Doctor of Philosophy, Seoul National University (2020)
Bachelor of Science, University of Auckland (2015)
Peter Kim, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Enhancing HIV-1 Neutralization by Increasing the Local Concentration of Membrane-Proximal External Region-Directed Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies.
Journal of virology
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the gp41 component of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) are characterized by long, hydrophobic, heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3s (HCDR3s) that interact with the MPER and some viral membrane lipids to achieve increased local concentrations. Here, we show that increasing the local concentration of MPER-directed bNAbs at the cell surface via binding to the high-affinity Fc receptor FcγRI potentiates their ability to prevent viral entry in a manner analogous to the previously reported observation wherein the lipid-binding activity of MPER bNAbs increases their concentration at the viral surface membrane. However, binding of MPER-directed bNAb 10E8 to FcγRI abolishes the neutralization synergy that is seen with the N-heptad repeat (NHR)-targeting antibody D5_AR and NHR-targeting small molecule enfuvirtide (T20), possibly due to decreased accessibility of the NHR in the FcγRI-10E8-MPER complex. Taken together, our results suggest that lipid-binding activity and FcγRI-mediated potentiation function in concert to improve the potency of MPER-directed bNAbs by increasing their local concentration near the site of viral fusion. Therefore, lipid binding may not be a strict requirement for potent neutralization by MPER-targeting bNAbs, as alternative methods can achieve similar increases in local concentrations while avoiding potential liabilities associated with immunologic host tolerance. IMPORTANCE The trimeric glycoprotein Env, the only viral protein expressed on the surface of HIV-1, is the target of broadly neutralizing antibodies and the focus of most vaccine development efforts. Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of Env show lipid-binding characteristics, and modulating this interaction affects neutralization. In this study, we tested the neutralization potencies of variants of the MPER-targeting antibody 10E8 with different viral-membrane-binding and host FcγRI-binding capabilities. Our results suggest that binding to both lipid and FcγRI improves the neutralization potency of MPER-directed antibodies by concentrating the antibodies at sites of viral fusion. As such, lipid binding may not be uniquely required for MPER-targeting broadly neutralizing antibodies, as alternative methods to increase local concentration can achieve similar improvements in potency.
View details for DOI 10.1128/jvi.01647-22
View details for PubMedID 36541800
Specific ablation of PDGFRbeta-overexpressing pericytes with antibody-drug conjugate potently inhibits pathologic ocular neovascularization in mouse models.
2021; 1: 58
Background: Crosstalk between pericytes and endothelial cells is critical for ocular neovascularization. Endothelial cells secrete platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and recruit PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRbeta)-overexpressing pericytes, which in turn cover and stabilize neovessels, independent of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Therapeutic agents inhibiting PDGF-BB/PDGFRbeta signaling were tested in clinical trials but failed to provide additional benefits over anti-VEGF agents. We tested whether an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) - an engineered monoclonal antibody linked to a cytotoxic agent - could selectively ablate pericytes and suppress retinal and choroidal neovascularization.Methods: Immunoblotting, flow cytometry, cell viability test, and confocal microscopy were conducted to assess the internalization and cytotoxic effect of ADC targeting mPDGFRbeta in an in vitro setting. Immunofluorescence staining of whole-mount retinas and retinal pigment epithelium-choroid-scleral complexes, electroretinography, and OptoMotry test were used to evaluate the effect and safety of ADC targeting mPDGFRbeta in the mouse models of pathologic ocular neovascularization.Results: ADC targeting mPDGFRbeta is effectively internalized into mouse brain vascular pericytes and showed significant cytotoxicity compared with the control ADC. We also show that specific ablation of PDGFRbeta-overexpressing pericytes using an ADC potently inhibits pathologic ocular neovascularization in mouse models of oxygen-induced retinopathy and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization, while not provoking generalized retinal toxicity.Conclusion: Our results suggest that removing PDGFRbeta-expressing pericytes by an ADC targeting PDGFRbeta could be a potential therapeutic strategy for pathologic ocular neovascularization.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s43856-021-00059-3
View details for PubMedID 35602228