Sophie D'Souza is a PhD student in Developmental and Psychological Sciences with a cross-area specialisation in Race, Inequality, and Language in Education.

Education & Certifications

  • Ed.M, Harvard University, Human Development and Psychology (2021)
  • BA (Hons), University of Cambridge, Psychological and Behavioural Sciences (2017)

All Publications

  • "Containing the Network": Referrers' Experiences of the Community Forensic CAMHS Consultation and Liaison Model INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FORENSIC MENTAL HEALTH Jacob, J., Merrick, H., Lane, R., Cracknell, L., Labno, A., D'Souza, S., White, O., Edbrooke-Childs, J. 2024
  • Staff burnout in the Children and Young People Secure Estate (CYPSE) in England JOURNAL OF WORKPLACE BEHAVIORAL HEALTH Lane, R., Labno, A., D'Souza, S., Ullman, R., Singleton, R., Bevington, D., Law, D., Rogers, A., Jacob, J., Edbrooke-Childs, J. 2023
  • "I'm not Just Some Criminal, I'm Actually a Person to Them Now": The Importance of Child-Staff Therapeutic Relationships in the Children and Young People Secure Estate INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FORENSIC MENTAL HEALTH Jacob, J., D'Souza, S., Lane, R., Cracknell, L., Singleton, R., Edbrooke-Childs, J. 2023
  • "If I Didn't Have Them, I'm Not Sure How I Would Have Coped with Everything Myself": Empowering and Supporting Parents/Carers of High-Risk Young People Assisted by Community Forensic CAMHS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FORENSIC MENTAL HEALTH Jacob, J., Lane, R., D'Souza, S., Cracknell, L., White, O., Edbrooke-Childs, J. 2023; 22 (1): 56-68
  • Transition outcomes for young people discharged from adolescent medium secure services in England: A qualitative study exploring adolescents' and carers' experiences CLINICAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY Livanou, M., Bull, M., Lane, R., D'Souza, S., El Asam, A., Singh, S. P. 2021; 26 (4): 1227-1242


    Young people in secure services present with multiple vulnerabilities; therefore, transition periods are especially challenging for this group. In this study, we followed up young people discharged from adolescent medium secure services to adult and community settings with the aim to explore transition experiences and outcomes.Participants were recruited from 15 child and adult mental health services in England. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 13 young people, aged 18-19 years, moving from adolescent medium secure units 2-6 months post-transition, and five carers 1-3 months pre-transition. Thematic analysis was performed to identify predetermined or data-driven themes elicited from face-to-face interviews.The findings indicated poor transition outcomes for young people with the most severe mental health symptoms and those who committed serious offences. Three overarching themes were identified: (1) unsettling environmental factors within adult services; (2) experiences of transition management and preparation and (3) parental experiences of transition process and engagement with adult services.The findings of this study indicate that young people and carers value ongoing involvement in the transition process by well-informed parallel care. They also highlight the need for a national integrative care model that diverges from the traditional 'one-size-fits-all' approach.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/13591045211026048

    View details for Web of Science ID 000700000300001

    View details for PubMedID 34546140

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8593306

  • Characteristics of young people accessing recently implemented Community Forensic Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (F:CAMHS) in England: insights from national service activity data EUROPEAN CHILD & ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Lane, R., D'Souza, S., Singleton, R., Hindley, N., Bevington, D., White, O., Jacob, J., Wheeler, J., Edbrooke-Childs, J. 2023; 32 (3): 405-417


    Children and young people in contact with forensic child and adolescent mental health services present with more complex needs than young people in the general population. Recent policy in child and adolescent mental health has led to the implementation of new workstreams and programmes to improve service provision. This research examines the characteristics of children and young people referred to recently commissioned Community Forensic Child and Adolescent Services (F:CAMHS) and service activity during the first 24 months of service. The study is a national cohort study to describe the population and investigate service provision and access across England. Secondary data on 1311 advice cases and 1406 referrals are included in analysis. Findings show that 71.9% of the sample had accessed mainstream CAMHS before their referral, 50.9% had experienced/witnessed multiple traumatic events and 58.4% of young people presented with multiple difficulties. The results of the study highlight the complexity of the cohort and a need for interagency trauma-informed working. This is the first study to describe the characteristics of children and young people referred to Community F:CAMHS and provides valuable information on pathways and needs to inform service policy and provision.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00787-021-01870-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000695781700001

    View details for PubMedID 34519859

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10038947

  • Challenges and Facilitators During Transitions from Adolescent Medium Secure Units to Adult Services in England: Interviews with Mental Healthcare Professionals ADMINISTRATION AND POLICY IN MENTAL HEALTH AND MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH Livanou, M., D'Souza, S., Lane, R., La Plante, B., Singh, S. P. 2021; 48 (6): 1089-1104


    Young people moving from child and adolescent secure hospitals present with complex needs and vulnerabilities and are more likely to experience poor transition outcomes. Previous research has indicated the presence of several risk factors in periods of transition, such as poor liaison among services, lack of proper planning, shortage of beds in adult services, multiple transitions and lack of emotional readiness. However, little evidence exists about the processes and outcomes of transitions from adolescent secure services to adult settings. This study aims to bridge the gap in the existing literature by exploring the views and experiences of key professionals involved in the transition process from six adolescent medium secure units to nine adult secure and community services in England. Thirty-four key workers from 15 child and adolescent (N = 21) and adult (N = 13) forensic hospitals were interviewed to provide information about potential barriers and facilitators to transitions. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted between January 2016 and December 2017. Thematic analysis was used to identify challenges and facilitators to transitions. Three primary themes were identified: (1) transition processes and preparation; (2) transition barriers and challenges; (3) success factors to transition. Key differences in adult and adolescent service care-models and lack of emotional and developmental readiness to moving onto adult-oriented settings constitute major barriers to positive transition outcomes. Practice and policy implications are considered to address the need for service transformations.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10488-021-01115-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000621247700002

    View details for PubMedID 33625622

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8502166

  • Realist Process Evaluation of the implementation and impact of an organisational cultural transformation programme in the Children and Young People's Secure Estate (CYPSE) in England: study protocol BMJ OPEN D'Souza, S., Lane, R., Jacob, J., Livanou, M., Riches, W., Rogers, A., Ullman, R., Rashid, A., Singleton, R., Wheeler, J., Bevington, D., Deighton, J., Fonagy, P., Fuggle, P., Law, D., Edbrooke-Childs, J. 2021; 11 (5): e045680


    Young people in contact with the youth justice system are more likely to present with complex ongoing needs than young people in the general population. To address this, the Framework for Integrated Care (SECURE STAIRS) is being implemented in the Children and Young People's Secure Estate: a 'whole systems' approach to support secure settings to develop trauma-informed and relationally based environments, supporting staff to provide consistent, therapeutic care. This paper aims to present the protocol for a national cohort study examining the impact and implementation of this cultural transformation programme.A mixed-methods realist evaluation will be conducted. Data collection will take place between August 2018 and December 2020. Eighteen sites will collect routine service activity data and questionnaires completed by young people, parents/guardians and staff. Semi-structured interviews and non-participant observations will be conducted across five qualitative focus sites with young people and staff. An economic evaluation will examine value for money. The results will be triangulated at the analysis stage to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences.Ethical approval was granted by the Health Research Authority, Her Majesty's Prison and Probation Service and UCL Ethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated via project reports, site feedback, peer-reviewed journal publications and conference presentations.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045680

    View details for Web of Science ID 000692022900017

    View details for PubMedID 34049914

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8166603

  • A retrospective case note review of young people in transition from adolescent medium secure units to adult services JOURNAL OF FORENSIC PRACTICE Livanou, M., Lane, R., D'Souza, S., Singh, S. P. 2020; 22 (3): 161-172