI and body weight (p < 0.05). Absolute muscle and fat mass in different positions had positive associations (p < 0.05). Muscle mass and strength were negatively related to appendicular fat mass percentage (p < 0.05). When defined by BMI (OR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.56, 0.86]; p = 0.001), obesity was a protective factor for sarcopenia, whilst it was a risk factor when using BF% (OR = 1.38, 95% CI [1.13, 1.69]; p = 0.002) as the definition. The risk of sarcopenia reduced with the increase of BMI in both genders. It was increased with raised BF% in males but displayed a U-shaped curve for females. BF% 26.0-34.6% in old females and lower than 23.9% in old males are recommended for sarcopenia and obesity prevention.Skeletal muscle mass had strong positive relationship with absolute fat mass but negative associations with the percentage of appendicular fat mass. Obesity was a risk factor of sarcopenia when defined by BF% instead of BMI. The management of BF% can accurately help elderly people prevent against both sarcopenia and obesity.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fendo.2023.1077255

    View details for PubMedID 36936175

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10016224

  • Deciphering the "obesity paradox" in the elderly: A systematic review and meta-analysis of sarcopenic obesity. Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity Liu, C., Wong, P. Y., Chung, Y. L., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H., Law, S. W., Chan, J. C., Wong, R. M. 2023; 24 (2): e13534


    Aging and obesity are two global concerns in public health. Sarcopenic obesity (SO), defined as the combination of age-related sarcopenia and obesity, has become a pressing issue. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarize the current clinical evidence relevant to SO. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched, and 106 clinical studies with 167,151 elderlies were included. The estimated prevalence of SO was 9% in both men and women. Obesity was associated with 34% reduced risk of sarcopenia (odds ratio [OR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.48-0.91; p < 0.001). The pooled hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality was 1.51 (95% CI 1.14-2.02; p < 0.001) for people with SO compared with healthy individuals. SO was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and related mortality, metabolic disorders, cognitive impairment, arthritis, functional limitation, and lung diseases (all ORs > 1.0, p < 0.05). The attenuated risk of sarcopenia in elderlies with obesity ("obesity paradox") was dependent on higher muscle mass and strength. Apart from unifying the diagnosis of SO, more research is needed to subphenotype people with obesity and sarcopenia for individualized treatment. Meanwhile, the maintenance of proper body composition of muscle and fat may delay or attenuate the adverse outcomes of aging.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/obr.13534

    View details for PubMedID 36443946

  • Does the regulation of skeletal muscle influence cognitive function? A scoping review of pre-clinical evidence. Journal of orthopaedic translation Liu, C., Wong, P. Y., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H., Wong, R. M. 2023; 38: 76-83


    Cognitive impairment is a major challenge for elderlies, as it can progress in a rapid manner and effective treatments are limited. Sarcopenic elderlies have a higher risk of dementia. This scoping review aims to reveal whether muscle is a mediator of cognitive function from pre-clinical evidence.PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched to Feb 2nd, 2022, using the keywords (muscle) AND (cognition OR dementia OR Alzheimer) AND (mouse OR rat OR animal). The PRISMA guideline was used in this study.A total of 17 pre-clinical studies were selected from 7638 studies. 4 studies reported that muscle atrophy and injury harmed memory, functional factors, and neurons in the brain for rodents with or without Alzheimer's disease (AD). 3 studies observed exercise induced muscle to secrete factors, including lactate, fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), and cathepsin B, which plays essential roles in the elevation of cognitive functions and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Muscle-targeted treatments including electrical stimulation and intramuscular injections had effective remote effects on the hippocampus. 6 studies showed that muscle-specific overexpression of scFv59 and Neprilysin, or myostatin knockdown alleviated AD symptoms. 1 study showed that muscle insulin resistance also led to deficient hippocampal neurogenesis in MKR mice.The skeletal muscle is involved in the mediation of cognitive function. The evidence was established by the response in the brain (altered number of neurons, functional factors, and other AD pathological characteristics) with muscle atrophy or injury, muscle secretory factors, and muscle-targeted treatments.This study summarizes the current evidence in how muscle affects cognition in molecular levels, which supports muscle-specific treatments as potential clinical strategies to prevent cognitive dysfunction.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/

    View details for PubMedID 36381246

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9619139

  • The imminent risk of a fracture-existing worldwide data: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA Wong, R. M., Wong, P. Y., Liu, C., Wong, H. W., Chung, Y. L., Chow, S. K., Law, S. W., Cheung, W. H. 2022; 33 (12): 2453-2466


    The overall incidence of imminent fracture after a prior fragility fracture was 7.58% in the first year and 11.58% in the first 2 years. Approximately half of re-fractures occurred in the first 2 years after a fragility fracture. Older patients that have suffered from a fragility fracture should be treated promptly, with immediate care and a secondary fracture prevention to prevent the high imminent risk of a fracture.Imminent fractures refer to the fractures that occur within 2 years of an initial fracture. It is well known that the risk of a subsequent fracture is not constant with time and occurs shortly after the initial one. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to present the existing data on imminent fracture worldwide.Literature search was conducted in Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases until 26 October 2021 for studies reporting the incidence of imminent osteoporotic fractures among people aged 50 years or older. The overall incidence of imminent fracture was pooled and subgroup analyses of index fracture sites and regions on incidence of imminent fracture were performed, with the 95% confidence interval (CI) being calculated. Percentage of imminent fracture occurring in follow-up period was calculated and pooled by meta-analysis. Hazard ratio (HR) was used to estimate the gender differences on the imminent risk of fracture.A total of 1446 articles were identified. Nineteen observational studies were eligible for our systematic review, in which 18 were used for quantitative analysis. Pooled overall incidence of imminent fracture in the first year after an osteoporotic fracture was 7.58% (95% CI 5.84 to 9.31%) and cumulative incidence in the first 2 years was 11.58% (95% CI 8.94 to 14.21%). Subgroup analysis showed that in the first 2 years, the pooled incidence in Asia was 7.30% (95% CI 3.42 to 11.18%), whilst incidence in Europe/North America was 13.17% (95% CI 10.14 to 16.20%). In included studies with follow-up period of more than 5 years, pooled imminent fracture percentage in the first 2 years was 47.24% (95% CI 26.18 to 68.30%). Hazard ratio (HR) on gender showed that women had an overall slight increase in risk of imminent fractures (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.25).The incidence of imminent fracture is high globally at 11.58%. Approximately half of all refractures occur in the first 2 years after an index fragility fracture. Older patients that have suffered from a fragility fracture should be treated promptly. Also, immediate care and secondary fracture prevention are necessary to prevent the high imminent risk of a fracture, especially within the first 2 years.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00198-022-06473-0

    View details for PubMedID 35776148

    View details for PubMedCentralID 8325652

  • Recommendations on the post-acute management of the osteoporotic fracture - Patients with "very-high" Re-fracture risk. Journal of orthopaedic translation Wong, R. M., Cheung, W. H., Chow, S. K., Ng, R. W., Li, W., Hsu, A. Y., Wong, K. K., Ho, A. W., Choi, S. H., Fang, C. X., Chan, C. F., Leung, K. H., Chu, K. K., Kwok, T. C., Yang, M. H., Tian, M., Law, S. W. 2022; 37: 94-99


    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease where there is low bone mass and deterioration of bone microarchitecture, leading to an increased risk of a fragility fracture. The aim of this clinical guideline from Fragility Fracture Network Hong Kong SAR, is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the post-acute treatment of the osteoporotic fracture patient that presents for clinical care at the Fracture Liaison Service (FLS). It is now well established that the incidence of a second fracture is especially high after the first 2 years of the initial osteoporotic fracture. Therefore, the recent osteoporotic fracture should be categorized as "very-high" re-fracture risk. Due to the significant number of silent vertebral fractures in the elderly population, it is also recommended that vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) should be incorporated into FLS. This would have diagnostic and treatment implications for the osteoporotic fracture patient. The use of a potent anti-osteoporotic agent, and preferably an anabolic followed by an anti-resorptive agent should be considered, as larger improvements in BMD is strongly associated with a reduction in fractures. Managing other risk factors including falls and sarcopenia are imperative during rehabilitation and prevention of another fracture. Although of low incidence, one should remain vigilant of the atypical femoral fracture. The aging population is increasing worldwide, and it is expected that the treatment of osteoporotic fractures will be routine. The recommendations are anticipated to aid in the daily clinical practice for clinicians.Fragility fractures have become a common encounter in clinical practise in the hospital setting. This article provides recommendations on the post-acute management of fragility fracture patients at the FLS.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/

    View details for PubMedID 36262963

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9562437

  • Coapplication of Magnesium Supplementation and Vibration Modulate Macrophage Polarization to Attenuate Sarcopenic Muscle Atrophy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway. International journal of molecular sciences Cui, C., Bao, Z., Chow, S. K., Wong, R. M., Welch, A., Qin, L., Cheung, W. H. 2022; 23 (21)


    Sarcopenia is an age-related geriatric syndrome characterized by the gradual loss of muscle mass and function. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) was shown to be beneficial to structural and functional outcomes of skeletal muscles, while magnesium (Mg) is a cofactor associated with better indices of skeletal muscle mass and strength. We hypothesized that LMHFV, Mg and their combinations could suppress inflammation and sarcopenic atrophy, promote myogenesis via PI3k/Akt/mTOR pathway in senescence-accelerated mouse P8 (SAMP8) mice and C2C12 myoblasts. Results showed that Mg treatment and LMHFV could significantly decrease inflammatory expression (C/EBPα and LYVE1) and modulate a CD206-positive M2 macrophage population at month four. Mg treatment also showed significant inhibitory effects on FOXO3, MuRF1 and MAFbx mRNA expression. Coapplication showed a synergistic effect on suppression of type I fiber atrophy, with significantly higher IGF-1, MyoD, MyoG mRNA (p < 0.05) and pAkt protein expression (p < 0.0001) during sarcopenia. In vitro inhibition of PI3K/Akt and mTOR abolished the enhancement effects on myotube formation and inhibited MRF mRNA and p85, Akt, pAkt and mTOR protein expressions. The present study demonstrated that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is the predominant regulatory mechanism through which LMHFV and Mg enhanced muscle regeneration and suppressed atrogene upregulation.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ijms232112944

    View details for PubMedID 36361730

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9654727

  • Current therapeutic interventions combating biofilm-related infections in orthopaedics : a systematic review of in vivo animal studies. Bone & joint research Li, J., Cheung, W. H., Chow, S. K., Ip, M., Leung, S. Y., Wong, R. M. 2022; 11 (10): 700-714


    Biofilm-related infection is a major complication that occurs in orthopaedic surgery. Various treatments are available but efficacy to eradicate infections varies significantly. A systematic review was performed to evaluate therapeutic interventions combating biofilm-related infections on in vivo animal models.Literature research was performed on PubMed and Embase databases. Keywords used for search criteria were "bone AND biofilm". Information on the species of the animal model, bacterial strain, evaluation of biofilm and bone infection, complications, key findings on observations, prevention, and treatment of biofilm were extracted.A total of 43 studies were included. Animal models used included fracture-related infections (ten studies), periprosthetic joint infections (five studies), spinal infections (three studies), other implant-associated infections, and osteomyelitis. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus species. Biofilm was most often observed with scanning electron microscopy. The natural history of biofilm revealed that the process of bacteria attachment, proliferation, maturation, and dispersal would take 14 days. For systemic mono-antibiotic therapy, only two of six studies using vancomycin reported significant biofilm reduction, and none reported eradication. Ten studies showed that combined systemic and topical antibiotics are needed to achieve higher biofilm reduction or eradication, and the effect is decreased with delayed treatment. Overall, 13 studies showed promising therapeutic potential with surface coating and antibiotic loading techniques.Combined topical and systemic application of antimicrobial agents effectively reduces biofilm at early stages. Future studies with sustained release of antimicrobial and biofilm-dispersing agents tailored to specific pathogens are warranted to achieve biofilm eradication.Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2022;11(10):670-684.

    View details for DOI 10.1302/2046-3758.1110.BJR-2021-0495.R3

    View details for PubMedID 36214177

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9582863

  • Regulation of mitochondrial dynamic equilibrium by physical exercise in sarcopenia: A systematic review. Journal of orthopaedic translation Long, Y. F., Chow, S. K., Cui, C., Wong, R. M., Qin, L., Law, S. W., Cheung, W. H. 2022; 35: 37-52


    Sarcopenia is a hallmark of the ageing process, which is characterized by the decline in muscle mass and strength. Growing evidence indicates that mitochondria dysfunction play core roles in this process. Meanwhile, physical exercise is regarded as one of the efficiency therapies to attenuate sarcopenia via regulating mitochondrial function during ageing. However, the specific mechanisms among exercise, mitochondrial function and sarcopenia are still unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to delineate the effects of physical exercise on mitochondria during ageing in order to explore potential target for rescuing sarcopenia.A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. Information was extracted from the included studies for review.In this review, 16 pre-clinical studies were included and 105 clinical studies that were not mechanistic research were excluded. 16 pre-clinical studies provided evidence that physical exercise could affect mitochondrial quality control to attenuate sarcopenia. Most of the included studies described the important role of mitochondrial dynamic equilibrium in sarcopenia and showed that effective physical exercise could influence mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, fission and mitophagy to attenuate sarcopenia in aged animal.This systematic review provides an up-to-date sequential overview and highlights the link in the potential mitochondria-related target and physical exercise in aged animal.Currently, there is no standard treatment method for sarcopenia. This systematic review revealed the underlying mechanisms for how physical exercise improved muscle performance via regulating mitochondrial dynamic equilibrium, which could provide scientific support for using exercise as a timely intervention for sarcopenia. Additionally, this systematic review allows a better understanding of mitochondrial dynamic equilibrium and exercise for future development of new therapeutic interventions to attenuate sarcopenia.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/

    View details for PubMedID 36090001

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9421175

  • Osteocyte-specific dentin matrix protein 1 : the role of mineralization regulation in low-magnitude high-frequency vibration enhanced osteoporotic fracture healing. Bone & joint research Li, M. C., Chow, S. K., Wong, R. M., Chen, B., Cheng, J. C., Qin, L., Cheung, W. H. 2022; 11 (7): 465-476


    There is an increasing concern of osteoporotic fractures in the ageing population. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) was shown to significantly enhance osteoporotic fracture healing through alteration of osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network (LCN). Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) in osteocytes is known to be responsible for maintaining the LCN and mineralization. This study aimed to investigate the role of osteocyte-specific DMP1 during osteoporotic fracture healing augmented by LMHFV.A metaphyseal fracture was created in the distal femur of ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were randomized to five different groups: 1) DMP1 knockdown (KD), 2) DMP1 KD + vibration (VT), 3) Scramble + VT, 4) VT, and 5) control (CT), where KD was performed by injection of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) into marrow cavity; vibration treatment was conducted at 35 Hz, 0.3 g; 20 minutes/day, five days/week). Assessments included radiography, micro-CT, dynamic histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry on DMP1, sclerostin, E11, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In vitro, murine long bone osteocyte-Y4 (MLO-Y4) osteocyte-like cells were randomized as in vivo groupings. DMP1 KD was performed by transfecting cells with shRNA plasmid. Assessments included immunocytochemistry on osteocyte-specific markers as above, and mineralized nodule staining.Healing capacities in DMP1 KD groups were impaired. Results showed that DMP1 KD significantly abolished vibration-enhanced fracture healing at week 6. DMP1 KD significantly altered the expression of osteocyte-specific markers. The lower mineralization rate in DMP1 KD groups indicated that DMP1 knockdown was associated with poor fracture healing process.The blockage of DMP1 would impair healing outcomes and negate LMHFV-induced enhancement on fracture healing. These findings reveal the importance of DMP1 in response to the mechanical signal during osteoporotic fracture healing. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2022;11(7):465-476.

    View details for DOI 10.1302/2046-3758.117.BJR-2021-0476.R2

    View details for PubMedID 35787000

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9350691

  • Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy on Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of rehabilitation medicine Qiu, C. G., Chui, C. S., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H., Wong, R. M. 2022; 54: jrm00266


    Knee osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability and medical costs. The effect of whole-body vibration in knee osteoarthritis is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the effects and safety of whole-body vibration on pain, stiffness, physical function, and muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis.PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and EMBASE databases were searched (date last accessed 1 April 2021) using the key words "vibration" and "knee osteoarthritis", to identify all randomized controlled trials related to whole-body vibration and knee osteoarthritis. Outcomes related to pain, stiffness, physical function, muscle strength, adverse events were included. The risk of bias and quality were assessed by the Cochrane Collaboration tool and PEDro scale. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Subgroup analysis was performed for low- and high-frequency interventions.A total of 14 randomized controlled trials involving 559 patients with knee osteoarthritis met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies were good-quality trials (PEDro score=6-8), and 5 studies were fairquality trials (PEDro score=4-5). Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. One study showed negative effects of whole-body vibration on knee osteoarthritis. The duration of whole-body vibration ranged from 4 to 24 weeks. Meta-analysis revealed that whole-body vibration with strengthening exercises has a significant treatment effect on pain score (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.46 points, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.20-0.71, p = 0.0004), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC-function) (SMD = 0.51 points, 95% CI = 0.27-0.75, p < 0.0001), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test (SMD = 0.82 points, 95% CI = 0.46-1.18, p < 0.00001), extensor isokinetic peak torque (SMD = 0.65 points, 95% CI = 0.00-1.29, p = 0.05), peak power (SMD = 0.68 points, 95% CI = 0.26-1.10, p = 0.001), and extensor isometric strength (SMD = 0.44 points, 95% CI = 0.13-0.75, p = 0.006). Both low-frequency (10-30 Hz) and highfrequency (30-40 Hz) whole-body vibration were associated with significant changes in pain, physical function, and knee extensor strength (p < 0.05). WBV was not associated with significant changes in stiffness, balance ability, quality of life, and knee flexor strength. No adverse events were reported.Meta-analysis showed that low-frequency and high-frequency whole-body vibration had additional positive effects compared with strengthening exercises alone on pain, knee extensor muscle strength, and physical function in individuals with knee OA. Whole-body vibration with strengthening exercises can be incorporated into treatment protocols.

    View details for DOI 10.2340/jrm.v54.2032

    View details for PubMedID 35174868

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8963427

  • High Charlson Comorbidity Index Score is associated with early fracture-related complication for internal fixation of neck of femur fractures. Scientific reports Wong, R. M., Zu, Y., Chau, W. W., Tso, C. Y., Liu, W. H., Ng, R. W., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H., Tang, N., Ho, K. K. 2022; 12 (1): 4749


    The incidence of geriatric hip fractures continues to rise in our aging population and has become a major public health concern globally. The primary outcome of this study was to determine whether Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACCI) is associated with increased fracture-related complications in neck of femur fractures treated by internal fixation. This was a cohort study between January 2014 to June 2018. All patients ≥ 50 years old with an acute neck of femur fracture after low-energy trauma fixed with cannulated hip screws were included and followed-up for 1 year at a tertiary centre. Primary outcome was to determine whether ACCI was associated with increased fracture-related complications. Secondary outcomes were revision rate, mortality, and function after surgery. Further analysis were performed within a "younger" group (age 50-65) and "elder" group (age > 65), as displaced fractures (Garden Type III/IV) were in "younger" group. 233 hip fractures (68 males; 165 females) with a mean age of 73.04 ± 12.89 were included in the study. Surgical outcomes showed that the complication rate of hip screw fixation for all patients was 21.5% (50 patients) at 1 year. ACCI was significantly higher in all patients with complications (p = 0.000). Analysis within "younger" (p = 0.000) and "elder" groups (p = 0.006) both showed significance. Stepwise logistic regression modelling showed ACCI had positive correlation with complications with ACCI = 6 (OR 4.27, p = 0.02). R2 values were comparatively better after controlled by Garden Type III/IV at ACCI = 4 (OR 6.42 (1.70, 24.25), p = 0.01). The authors recommend that for patients with a Garden Type I/II and ACCI ≥ 6 or a Garden Type III/IV and ACCI ≥ 4, a direct arthroplasty surgery should be considered.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-022-08855-0

    View details for PubMedID 35306533

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8934361

  • Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation for Bone Fractures Healing: A Review. Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine Palanisamy, P., Alam, M., Li, S., Chow, S. K., Zheng, Y. P. 2022; 41 (3): 547-563


    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a developing technology, which has been proven to improve fracture healing process with minimal thermal effects. This noninvasive treatment accelerates bone formation through various molecular, biological, and biomechanical interactions with tissues and cells. Although LIPUS treatment has shown beneficial effects on different bone fracture locations, only very few studies have examined its effects on deeper bones. This study provides an overview on therapeutic ultrasound for fractured bones, possible mechanisms of action, clinical evidences, current limitations, and its future prospects.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jum.15738

    View details for PubMedID 33949710

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9290611

  • Fracture-related infection in osteoporotic bone causes more severe infection and further delays healing. Bone & joint research Li, J., Wong, R. M., Chung, Y. L., Leung, S. S., Chow, S. K., Ip, M., Cheung, W. H. 2022; 11 (2): 49-60


    With the ageing population, fragility fractures have become one of the most common conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate whether microbiological outcomes and fracture-healing in osteoporotic bone is worse than normal bone with fracture-related infection (FRI).A total of 120 six-month-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized to six groups: Sham, sham + infection (Sham-Inf), sham with infection + antibiotics (Sham-Inf-A), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX + infection (OVX-Inf), and OVX + infection + antibiotics (OVX-Inf-A). Open femoral diaphysis fractures with Kirschner wire fixation were performed. Staphylococcus aureus at 4 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml was inoculated. Rats were euthanized at four and eight weeks post-surgery. Radiography, micro-CT, haematoxylin-eosin, mechanical testing, immunohistochemistry (IHC), gram staining, agar plating, crystal violet staining, and scanning electron microscopy were performed.Agar plating analysis revealed a higher bacterial load in bone (p = 0.002), and gram staining showed higher cortical bone colonization (p = 0.039) in OVX-Inf compared to Sham-Inf. OVX-Inf showed significantly increased callus area (p = 0.013), but decreased high-density bone volume (p = 0.023) compared to Sham-Inf. IHC staining showed a significantly increased expression of TNF-α in OVX-Inf compared to OVX (p = 0.049). Significantly reduced bacterial load on bone (p = 0.001), enhanced ultimate load (p = 0.001), and energy to failure were observed in Sham-Inf-A compared to Sham-Inf (p = 0.028), but not in OVX-Inf-A compared to OVX-Inf.In osteoporotic bone with FRI, infection was more severe with more bone lysis and higher bacterial load, and fracture-healing was further delayed. Systemic antibiotics significantly reduced bacterial load and enhanced callus quality and strength in normal bone with FRI, but not in osteoporotic bone. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2022;11(2):49-60.

    View details for DOI 10.1302/2046-3758.112.BJR-2021-0299.R1

    View details for PubMedID 35100815

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8882324

  • Muscle plays a more superior role than fat in bone homeostasis: A cross-sectional study of old Asian people. Frontiers in endocrinology Liu, C., Wong, P. Y., Tong, X., Chow, S. K., Hung, V. W., Cheung, W. H., Qin, L., Law, S. W., Wong, R. M. 2022; 13: 990442


    The aim of this study was to discover the role of fat and muscle in bone structures, as well as the relationship between obesity and sarcopenia on age-related osteoporosis.A total of 400 participants (65.0 ± 8.2 years old, 42.3% women) were recruited. Fat, muscle, bone parameters, basic demographics, medical history, physical performance and activity, and calcium intake of participants were obtained from datasets. The diagnosis of osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity was based on current recommendations. Pearson correlation, non-linear regression models, and decision tree analyses were performed to study the relationship between fat, muscle, and bone. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the risk of osteoporosis in old people with obesity or sarcopenia via Model 1 (unadjusted) and Model 2 (adjusted by age, physical activity, and calcium intake).Correlation analysis showed that limb muscle mass and index, and age were best related to bone mineral density (BMD) (|r| = 0.386-0.632, p < 0.001). On the contrary, body mass index (BMI) and increased body fat percentage (BF%) were harmful for bone health. An increase of BMI and fat mass index slowed the increase of BMD in the spine, while skeletal muscle mass index accelerated the increase. People with sarcopenia had low muscle mass and strength. When separating subjects into sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia status, sarcopenia was independently related to higher risks of osteoporosis in both models (OR > 1, p < 0.05). BMI-defined obesity in Model 1 as well as BF%-defined obesity in both models did not reduce the risk of osteoporosis in both models (p > 0.05). The decision tree classification (85% accuracy) showed that greater body weight and larger lower limb muscle performance were negatively related to osteoporosis, while fat mass and percentage did not play roles in this prediction.Low muscle mass and function were harmful to bone health. Obesity defined by both BMI and BF% had limited protective roles in osteoporosis. The benefits for bone from increased muscle mass and function play a more superior role than increased fat mass in old people. Sarcopenia prevention and treatment instead of controlling obesity should be recommended as an approach to reduce the risks of age-related osteoporosis and fragility fracture for elderly people.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fendo.2022.990442

    View details for PubMedID 36714587

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9877339

  • Vibration therapy as an intervention for enhancing trochanteric hip fracture healing in elderly patients: a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Trials Wong, R. M., Chow, S. K., Tang, N., Chung, Y. L., Griffith, J., Liu, W. H., Ng, R. W., Tso, C. Y., Cheung, W. H. 2021; 22 (1): 878


    There are more than 300,000 hip fractures yearly in the USA with mortality rates of 20% within 1 year. The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is a major challenge as bone quality is poor, and healing is expected to delay due to the impaired healing properties with respect to bone formation, angiogenesis, and mineralization. Enhancement of osteoporotic fracture healing and function is therefore critical as a major goal in modern fracture management. Previous pre-clinical studies have shown that low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) accelerates osteoporotic fracture healing. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of LMHFV on accelerating trochanteric hip fracture healing and functional recovery.This is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effect of LMHFV in accelerating trochanteric hip fracture healing. All fractures undergo cephalomedullary nail fixation. The primary outcome of this study is time to fracture healing by X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) will also be performed. Blood circulation at the fracture site will be assessed by dynamic perfusion magnetic resonance (MR). Clinical results include functional recovery by muscle strength, timed up and go test (TUG), quality of life questionnaire (SF-36), balancing, falls, and mortality.Previous animal studies have demonstrated LMHFV to improve both normal and osteoporotic fracture healing by accelerating callus formation and mineralization. The mechanical stimulation stimulates angiogenesis by significantly enhancing vascular volume and blood flow velocity. This is the first study to translate LMHFV to enhancing hip fracture healing clinically. Positive results would provide a huge impact in the recovery of hip fracture patients and save healthcare NCT04063891. Registered on August 21, 2019.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13063-021-05844-y

    View details for PubMedID 34863272

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8643183

  • 3D printing in orthopaedic surgery: a scoping review of randomized controlled trials. Bone & joint research Wong, R. M., Wong, P. Y., Liu, C., Chung, Y. L., Wong, K. C., Tso, C. Y., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H., Yung, P. S., Chui, C. S., Law, S. W. 2021; 10 (12): 807-819


    The use of 3D printing has become increasingly popular and has been widely used in orthopaedic surgery. There has been a trend towards an increasing number of publications in this field, but existing literature incorporates limited high-quality studies, and there is a lack of reports on outcomes. The aim of this study was to perform a scoping review with Level I evidence on the application and effectiveness of 3D printing.A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. The keywords used for the search criteria were ((3d print*) OR (rapid prototyp*) OR (additive manufactur*)) AND (orthopaedic). The inclusion criteria were: 1) use of 3D printing in orthopaedics, 2) randomized controlled trials, and 3) studies with participants/patients. Risk of bias was assessed with Cochrane Collaboration Tool and PEDro Score. Pooled analysis was performed.Overall, 21 studies were included in our study with a pooled total of 932 participants. Pooled analysis showed that operating time (p < 0.001), blood loss (p < 0.001), fluoroscopy times (p < 0.001), bone union time (p < 0.001), pain (p = 0.040), accuracy (p < 0.001), and functional scores (p < 0.001) were significantly improved with 3D printing compared to the control group. There were no significant differences in complications.3D printing is a rapidly developing field in orthopaedics. Our findings show that 3D printing is advantageous in terms of operating time, blood loss, fluoroscopy times, bone union time, pain, accuracy, and function. The use of 3D printing did not increase the risk of complications. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2021;10(12):807-819.

    View details for DOI 10.1302/2046-3758.1012.BJR-2021-0288.R2

    View details for PubMedID 34923849

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8696518

  • Understanding the gut microbiota and sarcopenia: a systematic review. Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle Liu, C., Cheung, W. H., Li, J., Chow, S. K., Yu, J., Wong, S. H., Ip, M., Sung, J. J., Wong, R. M. 2021; 12 (6): 1393-1407


    Gut microbiota dysbiosis and sarcopenia commonly occur in the elderly. Although the concept of the gut-muscle axis has been raised, the casual relationship is still unclear. This systematic review analyses the current evidence of gut microbiota effects on muscle/sarcopenia.A systematic review was performed in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library databases using the keywords (microbiota* OR microbiome*) AND (sarcopen* OR muscle). Studies reporting the alterations of gut microbiota and muscle/physical performance were analysed.A total of 26 pre-clinical and 10 clinical studies were included. For animal studies, three revealed age-related changes and relationships between gut microbiota and muscle. Three studies focused on muscle characteristics of germ-free mice. Seventy-five per cent of eight faecal microbiota transplantation studies showed that the recipient mice successfully replicated the muscle phenotype of donors. There were positive effects on muscle from seven probiotics, two prebiotics, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Ten studies investigated on other dietary supplements, antibiotics, exercise, and food withdrawal that affected both muscle and gut microbiota. Twelve studies explored the potential mechanisms of the gut-muscle axis. For clinical studies, 6 studies recruited 676 elderly people (72.8 ± 5.6 years, 57.8% female), while 4 studies focused on 244 young adults (29.7 ± 7.8 years, 55.4% female). The associations of gut microbiota and muscle had been shown in four observational studies. Probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fermented milk, caloric restriction, and exercise in six studies displayed inconsistent effects on muscle mass, function, and gut microbiota.Altering the gut microbiota through bacteria depletion, faecal transplantation, and various supplements was shown to directly affect muscle phenotypes. Probiotics, prebiotics, SCFAs, and bacterial products are potential novel therapies to enhance muscle mass and physical performance. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains restored age-related muscle loss. Potential mechanisms of microbiome modulating muscle mainly include protein, energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism, inflammation level, neuromuscular junction, and mitochondrial function. The role of the gut microbiota in the development of muscle loss during aging is a crucial area that requires further studies for translation to patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jcsm.12784

    View details for PubMedID 34523250

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8718038

  • Best Performance Parameters of HR-pQCT to Predict Fragility Fracture: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Cheung, W. H., Hung, V. W., Cheuk, K. Y., Chau, W. W., Tsoi, K. K., Wong, R. M., Chow, S. K., Lam, T. P., Yung, P. S., Law, S. W., Qin, L. 2021; 36 (12): 2381-2398


    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and bone structural deterioration that may result in fragility fractures. Use of bone imaging modalities to accurately predict fragility fractures is always an important issue, yet the current gold standard of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for diagnosis of osteoporosis cannot fully satisfy this purpose. The latest high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is a three-dimensional (3D) imaging device to measure not only volumetric bone density, but also the bone microarchitecture in a noninvasive manner that may provide a better fracture prediction power. This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to investigate which HR-pQCT parameters at the distal radius and/or distal tibia could best predict fragility fractures. A systematic literature search was conducted in Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science with relevant keywords by two independent reviewers. Original clinical studies using HR-pQCT to predict fragility fractures with available full text in English were included. Information was extracted from the included studies for further review. In total, 25 articles were included for the systematic review, and 16 articles for meta-analysis. HR-pQCT was shown to significantly predict incident fractures and/or major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs). Of all the HR-pQCT parameters, our meta-analysis revealed that cortical volumetric bone mineral density (Ct.vBMD), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and stiffness were better predictors. Meanwhile, HR-pQCT parameters indicated better performance in predicting MOFs than incident fractures. Between the two standard measurement sites of HR-pQCT, the non-weight-bearing distal radius was a more preferable site than distal tibia for fracture prediction. Furthermore, most of the included studies were white-based, whereas very few studies were from Asia or South America. These regions should build up their densitometric databases and conduct related prediction studies. It is expected that HR-pQCT can be used widely for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and prediction of future fragility fractures. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbmr.4449

    View details for PubMedID 34585784

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9298023

  • The first reported fracture liaison service (FLS) for vertebral fractures in China: is muscle the missing gap? Archives of osteoporosis Wong, R. M., Ko, S. Y., Chau, W. W., Lee, L. C., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H., Law, S. W. 2021; 16 (1): 168


    Fracture liaison services (FLS) have been implemented worldwide, but we present one of the first reported experiences in China. Only 1 out of 226 patients had a secondary fracture within 1 year. This serves as a platform to improving solutions and decreasing imminent fractures for future use nationwide in China.Fracture liaison services (FLS) have been implemented worldwide but we present one of the first reported experiences in China. Vertebral fragility fracture is one of the earliest fracture to occur. The objective of this study was to implement a dedicated fracture service to decrease imminent fractures for future use nationwide in China.Patients 50 years or older with a recent vertebral compression fracture were recruited. All patients were offered investigation with DXA scan and blood taking. Treatment was provided with calcium and vitamin D supplements and denosumab injections. The primary outcome was the imminent fracture rate or the re-fracture rate occurring within 2 years of the initial one. Secondary outcomes were bone mineral density (BMD), treatment initiation, adherence to drug, compliance to follow-up, falls, mortality, pain, quality of life, pain-related disability with Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).Two hundred twenty-six patients (n = 226) were analyzed. 0.4% (n = 1) had an imminent fracture within 2 years. 11.1% (n = 25) had a fall within 2 years, in which 1 resulted in a major osteoporotic fracture. 7.1% died (n = 16) within the 2-year time period. 97.8% (n = 221) underwent BMD investigation with an initial DXA scan. One hundred percent (n = 226) had treatment initiation and were prescribed with Denosumab injections. 89.8% (n = 203) were compliant and showed complete adherence to drug therapy over the 2 years. Pain, quality of life, and disability were significantly improved.This is the first reported fracture liaison service for vertebral fracture patients reported in China. Future FLS should incorporate muscle and sarcopenic assessments as a routine, and also research on novel interventions in this area would significantly improve patient outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11657-021-01036-y

    View details for PubMedID 34743234

    View details for PubMedCentralID 3555696

  • Dangers with cementation under low-viscosity state: Cement arterio-venogram and bone cement implantation syndrome. Trauma case reports Wan, R. C., Liu, W. H., Ng, R. W., Tso, C. Y., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H., Tang, N., Wong, R. M. 2021; 35: 100517


    Cement arterio-venogram is a rare event with cement extrusion into femoral nutrient vessels. In literature it is known to be benign with no significant clinical sequelae. It is postulated that it is due to high cement implantation pressure, that results in optimal cement filling quality. All previously reported cases were female patients, and it is thought to be a female only phenomenon due to the relatively narrow femoral canal leading to higher pressures during cementation. In this case series we report 3 cases different to existing literature. All 3 patients showed a cement arterio-venogram together with bone cement implantation syndrome and hypotension intraoperatively. It was also observed that during implantation the cement was of low viscosity. We postulate low cement viscosity during implantation with pressurization is also a contributing factor to these phenomena. This case series also demonstrates the first 2 male cases, showing this the even can occur in males too. The cement arteriovenogram is located at 41%-42% femur length which is within the 'third sixth' of the length of the femur. Good cementation techniques and prevention is also highlighted in this report.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tcr.2021.100517

    View details for PubMedID 34401442

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8353468

  • Prognostic factors related to ambulation deterioration after 1-year of geriatric hip fracture in a Chinese population. Scientific reports Wong, R. M., Qin, J., Chau, W. W., Tang, N., Tso, C. Y., Wong, H. W., Chow, S. K., Leung, K. S., Cheung, W. H. 2021; 11 (1): 14650


    The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors predicting the ambulation recovery of fragility hip fracture patients. 2286 fragility hip fracture patients were collected from the Fragility Fracture Registry in Hong Kong. Predictive factors of ambulation deterioration including age, gender, pre-operation American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, pre-fracture mobility, delay to surgery, length of stay, fracture type, type of surgery, discharge destination and complications were identified. Patients with outdoor unassisted and outdoor with aids ambulatory function before fracture had 3- and 1.5-times increased risk of mobility deterioration, respectively (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.556 and 1.480, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.101-3.111 and 1.246-1.757, both p < 0.001). Patients living in old age homes had almost 1.4 times increased risk of deterioration when compared to those that lived in their homes (OR = 1.363, 95% CI 1.147-1.619, p < 0.001). The risk also increased for every 10 years of age (OR = 1.831, 95% CI 1.607-2.086, p < 0.001). Patients in the higher risk ASA group shows a decreased risk of ambulation deterioration compared to those in lower risk ASA group (OR = 0.831, 95% CI 0.698-0.988, p = 0.038). Patients who suffered from complications after surgery did not increased risk of mobility decline at 1-year post-surgery. Delayed surgery over 48 h, delayed discharge (> 14 days), early discharge (less than 6 days), and length of stay also did not increased risk of mobility decline. Male patients performed worse in terms of their mobility function after surgery compared to female patients (OR = 1.195, 95% CI 1.070-1.335, p = 0.002). This study identified that better premorbid good function, discharge to old age homes especially newly institutionalized patients, increased age, lower ASA score, and male patients, correlate with mobility deterioration at 1-year post-surgery. With the aging population and development of FLS, prompt identification of at-risk patients should be performed for prevention of deterioration.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-021-94199-0

    View details for PubMedID 34282186

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8289836

  • The role of osteocytes-specific molecular mechanism in regulation of mechanotransduction - A systematic review. Journal of orthopaedic translation Li, M. C., Chow, S. K., Wong, R. M., Qin, L., Cheung, W. H. 2021; 29: 1-9


    Osteocytes, composing over 90% of bone cells, are well known for their mechanosensing abilities. Aged osteocytes with impaired morphology and function are less efficient in mechanotransduction which will disrupt bone turnover leading to osteoporosis. The aim of this systematic review is to delineate the mechanotransduction mechanism at different stages in order to explore potential target for therapeutic drugs.A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and Web of Science. Original animal, cell and clinical studies with available English full-text were included. Information was extracted from the included studies for review.The 26 studies included in this review provided evidence that mechanical loading are sensed by osteocytes via various sensing proteins and transduced to different signaling molecules which later initiate various biochemical responses. Studies have shown that osteocyte plasma membrane and cytoskeletons are emerging key players in initiating mechanotransduction. Bone regulating genes expressions are altered in response to load sensed by osteocytes, but the genes involved different signaling pathways and the spatiotemporal expression pattern had made mechanotransduction mechanism complicated. Most of the included studies described the important role of osteocytes in pathways that regulate mechanosensing and bone remodeling.This systematic review provides an up-to-date insight to different steps of mechanotransduction. A better understanding of the mechanotransduction mechanism is beneficial in search of new potential treatment for osteoporotic patients. By delineating the unique morphology of osteocytes and their interconnected signaling network new targets can be discovered for drug development.This systematic review provides an up-to-date sequential overview and highlights the different osteocyte-related pathways and signaling molecules during mechanotransduction. This allows a better understanding of mechanotransduction for future development of new therapeutic interventions to treat patients with impaired mechanosensitivity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/

    View details for PubMedID 34036041

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8138679

  • Enhancement of osteoporotic fracture healing by vibration treatment: The role of osteocytes. Injury Cheung, W. H., Wong, R. M., Choy, V. M., Li, M. C., Cheng, K. Y., Chow, S. K. 2021; 52 Suppl 2: S97-S100


    The prevalence of osteoporotic fracture is high due to global aging problem. Delayed and impaired healing in osteoporotic fractures increase the socioeconomic burden significantly. Through intensive animal and clinical research in recent years, the pathogenesis of osteoporotic fracture healing is unveiled, including decreased inflammatory response, reduced mesenchymal stem cells and deteriorated angiogenesis, etc. The enhancement of osteoporotic fracture healing is important in shortening hospitalization, thus reducing related complications. Mechanical stimulation is currently the most well-accepted approach for rehabilitation of osteoporotic fracture patients. Some new interventions providing mechanical signals were explored extensively in recent years, including vibration treatment, and osteoporotic fracture healing was found to respond very well to these signals. Vibration treatment could accelerate osteoporotic fracture healing with improved callus formation, mineralization and remodeling. However, the mechanism of how osteoporotic fracture bones sense mechanical signals and relay to bone formation remains unanswered. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone tissues. Cumulative evidence confirm that osteocyte is a type of mechanosensory cell and shows altered morphology and reduced cell density during aging. Meanwhile, osteocytes serve as endocrine cells to regulate bone and mineral homeostasis. However, the contribution of osteocytes in osteoporotic fracture healing is largely unknown. A recent in vivo study was conducted to examine the morphological and functional changes of osteocytes after vibration treatment in an osteoporotic metaphyseal fracture rat model. The findings demonstrated that vibration treatment induced significant outgrowth of canaliculi and altered expression of various proteins (E11, DMP1, FGF23 and sclerostin), particularly osteocyte-specific dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) which was greatly increased. DMP1 may play a major role in relaying mechanical signals to bone formation, which may require further experiments to consolidate. Most importantly, vibration treatment significantly increased the mineralization and accelerated the osteoporotic fracture healing in metaphyseal fracture model. In summary, osteocyte is the major cell type to sense mechanical signals and facilitate downstream healing in osteoporotic fracture bone. Vibration treatment has good potential to be translated for clinical application to benefit osteoporotic fracture patients, while randomized controlled trials are required to validate its efficacy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2020.05.020

    View details for PubMedID 32654846

  • The role of gut microbiota in bone homeostasis. Bone & joint research Li, J., Ho, W. T., Liu, C., Chow, S. K., Ip, M., Yu, J., Wong, H. S., Cheung, W. H., Sung, J. J., Wong, R. M. 2021; 10 (1): 51-59


    The effect of the gut microbiota (GM) and its metabolite on bone health is termed the gut-bone axis. Multiple studies have elucidated the mechanisms but findings vary greatly. A systematic review was performed to analyze current animal models and explore the effect of GM on bone.Literature search was performed on PubMed and Embase databases. Information on the types and strains of animals, induction of osteoporosis, intervention strategies, determination of GM, assessment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone quality, and key findings were extracted.A total of 30 studies were included, of which six studies used rats and 24 studies used mice. Osteoporosis or bone loss was induced in 14 studies. Interventions included ten with probiotics, three with prebiotics, nine with antibiotics, two with short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), six with vitamins and proteins, two with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and one with neuropeptide Y1R antagonist. In general, probiotics, prebiotics, nutritional interventions, and TCM were found to reverse the GM dysbiosis and rescue bone loss.Despite the positive therapeutic effect of probiotics, prebiotics, and nutritional or pharmaceutical interventions on osteoporosis, there is still a critical knowledge gap regarding the role of GM in rescuing bone loss and its related pathways. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2021;10(1):51-59.

    View details for DOI 10.1302/2046-3758.101.BJR-2020-0273.R1

    View details for PubMedID 33448869

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7845471

  • Fibrinolysis as a target to enhance osteoporotic fracture healing by vibration therapy in a metaphyseal fracture model. Bone & joint research Wong, R. M., Choy, V. M., Li, J., Li, T. K., Chim, Y. N., Li, M. C., Cheng, J. C., Leung, K. S., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H. 2021; 10 (1): 41-50


    Fibrinolysis plays a key transition step from haematoma formation to angiogenesis and fracture healing. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) is a non-invasive biophysical modality proven to enhance fibrinolytic factors. This study investigates the effect of LMHFV on fibrinolysis in a clinically relevant animal model to accelerate osteoporotic fracture healing.A total of 144 rats were randomized to four groups: sham control; sham and LMHFV; ovariectomized (OVX); and ovariectomized and LMHFV (OVX-VT). Fibrinolytic potential was evaluated by quantifying fibrin, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) along with healing outcomes at three days, one week, two weeks, and six weeks post-fracture.All rats achieved healing, and x-ray relative radiopacity for OVX-VT was significantly higher compared to OVX at week 2. Martius Scarlet Blue (MSB) staining revealed a significant decrease of fibrin content in the callus in OVX-VT compared with OVX on day 3 (p = 0.020). Mean tPA from muscle was significantly higher for OVX-VT compared to OVX (p = 0.020) on day 3. Mechanical testing revealed the mean energy to failure was significantly higher for OVX-VT at 37.6 N mm (SD 8.4) and 71.9 N mm (SD 30.7) compared with OVX at 5.76 N mm (SD 7.1) (p = 0.010) and 17.7 N mm (SD 11.5) (p = 0.030) at week 2 and week 6, respectively.Metaphyseal fracture healing is enhanced by LMHFV, and one of the important molecular pathways it acts on is fibrinolysis. LMHFV is a promising intervention for osteoporotic metaphyseal fracture healing. The improved mechanical properties, acceleration of fracture healing, and safety justify its role into translation to future clinical studies. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2021;10(1):41-50.

    View details for DOI 10.1302/2046-3758.101.BJR-2020-0185.R1

    View details for PubMedID 33448865

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7845465

  • Efficacy of low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) on musculoskeletal health of participants on wheelchair: a study protocol for a single-blinded randomised controlled study. BMJ open Chow, S. K., Ho, C. Y., Wong, H. W., Chim, Y. N., Wong, R. M., Cheung, W. H. 2020; 10 (12): e038578


    Osteoporosis is an age-related disease with progressive loss of bone, leading to fragile bone. It is one of the major health issues in older adults and causes medical, social and economic impacts globally. Patients with osteoporosis have high risk of osteoporotic fractures. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) is a non-invasive biophysical intervention providing whole-body mechanical stimulation. Previous studies showed that LMHFV is beneficial to muscle strength, postural control, balancing ability, new bone formation, spinal bone mineral density (BMD) and blood circulation. During the LMHFV treatment, older adults need to stand upright on the platform for 20 min/day. However, some physically weak elderlies with poor musculoskeletal ability cannot stand for a long period. Therefore, the design of vibration platform is modified for the disabled patients to treat at sitting position and the efficacy of LMHFV on this group of elderlies will be verified. It is hypothesised that new design of LMHFV is beneficial to wheelchair users in terms of vertebral BMD, muscle health and musculoskeletal functions.This study is a single-blinded randomised controlled trial to investigate the effect of LMHFV on vertebral BMD, muscle health, balancing ability and functional ability in wheelchair users (mainly on wheelchair for outdoor activities). Healthy elderlies aged 65 years or above with walking difficulties and using wheelchair are eligible. Exclusion criteria are those: (1) who cannot stand and walk independently, (2) who have vibration treatment before, (3) with malignancy, (4) with acute fractures or severe osteoarthritis, (5) with cardiovascular concern such as with pacemaker in situ, (6) with chronic inflammatory conditions known to affect muscle metabolism such as rheumatoid arthritis and (7) with high frequency of physical activities, such as participants who participated in regular exercise five times a week or more. Recruited participants will be randomised to either LMHFV or control group. Participant assigned to LMHFV group will receive LMHFV (35 Hz, 0.3g (g=gravitational acceleration), 20 min/day, at least three times/week) for 6 months. The primary outcome is BMD at the lumbar spine to be assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry that is clinically recommended for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. All primary and secondary outcome assessments for all groups will be performed in the investigators' institute at baseline and 6 months post treatment.This study aims to investigate the effects of LMHFV on wheelchair users. The findings of this study will help to confirm the efficacy of LMHFV on vertebral BMD, muscle health, balancing ability and functional outcomes in wheelchair using elderlies. LMHFV therapy is an intervention strategy that is easy to implement at the community healthcare level or individually at home that has previously been proven to reduce fall risk and muscle strength at the lower limb. The ultimate goal is to improve their bone and muscle quality of wheelchair users, as well as enhancing their quality of (NCT04180267).

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038578

    View details for PubMedID 33323430

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7745337

  • AChRs Degeneration at NMJ in Aging-Associated Sarcopenia-A Systematic Review. Frontiers in aging neuroscience Bao, Z., Cui, C., Chow, S. K., Qin, L., Wong, R. M., Cheung, W. H. 2020; 12: 597811


    Sarcopenia is an aging process with a decline of skeletal muscle mass and function, which is a challenging public health problem with reduced quality of life in patients. The endplate, the post-synaptic part of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), occupies 0.1% of the myofiber surface area only, but is composed of millions of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) that are efficient in binding to acetylcholine (ACh) and triggering skeletal muscle contraction. This systematic review aims to examine aging-associated alterations of post-synaptic AChRs, including morphology, function and related gene expression. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science with relevant keywords by two independent reviewers. Original pre-clinical and clinical studies regarding AChRs changes during aging with available full text and written in English were included. Information was extracted from the included studies for further review. In total, 30 articles were included. Various parameters assessing AChRs alterations by radioassay, immunofluorescence, electrophysiology and mechanical test were reported. Endplate fragmentation and denervation were common in old skeletal muscles during aging. To ensure efficient NMJ transmission and force generation, type I or IIb muscle fibers tended to have increased ACh quanta releasing after electrical stimulations, while type IIa muscle fibers tended to have stronger binding between ACh and AChRs, but the overall function of AChRs was reduced during aging. Alterations of AChRs area depended on muscle type, species and the progress of muscle atrophy and type I muscles fibers tended to demonstrate enlarging AChRs areas. Myogenic regulator factors (MRFs) can regulate the expression of AChRs subunits, while decreased MRF4 may lead to expression changes of AChRs subunits during aging. Sarcoglycan-α can delay low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) degradation. This protein was increased in old muscles but still cannot suppress the degradation of LRP4. Investigating the role of these AChRs-related genes in the process of aging may provide a potential target to treat sarcopenia.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fnagi.2020.597811

    View details for PubMedID 33362532

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7759742

  • Impact of COVID-19 on orthopaedic clinical service, education and research in a university hospital. Journal of orthopaedic translation Ong, M. T., Ling, S. K., Wong, R. M., Ho, K. K., Chow, S. K., Cheung, L. W., Yung, P. S. 2020; 25: 125-127


    The medical system of Hong Kong has been heavily affected by COVID-19. Adaptations are necessary to continue clinical care, education, and research, while minimising the risk of infection of our staff and students. Here, we report our early experience in response to the challenge posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.This perspective can help to disseminate knowledge from an orthopaedic unit in a university hospital on overcoming the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, including clinical practice, education of medical students, and research.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/

    View details for PubMedID 32837910

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7427550

  • A systematic review on current osteosynthesis-associated infection animal fracture models. Journal of orthopaedic translation Wong, R. M., Li, T. K., Li, J., Ho, W. T., Chow, S. K., Leung, S. S., Cheung, W. H., Ip, M. 2020; 23: 8-20


    Osteosynthesis-associated infection is a challenging complication post fracture fixation, burdening the patients and the orthopaedic surgeons alike. A clinically relevant animal model is critical in devising new therapeutic strategies. Our aim was to perform a systematic review to evaluate existing preclinical models and identify their applications in aspects of animal selection, bacterial induction, fracture fixation and complications.A systematic literature research was conducted in PubMed and Embase up to February 2020. A total of 31 studies were included. Information on the animal, bacterial induction, fracture fixation, healing result and complications were extracted.Animals selected included murine (23), rabbit (6), ewe (1) and goat (1). Larger animals had enabled the use of human-sized implant, however small animals were more economical and easier in handling. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was the most frequently chosen bacteria for induction. Bacterial inoculation dose ranged from 102-8 ​CFU. Consistent and replicable infections were observed from 104 ​CFU in general. Methods of inoculation included injections of bacterial suspension (20), placement of foreign objects (8) and pretreatment of implants with established biofilm (3). Intramedullary implants (13), plates and screws (18) were used in most models. Radiological (29) and histological evaluations (24) in osseous healing were performed. Complications such as instability of fracture fixation (7), unexpected surgical death (5), sepsis (1) and persistent lameness (1) were encountered.The most common animal model is the S. aureus infected open fracture internally fixated. Replicable infections were mainly from 104 ​CFU of bacteria. However, with the increase in antibiotic resistance, future directions should explore polymicrobial and antibiotic resistant strains, as these will no doubt play a major role in bone infection. Currently, there is also a lack of osteoporotic bone infection models and the pathophysiology is unexplored, which would be important with our aging population.This systematic review provides an updated overview and compares the currently available animal models of osteosynthesis-associated infections. A discussion on future research directions and suggestion of animal model settings were made, which is expected to advance the research in this field.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/

    View details for PubMedID 32440511

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7231979

  • Elastic-band resistance exercise or vibration treatment in combination with hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) supplement for management of sarcopenia in older people: a study protocol for a single-blinded randomised controlled trial in Hong Kong. BMJ open Chow, S. K., Chim, Y. N., Cheng, K. Y., Ho, C. Y., Ho, W. T., Cheng, K. C., Wong, R. M., Cheung, W. H. 2020; 10 (6): e034921


    Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterised by progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with risks of adverse outcomes and becomes more prevalent due to ageing population. Elastic-band exercise, vibration treatment and hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation were previously proven to have positive effects on the control of sarcopenia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of elastic-band exercise or vibration treatment with HMB supplementation in managing sarcopenia. Our findings will provide a safe and efficient strategy to mitigate the progression of sarcopenia in older people and contribute to higher quality of life as well as improved long-term health outcomes of elderly people.In this single-blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT), subjects will be screened for sarcopenia based on the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition and 144 sarcopenic subjects aged 65 or above will be recruited. This RCT will have three groups evaluated at two time points to measure changes over 3 months-the control and the groups with combined HMB supplement and elastic-band resistance exercise or vibration treatment. Changes in muscle strength in lower extremity will be the primary outcome. Muscle strength in the upper extremity, gait speed, muscle mass (based on AWGS definition), functional performance in terms of balancing ability and time-up-and-go test and quality of life will be taken as secondary outcomes. In addition, each participant's daily activity will be monitored by a wrist-worn activity tracker. Repeated-measures analysis of variance will be performed to compare within-subject changes between control and treatment groups at two time points of pretreatments and post-treatments.The procedures have been approved by the Joint CUHK-NTEC Clinical Research Management Office (Ref. CREC 2018.602) and conformed to the Declaration of Helsinki. Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conferences and workshops.NCT04028206.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034921

    View details for PubMedID 32606057

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7328808

  • How much do we know about the role of osteocytes in different phases of fracture healing? A systematic review. Journal of orthopaedic translation Choy, M. H., Wong, R. M., Chow, S. K., Li, M. C., Chim, Y. N., Li, T. K., Ho, W. T., Cheng, J. C., Cheung, W. H. 2020; 21: 111-121


    Although emerging studies have provided evidence that osteocytes are actively involved in fracture healing, there is a general lack of a detailed understanding of the mechanistic pathway, cellular events and expression of markers at different phases of healing.This systematic review describes the role of osteocytes in fracture healing from early to late phase. Literature search was performed in PubMed and Embase. Original animal and clinical studies with available English full-text were included. Information was retrieved from the selected studies.A total of 23 articles were selected in this systematic review. Most of the studies investigated changes of various genes and proteins expression patterns related to osteocytes. Several studies have described a constant expression of osteocyte-specific marker genes throughout the fracture healing cascade followed by decline phase with the progress of healing, denoting the important physiological role of the osteocyte and the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network in fracture healing. The reports of various markers suggested that osteocytes could trigger coordinated bone healing responses from cell death and expression of proinflammatory markers cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin 6 at early phase of fracture healing. This is followed by the expression of growth factors bone morphogenetic protein-2 and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 that matched with the neo-angiogenesis, chondrogenesis and callus formation during the intermediate phase. Tightly controlled regulation of osteocyte-specific markers E11/Podoplanin (E11), dentin matrix protein 1 and sclerostin modulate and promote osteogenesis, mineralisation and remodelling across different phases of fracture healing. Stabilised fixation was associated with the finding of higher number of osteocytes with little detectable bone morphogenetic proteins expressions in osteocytes. Sclerostin-antibody treatment was found to result in improvement in bone mass, bone strength and mineralisation.To further illustrate the function of osteocytes, additional longitudinal studies with appropriate clinically relevant model to study osteoporotic fractures are crucial. Future investigations on the morphological changes of osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network during healing, osteocyte-mediated signalling molecules in the transforming growth factor-beta-Smad3 pathway, perilacunar remodelling, type of fixation and putative biomarkers to monitor fracture healing are highly desirable to bridge the current gaps of knowledge.The translational potential of this article: This systematic review provides an up-to-date chronological overview and highlights the osteocyte-regulated events at gene, protein, cellular and tissue levels throughout the fracture healing cascade, with the hope of informing and developing potential new therapeutic strategies that could improve the timing and quality of fracture healing in the future.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/

    View details for PubMedID 32309136

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7152791

  • Can we enhance osteoporotic metaphyseal fracture healing through enhancing ultrastructural and functional changes of osteocytes in cortical bone with low-magnitude high-frequency vibration? FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Choy, M. V., Wong, R. M., Li, M. C., Wang, B. Y., Liu, X. D., Lee, W., Cheng, J. C., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H. 2020; 34 (3): 4234-4252


    Fragility fractures are related to the loss of bone integrity and deteriorated morphology of osteocytes. Our previous studies have reported that low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) promoted osteoporotic fracture healing. As osteocytes are known for mechanosensing and initiating bone repair, we hypothesized that LMHFV could enhance osteoporotic fracture healing through enhancing morphological changes in the osteocyte lacuna-canalicular network (LCN) and mineralization. A metaphyseal fracture model was established in female Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate changes in osteocytes and healing outcomes from early to late phase post-fracture. Our results showed that the LCN exhibited an exuberant outgrowth of canaliculi in the osteoporotic fractured bone at day 14 after LMHFV. LMHFV upregulated the E11, dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), but downregulated sclerostin (Sost) in osteocytes. Moreover, LMHFV promoted mineralization with significant enhancements of Ca/P ratio, mineral apposition rate (MAR), mineralizing surface (MS/BS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in the osteoporotic group. Consistently, better healing was confirmed by microarchitecture and mechanical properties, whereas the enhancement in osteoporotic group was comparable or even greater than the normal group. This is the first report to reveal the enhancement effect of LMHFV on the osteocytes' morphology and functions in osteoporotic fracture healing.

    View details for DOI 10.1096/fj.201901595R

    View details for PubMedID 31961009

  • A study protocol for a randomized controlled trial evaluating vibration therapy as an intervention for postural training and fall prevention after distal radius fracture in elderly patients. Trials Wong, R. M., Ho, W. T., Tang, N., Tso, C. Y., Ng, W. K., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H. 2020; 21 (1): 95


    Fractures of the distal radius are one of the most common osteoporotic fractures in elderly men and women. These fractures are a particular health concern amongst the elderly, who are at risk of fragility fractures, and are associated with long-term functional impairment, pain and a variety of complications. This is a sentinel event, as these fractures are associated with a two to four times increased risk of subsequent hip fractures in elderly patients. This is an important concept, as it is well established that these patients have an increased risk of falling. Fall prevention is therefore crucial to decrease further morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) on postural stability and prevention of falls in elderly patients post distal radius fracture.This is a prospective single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Two hundred patients will be recruited consecutively with consent, and randomized to either LMHFV (n = 100) or a control group (n = 100). The primary outcome is postural stability measured by the static and dynamic ability of patients to maintain centre of balance on the Biodex Balance System SD. Secondary outcomes are the occurrence of fall(s), the health-related quality of life 36-item short form instrument, the Timed Up and Go test for basic mobility skills, compliance and adverse events. Outcome assessments for both groups will be performed at baseline (0 month) and at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months time points.Previous studies have stressed the importance of reducing falls after distal radius fracture has occurred in elderly patients, and an effective intervention is crucial. Numerous studies have proven vibration therapy to be effective in improving balancing ability in normal patients; However, no previous study has applied the device for patients with fractures. Our study will attempt to translate LMHFV to patients with fractures to improve postural stability and prevent recurrent falls. Positive results would provide a large impact on the prevention of secondary fractures and save healthcare, NCT03380884. Registered on 21 December 2017.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13063-019-4013-0

    View details for PubMedID 31948477

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6966815

  • Impaired fracture healing in sarco-osteoporotic mice can be rescued by vibration treatment through myostatin suppression. Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society Zhang, N., Chim, Y. N., Wang, J., Wong, R. M., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H. 2019


    Sarcopenia is highly prevalent in fragility fracture patients and is associated with delayed healing. In this study, we investigated the effect of Low-Magnitude High-Frequency Vibration (LMHFV) on osteoporotic fracture with sarcopenia and the potential role of myostatin. Osteoporotic fractures created in sarcopenic SAMP8, non-sarcopenic SAMR1 were randomized to control or LMHFV (SAMP8, SAMR1, SAMP8-V or SAMR1-V) groups. Healing and myostatin expression were evaluated at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-fracture. In vitro, conditioned-media were collected from myofibers isolated from aged and young SAMP8 or C2C12 myoblasts with or without LMHFV. Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 under osteogenic differentiation were treated with plain or conditioned-medium (+/- myostatin propeptide). LMHFV significantly enhanced callus formation was in non-sarcopenic SAMR1 mice; but the enhancement effect was not significant in SAMP8 mice at week 2. Myostatin expressions in callus and biceps femoris of SAMP8 group were significantly higher all groups with significant negative correlation with callus size (R2 =0.7256; p=0.0004). Mechanical properties (week 4) and callus remodeling (week 6) were inferior in SAMP8 versus SAMR1 and were significantly enhanced by LMHFV. ALP and Runx2 expression of MC3T3-E1 was lower in aged myofiber compared to young, but up-regulated by LMHFV or myostatin inhibition; also confirmed with C2C12. LMHFV enhanced early callus formation, microarchitecture, callus remodeling and mechanical properties of fracture healing in both SAMP8 and SAMR1; however, more effective in non-sarcopenic SAMR1 mice. Impaired fracture healing in sarcopenic SAMP8 mice is attributed by elevated myostatin expression in callus and muscle, which correlated negatively with callus formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.24477

    View details for PubMedID 31535727

  • Muscle-generated BDNF is a sexually dimorphic myokine that controls metabolic flexibility SCIENCE SIGNALING Yang, X., Brobst, D., Chan, W., Tse, M., Herlea-Pana, O., Ahuja, P., Bi, X., Zaw, A., Kwong, Z., Jia, W., Zhang, Z., Zhang, N., Chow, S., Cheung, W., Louie, J., Griffin, T. M., Nong, W., Hui, J., Du, G., Noh, H., Saengnipanthkul, S., Chow, B. C., Kim, J. K., Lee, C., Chan, C. 2019; 12 (594)


    The ability of skeletal muscle to switch between lipid and glucose oxidation for ATP production during metabolic stress is pivotal for maintaining systemic energy homeostasis, and dysregulation of this metabolic flexibility is a dominant cause of several metabolic disorders. However, the molecular mechanism that governs fuel selection in muscle is not well understood. Here, we report that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a fasting-induced myokine that controls metabolic reprograming through the AMPK/CREB/PGC-1α pathway in female mice. Female mice with a muscle-specific deficiency in BDNF (MBKO mice) were unable to switch the predominant fuel source from carbohydrates to fatty acids during fasting, which reduced ATP production in muscle. Fasting-induced muscle atrophy was also compromised in female MBKO mice, likely a result of autophagy inhibition. These mutant mice displayed myofiber necrosis, weaker muscle strength, reduced locomotion, and muscle-specific insulin resistance. Together, our results show that muscle-derived BDNF facilitates metabolic adaption during nutrient scarcity in a gender-specific manner and that insufficient BDNF production in skeletal muscle promotes the development of metabolic myopathies and insulin resistance.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scisignal.aau1468

    View details for Web of Science ID 000481406900002

    View details for PubMedID 31409756

  • One-year mortality in displaced intracapsular hip fractures and associated risk: a report of Chinese-based fragility fracture registry. Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research Chow, S. K., Qin, J. H., Wong, R. M., Yuen, W. F., Ngai, W. K., Tang, N., Lam, C. Y., Lau, T. W., Lee, K. B., Siu, K. M., Wong, S. H., Zhu, T. Y., Cheung, W. H., Leung, K. S. 2018; 13 (1): 235


    The purpose of this registry-based retrospective study was to investigate the risk factors related to one-year mortality in displaced intracapsular fragility hip fracture patients.Patients were screened from the Fragility Fracture Registry. Inclusion criterion was displaced intracapsular hip fracture patients with atypical or pathological fractures excluded. One-year mortality was investigated against risk factors including age, gender, past medical history, pre-fracture mobility (PFM), pre-operation ASA grade, delayed surgery over 48 h, post-surgical complications, and length of stay at acute orthopedic ward (LOS).A total of 1050 patients were included for further analysis. Gross one-year mortality was 14.9%. One-year mortality was significantly higher in patients who received non-operative treatment and those who received surgery but delayed over 48 h after admission (both p <  0.001). Male gender (OR = 2.708), advanced age (OR = 1.359), higher risk ASA grades (III to V) (OR = 1.990), past history of gastrointestinal disease (OR = 1.671), and renal impairment (OR = 1.984) were related to higher one-year mortality. The mortality of patients in PFM grade 3 and LOS group 3 was significantly higher (OR = 2.240 and 1.722, respectively).Higher age, male gender, past gastrointestinal disease and renal impairment, ASA grade over 3, indoor confined pre-fracture ambulatory, and stay at hospital over 15 days were risk factors related to higher one-year mortality in surgically treated displaced intracapsular hip fracture patients. A multi-disciplinary approach is advised to patients identified with these risks factors and co-managed by orthopedic surgeons, geriatricians, and fracture liaison nurses.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13018-018-0936-5

    View details for PubMedID 30217215

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6137732

  • Validation Study of the Thumb Ossification Composite Index (TOCI) in Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Stage-to-Stage Correlation with Classic Tanner-Whitehouse and Sanders Simplified Skeletal Maturity Systems. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Hung, A. L., Shi, B., Chow, S. K., Chau, W. W., Hung, V. W., Wong, R. M., Liu, K. L., Lam, T. P., Ng, B. K., Cheng, J. C. 2018; 100 (13): 88


    The new simplified thumb ossification composite index (TOCI) based on ossification of the thumb epiphyses and adductor sesamoid has demonstrated simplicity, excellent reliability, and high accuracy for predicting skeletal maturity, comparable with the Sanders simplified skeletal maturity system (SSMS). It was our belief that, because the terminology of the SSMS system has been commonly used for skeletal maturity prediction in idiopathic scoliosis in publications over the past decade, the clinical applicability of the TOCI system would increase if the stages in the 2 systems were found to be interchangeable and highly correlated.Hand radiographs of 125 premenarchal girls with newly diagnosed adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who had been followed longitudinally until skeletal maturity were all scored with use of the Tanner-Whitehouse III (TW3) system (stages E through I), the TOCI, and the SSMS. The scores for the epiphyses of the ulnar 4 digits were compared with those for the thumb and correlated with the timing of peak height velocity. Correlations were analyzed with the chi-square test and Cramer V and Somers delta correlations.Six hundred and forty-five hand radiographs (an average of 5 for each girl with idiopathic scoliosis) and 11,517 epiphyses were scored. The rate of concordance between TW3 stages F, G, and I for the thumb proximal phalangeal epiphysis and those for all of the epiphyses of the ulnar 4 digits were 72.5%, 72.5%, and 89.9%, respectively. The overall concordance rate (including all epiphyses) was 71.3%, with a very high Cramer V correlation and significance (p < 0.01). High interchangeability was demonstrated for the TOCI and SSMS stages, supported by a high Somers delta correlation (>0.8) with significance (p < 0.05).The TOCI is highly practical for clinical use, and its stages are highly interchangeable with those of the SSMS.The TOCI could serve as a simplified "marker" of skeletal maturity on hand radiographs and minimize the learning-curve problems associated with the SSMS in a busy clinical practice.

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.17.01271

    View details for PubMedID 29975274

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6075884

  • An animal model of co-existing sarcopenia and osteoporotic fracture in senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) EXPERIMENTAL GERONTOLOGY Zhang, N., Chow, S., Leung, K., Lee, H., Cheung, W. 2017; 97: 1–8


    Sarcopenia and osteoporotic fracture are common aging-related musculoskeletal problems. Recent evidences report that osteoporotic fracture patients showed high prevalence of sarcopenia; however, current clinical practice basically does not consider sarcopenia in the treatment or rehabilitation of osteoporotic fracture. There is almost no report studying the relationship of the co-existing of sarcopenia and osteoporotic fracture healing. In this study, we validated aged senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) and senescence accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) as animal models of senile osteoporosis with/without sarcopenia. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the 5th lumbar and muscle testing of the two animal strains were measured to confirm the status of osteoporosis and sarcopenia, respectively. Closed fracture was created on the right femur of 8-month-old animals. Radiographs were taken weekly post-fracture. MicroCT and histology of the fractured femur were performed at week 2, 4 and 6 post-fracture, while mechanical test of both femora at week 4 and 6 post-fracture. Results showed that the callus of SAMR1 was significantly larger at week 2 but smaller at week 6 post-fracture than SAMP8. Mechanical properties were significantly better at week 4 post-fracture in SAMR1 than SAMP8, indicating osteoporotic fracture healing was delayed in sarcopenic SAMP8. This study validated an animal model of co-existing sarcopenia and osteoporotic fracture, where a delayed fracture healing might be resulted in the presence of sarcopenia.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.exger.2017.07.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000410651200001

    View details for PubMedID 28711604

  • Low-Magnitude High-Frequency Vibration Accelerated the Foot Wound Healing of n5-streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats by Enhancing Glucose Transporter 4 and Blood Microcirculation. Scientific reports Yu, C. O., Leung, K. S., Jiang, J. L., Wang, T. B., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H. 2017; 7 (1): 11631


    Delayed wound healing is a Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) complication caused by hyperglycemia, systemic inflammation, and decreased blood microcirculation. Skeletal muscles are also affected by hyperglycemia, resulting in reduced blood flow and glucose uptake. Low Magnitude High Frequency Vibration (LMHFV) has been proven to be beneficial to muscle contractility and blood microcirculation. We hypothesized that LMHFV could accelerate the wound healing of n5-streptozotocin (n5-STZ)-induced DM rats by enhancing muscle activity and blood microcirculation. This study investigated the effects of LMHFV in an open foot wound created on the footpad of n5-STZ-induced DM rats (DM_V), compared with no-treatment DM (DM), non-DM vibration (Ctrl_V) and non-DM control rats (Ctrl) on Days 1, 4, 8 and 13. Results showed that the foot wounds of DM_V and Ctrl_V rats were significantly reduced in size compared to DM and Ctrl rats, respectively, at Day 13. The blood glucose level of DM_V rats was significantly reduced, while the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression and blood microcirculation of DM_V rats were significantly enhanced in comparison to those of DM rats. In conclusion, LMHFV can accelerate the foot wound healing process of n5-STZ rats.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-11934-2

    View details for PubMedID 28912573

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5599683

  • Thumb Ossification Composite Index (TOCI) for Predicting Peripubertal Skeletal Maturity and Peak Height Velocity in Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Validation Study of Premenarchal Girls with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Followed Longitudinally Until Skeletal Maturity. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Hung, A. L., Chau, W. W., Shi, B., Chow, S. K., Yu, F. Y., Lam, T. P., Ng, B. K., Qiu, Y., Cheng, J. C. 2017; 99 (17): 1438-1446


    Accurate skeletal maturity assessment is important to guide clinical evaluation of idiopathic scoliosis, but commonly used methods are inadequate or too complex for rapid clinical use. The objective of the study was to propose a new simplified staging method, called the thumb ossification composite index (TOCI), based on the ossification pattern of the 2 thumb epiphyses and the adductor sesamoid bone; to determine its accuracy in predicting skeletal maturation when compared with the Sanders simplified skeletal maturity system (SSMS); and to validate its interrater and intrarater reliability.Hand radiographs of 125 girls, acquired when they were newly diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis prior to menarche and during longitudinal follow-up until skeletal maturity (a minimum of 4 years), were scored with the TOCI and SSMS. These scores were compared with digital skeletal age (DSA) and radius, ulna, and small hand bones (RUS) scores; anthropometric data; peak height velocity; and growth-remaining profiles. Correlations were analyzed with the chi-square test, Spearman and Cramer V correlation methods, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Reliability analysis using the intraclass correlation (ICC) was conducted.Six hundred and forty-five hand radiographs (average, 5 of each girl) were scored. The TOCI staging system was highly correlated with the DSA and RUS scores (r = 0.93 and 0.92, p < 0.01). The mean peak height velocity (and standard deviation) was 7.43 ± 1.45 cm/yr and occurred at a mean age of 11.9 ± 0.86 years, with 70.1% and 51.4% of the subjects attaining their peak height velocity at TOCI stage 5 and SSMS stage 3, respectively. The 2 systems predicted peak height velocity with comparable accuracy, with a strong Cramer V association (0.526 and 0.466, respectively; p < 0.01) and similar sensitivity and specificity on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The mean age at menarche was 12.57 ± 1.12 years, with menarche occurring over several stages in both the TOCI and the SSMS. The growth remaining predicted by TOCI stage 8 matched well with that predicted by SSMS stage 7, with a mean of <2 cm/yr of growth potential over a mean of <1.7 years at these stages. The TOCI also demonstrated excellent reliability, with an overall ICC of >0.97.The new proposed TOCI could provide a simplified staging system for the assessment of skeletal maturity of subjects with idiopathic scoliosis. The index needs to be subjected to further multicenter validation in different ethnic groups.

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.16.01078

    View details for PubMedID 28872525

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5805281

  • The characterization of a full-thickness excision open foot wound model in n5-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats that mimics diabetic foot ulcer in terms of reduced blood circulation, higher C-reactive protein, elevated inflammation, and reduced cell proliferation. Experimental animals Yu, C. O., Leung, K. S., Fung, K. P., Lam, F. F., Ng, E. S., Lau, K. M., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H. 2017; 66 (3): 259-269


    Delayed foot wound healing is a major complication attributed to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, and these wounds may develop into foot ulcers. There are at least two types of DM wound models used in rodents to study delayed wound healing. However, clinically relevant animal models are not common. Most models use type 1 DM rodents or wounds created on the back rather than on the foot. An open full-thickness excision wound on the footpad of type 2 DM rats is more clinically relevant, but such a model has not yet been characterized systematically. The objective of this study was to investigate and characterize how DM affected a full-thickness excision open foot wound in n5-streptozotocin (n5-STZ)-induced type 2 DM rats. We hypothesized that elevated inflammation, reduced blood circulation, and cell proliferation due to hyperglycemia could delay the wound healing of DM rats. The wounds of DM rats were compared with those of non-DM rats (Ctrl) at Days 1 and 8 post wounding. The wound healing process of the DM rats was significantly delayed compared with that of the Ctrl rats. The DM rats also had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) and lower blood circulation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in DM wounds. This confirmed that elevated inflammation and reduced blood flow and cell proliferation delayed foot wound healing in the n5-STZ rats. Hence, this open foot wound animal model provides a good approach to study the process of delayed wound healing.

    View details for DOI 10.1538/expanim.17-0016

    View details for PubMedID 28413186

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5543247

  • Inflammation and age-associated skeletal muscle deterioration (sarcopaenia). Journal of orthopaedic translation Wang, J., Leung, K. S., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H. 2017; 10: 94-101


    Ageing is accompanied by chronic inflammatory responses due to elevated circulatory inflammatory cytokine production. Several inflammatory cytokines have been shown to be responsible for a decrease in muscle mass. However, little is known about the possible relationship between inflammation and sarcopaenia. This review aims to summarise the existing evidence about inflammation and sarcopaenia. Sarcopaenia is defined as an age-related decrease of muscle mass and/or muscle strength; it is caused by multiple factors, such as skeletal muscle atrophy, neuromuscular junction degeneration, hormone imbalance, cytokine imbalance, protein synthesis and proteolysis. Several inflammatory cytokines have been considered to promote muscle loss; C-reactive protein levels are significantly upregulated in sarcopaenia and sarcopenic obesity, and high levels of interleukin-6 are associated with reduced muscle mass and muscle strength (the administration of interleukin-6 could lead to a reduction in muscle mass). Up-regulation of tumour necrosis factor-α expression is also related to the development of sarcopaenia. Signalling pathways, such as protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription-5 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signalling, involved in muscle metabolism are regulated by insulin-like growth factor-1, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 respectively. In conclusion, the inflammatory cytokines produced during chronic inflammation due to ageing, may influence their respective related pathways, thus leading to age-related muscle deterioration.This review can provide more information for sarcopaenia medicine research in terms of anti-inflammation therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/

    View details for PubMedID 29662761

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5822997

  • Ultrasound as a stimulus for musculoskeletal disorders JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRANSLATION Zhang, N., Chow, S., Leung, K., Cheung, W. 2017; 9: 52–59


    Ultrasound is an inaudible form of acoustic sound wave at 20 kHz or above that is widely used in the medical field with applications including medical imaging and therapeutic stimulation. In therapeutic ultrasound, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is the most widely used and studied form that generally uses acoustic waves at an intensity of 30 mW/cm2, with 200 ms pulses and 1.5 MHz. In orthopaedic applications, it is used as a biophysical stimulus for musculoskeletal tissue repair to enhance tissue regeneration. LIPUS has been shown to enhance fracture healing by shortening the time to heal and reestablishment of mechanical properties through enhancing different phases of the healing process, including the inflammatory phase, callus formation, and callus remodelling phase. Reports from in vitro studies reveal insights in the mechanism through which acoustic stimulations activate cell surface integrins that, in turn, activate various mechanical transduction pathways including FAK (focal adhesion kinase), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), PI3K, and Akt. It is then followed by the production of cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandin E2 to stimulate further downstream angiogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic cytokines, explaining the different enhancements observed in animal and clinical studies. Furthermore, LIPUS has also been shown to have remarkable effects on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in musculoskeletal injuries and tissue regeneration. The recruitment of MSCs to injury sites by LIPUS requires the SDF-1 (stromal cell derived factor-1)/CXCR-4 signalling axis. MSCs would then differentiate differently, and this is regulated by the presence of different cytokines, which determines their fates. Other musculoskeletal applications including bone-tendon junction healing, and distraction osteogenesis are also explored, and the results are promising. However, the use of LIPUS is controversial in treating osteoporosis, with negative findings in clinical settings, which may be attributable to the absence of an injury entry point for the acoustic signal to propagate, strong attenuation effect of cortical bone and the insufficient intensity for penetration, whereas in some animal studies it has proven effective.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000405123100007

    View details for PubMedID 29662799

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5822964

  • Effect of Low-Magnitude, High-Frequency Vibration Treatment on Retardation of Sarcopenia: Senescence-Accelerated Mouse-P8 Model. Rejuvenation research Guo, A. Y., Leung, K. S., Qin, J. H., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H. 2016; 19 (4): 293-302


    Sarcopenia-related falls and fall-related injuries in community-dwelling elderly people garnered more and more interest in recent years. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) was proven beneficial to musculoskeletal system and recommended for sarcopenia treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of LMHFV on the sarcopenic animals and explore the mechanism of the stimulatory effects. Senescence-accelerated mouse P8 (SAMP8) mice at month 6 were randomized into control (Ctrl) and vibration (Vib) groups and the mice in the Vib group were given LMHFV (0.3 g, 20 min/day, 5 days/week) treatment. At months 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 post-treatment, muscle mass, structure, and function were assessed. The potential proliferation capacity of the muscle was also evaluated by investigating satellite cells (SCs) pool and serum myostatin expression. At late stage, the mice in the Vib group showed higher muscle strength (month 4, p = 0.028). Generally, contractibility was significantly improved by LMHFV (contraction time [CT], p = 0.000; half-relaxation time [RT50], p = 0.000). Enlarged cross-sectional area of fiber type IIA was observed in the Vib group when compared with Ctrl group (p = 0.000). No significant difference of muscle mass was observed. The promotive effect of LMHFV on myoregeneration was reflected by suppressed SC pool reduction (month 3, p = 0.000; month 4, p = 0.000) and low myostatin expression (p = 0.052). LMHFV significantly improved the structural and functional outcomes of the skeletal muscle, hence retarding the progress of sarcopenia in SAMP8. It would be a good recommendation for prevention of the diseases related to skeletal muscle atrophy.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/rej.2015.1759

    View details for PubMedID 26608404

  • Bone formation and degradation behavior of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with or without collagen-type 1 in osteoporotic bone defects - an experimental study in osteoporotic goats. Injury Alt, V., Cheung, W. H., Chow, S. K., Thormann, U., Cheung, E. N., Lips, K. S., Schnettler, R., Leung, K. S. 2016; 47 Suppl 2: S58-65


    The intention of the current work is to assess new bone formation and degradation behavior of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with (HA/col-1) or without collagen-type I (HA) in osteoporotic metaphyseal bone defects in goats. After ovariectomy and special low-calcium diet for three months, 3 drill hole defects in the vertebrae of L3, L4, L5, 4 drill hole defects in the right and left iliac crest and 1 drill hole defect at the distal femur were created in three Chinese mountain goats with a total of 24 defects. The defects were either filled with one of the biomaterials or left empty (empty defect control group). After 42 days, the animals were euthanized and the samples were assessed for new bone formation using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and histomorphometry with 2 regions of interest. Detail histology, enzymehistochemistry and immunohistochemistry as well as connexin-43 in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy were carried out for evaluation of degradation behavior of the materials and cellular responses of the surrounding tissue in respect to the implants. HR-pQCT showed the highest BV/TV ratio (p = 0.008) and smallest trabecular spacing (p = 0.005) for HA compared to the other groups in the region of interest at the interface with 1mm distance to the initially created defect. The HA/col-1 yielded the highest connectivity density (Conn.D) (p = 0.034) and the highest number of trabeculae (Tb.N) (p = 0.002) compared to the HA and the control group. Histomorphometric analysis for the core region of the initially created defect revealed a statistically higher new bone formation in the HA (p = 0.001) and HA/col-1 group (p = 0.001) compared to the empty defect group including all defect sites. This result was confirmed for site specific analysis with significant higher new bone formation for the HA group for vertebral defects compared to the empty defect group (p = 0.029). For the interface region, no statistically significant differences were found between the three groups (p = 0.08). Histology revealed a good biocompatibility without inflammatory reaction for the HA- and HA/col-1 implants with a higher fragmentation of the HA-implant compared to the HA/col-1 biomaterial and formation of new bone in the region between the biomaterial fragments by osteoblasts. Fragmentation was shown by transmission electron microscopy to be caused by multinuclear osteoclast-like cells with degradation of the implant via intracellular incorporation of degraded implant material particles. In conclusion, both nanoparticulate HA with and without collagen type-1 showed better new bone formation compared to untreated drill hole defects in metaphyseal regions of this osteoporotic Chinese mountain goat model with good biocompatibility.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0020-1383(16)47010-5

    View details for PubMedID 27338229

  • Fracture healing in osteoporotic bone. Injury Cheung, W. H., Miclau, T., Chow, S. K., Yang, F. F., Alt, V. 2016; 47 Suppl 2: S21-6


    As the world population rises, osteoporotic fracture is an emerging global threat to the well-being of elderly patients. The process of fracture healing by intramembranous ossification or/and endochondral ossification involve many well-orchestrated events including the signaling, recruitment and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during the early phase; formation of a hard callus and extracellular matrix, angiogenesis and revascularization during the mid-phase; and finally callus remodeling at the late phase of fracture healing. Through clinical and animal research, many of these factors are shown to be impaired in osteoporotic bone. Animal studies related to post-menopausal estrogen deficient osteoporosis (type I) have shown healing to be prolonged with decreased levels of MSCs and decreased levels of angiogenesis. Moreover, the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) was shown to be delayed in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture. This might be related to the observed difference in mechanical sensitivity between normal and osteoporotic bones, which requires further experiments to elucidate. In mice fracture models related to senile osteoporosis (type II), it was observed that chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation were impaired; and that transplantation of juvenile bone marrow would result in enhanced callus formation. Other factors related to angiogenesis and vasculogenesis have also been noted to be impaired in aged models, affecting the degradation of cartilaginous matrixes and vascular invasion; the result is changes in matrix composition and growth factors concentrations that ultimately impairs healing during age-related osteoporosis. Most osteoporotic related fractures occur at metaphyseal sites clinically, and reports have indicated that differences exist between diaphyseal and metaphyseal fractures. An animal model that satisfies three main criteria (metaphyseal region, plate fixation, osteoporosis) is suggested for future research for more comprehensive understanding of the impairment in osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, a metaphyseal fracture or osteotomy that achieves complete discontinuity fixed with metal implants is suggested on ovariectomized aged rodent models.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0020-1383(16)47004-X

    View details for PubMedID 27338222

  • Ultrasound and fragility fracture: is there a role? Injury Cheung, W. H., Leung, K. S., Chow, S. K. 2016; 47 Suppl 1: S39-42


    Osteoporotic fracture is known to have impaired healing capacity and therefore takes longer time to heal, as compared with younger one. The mechanism of impaired osteoporotic fracture healing is multifactorial, where lower responsiveness to mechanical loading is generally believed to be one factor, yet not absolutely confirmed. In recent years, low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is demonstrated to have good efficacy in treating normal fracture healing, as proven by many randomized controlled trials, as well as in vitro and animal evidences. The effects of LIPUS on osteoporotic fracture healing was also validated in an animal study, which revealed that osteoporotic fractured bone of SD rats showed radiologically and biomechanically comparable responses to LIPUS as age-matched normal fracture healing, in terms of callus width, bridging rate, bone volume fraction, and stiffness etc. Gene expression profiling also confirmed that osteoporotic fractured bone responded to LIPUS very well by upregulating Col1 and BMP2 (osteogenesis) at early phase, VEGF (angiogenesis) at middle phase and RANKL (remodeling) at late phase. These confirm that osteoporotic bones respond well to LIPUS as good as normal bone. These findings may be associated with estrogen receptors (ERs), as estrogen depletion is sensed and relayed by ERs and ERs also function as mechano-sensors. A previous study observed a delayed ERs expression pattern in fracture callus of OVX rats, as compared with SHAM rats, which correlated well with the expression pattern of BMP-2 (callus formation-related gene). Hence, the responses of osteoporotic fractured bone to LIPUS may be related to the local ERs expression at fracture callus that needs further experiments to validate.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0020-1383(16)30010-9

    View details for PubMedID 26768290

  • Muscle mass, structural and functional investigations of senescence-accelerated mouse P8 (SAMP8). Experimental animals Guo, A. Y., Leung, K. S., Siu, P. M., Qin, J. H., Chow, S. K., Qin, L., Li, C. Y., Cheung, W. H. 2015; 64 (4): 425-33


    Sarcopenia is an age-related systemic syndrome with progressive deterioration in skeletal muscle functions and loss in mass. Although the senescence-accelerated mouse P8 (SAMP8) was reported valid for muscular ageing research, there was no report on the details such as sarcopenia onset time. Therefore, this study was to investigate the change of muscle mass, structure and functions during the development of sarcopenia. Besides the average life span, muscle mass, structural and functional measurements were also studied. Male SAMP8 animals were examined at month 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, in which the right gastrocnemius was isolated and tested for ex vivo contractile properties and fatigability while the contralateral one was harvested for muscle fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA) and typing assessments. Results showed that the peak of muscle mass appeared at month 7 and the onset of contractility decline was observed from month 8. Compared with month 8, most of the functional parameters at month 10 decreased significantly. Structurally, muscle fiber type IIA made up the largest proportion of the gastrocnemius, and the fiber size was found to peak at month 8. Based on the altered muscle mass, structural and functional outcomes, it was concluded that the onset of sarcopenia in SAMP8 animals was at month 8. SAMP8 animals at month 8 should be at pre-sarcopenia stage while month 10 at sarcopenia stage. It is confirmed that SAMP8 mouse can be used in sarcopenia research with established time line in this study.

    View details for DOI 10.1538/expanim.15-0025

    View details for PubMedID 26193895

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4637380

  • Coadministrating luteolin minimizes the side effects of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics Li, F., Wong, T. Y., Lin, S. M., Chow, S., Cheung, W. H., Chan, F. L., Chen, S., Leung, L. K. 2014; 351 (2): 270-7


    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been used as adjuvant therapeutic agents for breast cancer. Their adverse side effect on blood lipid is well documented. Some natural compounds have been shown to be potential AIs. In the present study, we compared the efficacy of the flavonoid luteolin to the clinically approved AI letrozole (Femara; Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ) in a cell and a mouse model. In the in vitro experimental results for aromatase inhibition, the Ki values of luteolin and letrozole were estimated to be 2.44 µM and 0.41 nM, respectively. Both letrozole and luteolin appeared to be competitive inhibitors. Subsequently, an animal model was used for the comparison. Aromatase-expressing MCF-7 cells were transplanted into ovariectomized athymic mice. Luteolin was given by mouth at 5, 20, and 50 mg/kg, whereas letrozole was administered by intravenous injection. Similar to letrozole, luteolin administration reduced plasma estrogen concentrations and suppressed the xenograft proliferation. The regulation of cell cycle and apoptotic proteins-such as a decrease in the expression of Bcl-xL, cyclin-A/D1/E, CDK2/4, and increase in that of Bax-was about the same in both treatments. The most significant disparity was on blood lipids. In contrast to letrozole, luteolin increased fasting plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations and produced a desirable blood lipid profile. These results suggested that the flavonoid could be a coadjuvant therapeutic agent without impairing the action of AIs.

    View details for DOI 10.1124/jpet.114.216754

    View details for PubMedID 25138022

  • Callus formation is related to the expression ratios of estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture healing. Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery Chow, S. K., Leung, K. S., Qin, L., Wei, F., Cheung, W. H. 2014; 134 (10): 1405-16


    This study characterizes ovariectomized (OVX)-induced osteoporotic fracture healing with focus on estrogen receptors (ERs). Callus formation plays a critical role in fracture healing, and ERs are well-known mechanosensors in osteogenic pathways. It was hypothesized that callus formation was related to and partially determined by the difference in expression patterns of ERs in both normal and OVX-induced osteoporotic fractures.Closed femoral fracture in SHAM and ovariectomized rats were used in this study. Weekly callus width (CW) and area (CA), endpoint mechanical properties, gene expressions of Col-1, BMP-2, ER-α, ER-β and ER-α:ER-β ratios (ER-ratios), and correlations were assessed at 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-fracture.CW and CA results confirmed that OVX-induced osteoporotic fracture was delayed at 2-4 weeks with impaired endpoint mechanical properties. Gene expressions of ER-α and ER-β were higher in the SHAM group at week 2 (p < 0.05) and later lowered at week 8; whereas the OVX group showed an opposing trend. Moderate correlation existed between ER-α and BMP-2 (0.545, p = 0.003), and ER-ratio and BMP-2 (0.601, p = 0.001), and BMP-2 to CW and CA (r = 0.709, p = 0.000 and r = 0.588, p = 0.001, respectively). ER-α and ER-β proteins expressions were confirmed by immunohistochemistry at the fracture callus in reparative progenitor cells, osteoblasts- and osteoclasts-like cells.We conclude that the delayed healing rate and impaired callus quality in OVX-induced osteoporotic fracture is related to the delayed expression of ERs. A high ER-α:ER-β ratio favors callus formation.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00402-014-2070-0

    View details for PubMedID 25085540

  • Low intensity pulsed ultrasound enhanced mesenchymal stem cell recruitment through stromal derived factor-1 signaling in fracture healing. PloS one Wei, F. Y., Leung, K. S., Li, G., Qin, J., Chow, S. K., Huang, S., Sun, M. H., Qin, L., Cheung, W. H. 2014; 9 (9): e106722


    Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been proven effective in promoting fracture healing but the underlying mechanisms are not fully depicted. We examined the effect of LIPUS on the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the pivotal role of stromal cell-derived factor-1/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (SDF-1/CXCR4) pathway in response to LIPUS stimulation, which are essential factors in bone fracture healing. For in vitro study, isolated rat MSCs were divided into control or LIPUS group. LIPUS treatment was given 20 minutes/day at 37 °C for 3 days. Control group received sham LIPUS treatment. After treatment, intracellular CXCR4 mRNA, SDF-1 mRNA and secreted SDF-1 protein levels were quantified, and MSCs migration was evaluated with or without blocking SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway by AMD3100. For in vivo study, fractured 8-week-old young rats received intracardiac administration of MSCs were assigned to LIPUS treatment, LIPUS+AMD3100 treatment or vehicle control group. The migration of transplanted MSC to the fracture site was investigated by ex vivo fluorescent imaging. SDF-1 protein levels at fracture site and in serum were examined. Fracture healing parameters, including callus morphology, micro-architecture of the callus and biomechanical properties of the healing bone were investigated. The in vitro results showed that LIPUS upregulated SDF-1 and CXCR4 expressions in MSCs, and elevated SDF-1 protein level in the conditioned medium. MSCs migration was promoted by LIPUS and partially inhibited by AMD3100. In vivo study demonstrated that LIPUS promoted MSCs migration to the fracture site, which was associated with an increase of local and serum SDF-1 level, the changes in callus formation, and the improvement of callus microarchitecture and mechanical properties; whereas the blockade of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling attenuated the LIPUS effects on the fractured bones. These results suggested SDF-1 mediated MSCs migration might be one of the crucial mechanisms through which LIPUS exerted influence on fracture healing.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0106722

    View details for PubMedID 25181476

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4152330

  • The citrus flavonone hesperetin prevents letrozole-induced bone loss in a mouse model of breast cancer. journal of nutritional biochemistry Li, F., Chow, S., Cheung, W., Chan, F. L., Chen, S., Leung, L. K. 2013; 24 (6): 1112-1116


    Aromatase is a key enzyme in estrogen synthesis, and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been developed for treating estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Because of its nondiscriminatory inhibition of estrogen synthesis, patients treated with AIs also contract diseases typically associated with estrogen deficiency, such as bone deterioration. Our laboratory found that the citrus flavonone hesperetin could inhibit aromatase, and the selective estrogen receptor modulator nature of flavonoid might counteract the undesirable effect of AIs. In the present study, we employed an established postmenopausal model for breast carcinogenesis to examine the drug interaction between hesperetin and letrozole, one of the AIs. Athymic mice were ovariectomized and transplanted with aromatase-overexpressing MCF-7 cells (MCF-7aro). Hesperetin was administered in the diet at 5000 ppm, and letrozole was injected sc at different doses. Results showed that either hesperetin or letrozole could reduce plasma estrogen level and inhibit tumor growth. Most importantly, the letrozole-induced bone loss measured as bone volume fraction was reversed by hesperetin without compromising on the deterrence of MCF-7aro tumor growth. Taken together, the present study suggested that hesperetin could be a potential cotherapeutic agent to AI.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.08.010

    View details for PubMedID 23238426

  • Three-dimensional high frequency power Doppler ultrasonography for the assessment of microvasculature during fracture healing in a rat model. Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society Sun, M. H., Leung, K. S., Zheng, Y. P., Huang, Y. P., Wang, L. K., Qin, L., Leung, A. H., Chow, S. K., Cheung, W. H. 2012; 30 (1): 137-43


    We aimed to establish a novel approach with 3D high frequency power Doppler ultrasonography (3D-HF-PDU) to assess microvasculature at the fracture site in rat femurs by comparing with microCT-based microangiography. Twenty-four 9-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporotic rats and age-matched sham-ovariectomized (Sham) rats were used for establishing closed fracture models on right femora. At 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-operatively, four rats in each group underwent in vivo 3D-HF-PDU scanning for evaluation of vascularization and blood flow at the fracture site. Then the fractured femora were harvested for ex vivo microangiography, and neovasculatures within the callus were reconstructed for vascular volume analysis. Correlation between the vascular volumes of the two methodologies was examined. Both 3D-HF-PDU and microangiography showed a decline of vascular volume at the fracture site from 2 to 8 weeks and a significantly larger volume in the Sham group than the OVX group. A significant linear positive correlation (r = 0.87, p < 0.001) was detected between the volumes measured by the two methodologies. Osteoporotic rats had a diminished angiogenic response and lower blood perfusion than Shams. We believe 3D-HF-PDU is feasible and reproducible for in vivo assessment of microvasculature during femoral fracture healing in rats.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.21490

    View details for PubMedID 21698663

  • Restoration of longitudinal growth by bioengineered cartilage pellet in physeal injury is not affected by low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials Chow, S. K., Lee, K. M., Qin, L., Leung, K. S., Cheung, W. H. 2011; 99 (1): 36-44


    Physeal fracture is a common pediatric fracture that would result in premature physeal closure in long bones, and there is currently no gold standard for its management. In this study, we investigated the application of a Bioengineered Cartilage Pellet (BCP) in repairing a rabbit physeal fracture model, and the possible effects of Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) treatment. Rabbits with physeal fracture created were assigned to the NC group (no BCP, no LIPUS), GC group (BCP, no LIPUS), and GT group (BCP and LIPUS). Femoral lengths and cartilage area were assessed at 4, 8, and 16 weeks post-defect. After transplantation, the BCP showed continuous growth in the host and demonstrated resemblance to a natural growth plate. The GC group showed 34.1, 32.1, and 41.1% advantage in lengthening over the NC group and the GT group showed 51.1, 41.6, and 26.9% improved lengthening than the NC group, at 4 (p = 0.203), 8 (p = 0.543) and 16 weeks (p = 0.049), respectively. Cartilage area was shown to be significantly higher in GC and GT group compared to NC group (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found between GC and GT group. Femoral longitudinal growth was shown to be improved by the BCP, however no additional enhancement effect was shown to be provided by LIPUS.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbm.b.31869

    View details for PubMedID 21681954

  • Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerated callus formation, angiogenesis and callus remodeling in osteoporotic fracture healing. Ultrasound in medicine & biology Cheung, W. H., Chow, S. K., Sun, M. H., Qin, L., Leung, K. S. 2011; 37 (2): 231-8


    Osteoporotic fracture is a critical medico-social challenge leading to burdens in health care costs and hospital bed stays. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) was reported to accelerate normal fracture; however, its effect on osteoporotic fracture has not been previously addressed. We hypothesize that LIPUS can accelerate osteoporotic fracture healing and up-regulate the expression in the osteogenesis-, remodeling- and angiogenesis-related genes. Ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture rat model was used to investigate the effects of LIPUS. Fractured rats were assigned to LIPUS or control group and healing was assessed by gene expression quantification, radiographic callus morphometry and histomorphometry. In the LIPUS group, Col-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 were up-regulated at earlier time points of week 2 to week 4 post-fracture; vascular endothelial growth factor was found to be up-regulated at week 4 to week 8; osteoprotegerin was up-regulated at week 2 post-fracture, followed by the surge of RANKL expression. Callus width and area measurements showed higher callus formation at weeks 2-4 in the LIPUS group and more rapid drop at weeks 6-8. Histomorphometry showed enhanced endochondral ossification in the callus at weeks 2-4, and lower at week 8. We conclude that LIPUS can accelerate osteoporotic fracture healing by enhancing callus formation, angiogenesis and callus remodeling.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2010.11.016

    View details for PubMedID 21257088