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  • Pro-inflammatory markers associated with COVID-19-related persistent olfactory dysfunction INTERNATIONAL FORUM OF ALLERGY & RHINOLOGY Jang, S. S., Pak, K. S., Strom, A., Gomez, L., Kim, L., Doherty, T. A., Deconde, A. S., Ryan, A. F., Yan, C. H. 2023


    While localized inflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) olfactory dysfunction (OD), persistent COVID-19 OD remains poorly understood with limited therapeutics. Our prospective study evaluated olfactory cleft (OC) biomarkers as predictors of persistent OD in mucus sampling.COVID-19 subjects with persistent OD >3 months confirmed by psychophysical olfaction tests were compared to COVID-19 subjects with no OD and those with no prior infection. OC mucus samples were evaluated for 13 anti-viral and inflammatory biomarkers. Cohorts were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney tests with multi-comparison adjustment. Viral RNA was assessed through RT-PCR using the COVID-19 N2 primer.Thirty-five samples were collected (20 COVID persistent OD, 8 COVID no OD, and 7 non-COVID no OD). Significant differences in IFN-λ1 (p = 0.007) and IFN-γ (p = 0.006) expression in OC mucus were found across all three groups, with the highest cytokine concentrations corresponding to COVID OD. IFN-α2 levels were elevated in COVID OD versus no OD (p = 0.026). Mean IFN-γ levels were the highest in COVID OD, but there were higher levels found in COVID no OD compared to non-COVID no OD (p = 0.008). No difference was seen in IL6. No N2 gene expression was detected in all cohorts.IFN pathway cytokines were found elevated in the olfactory microenvironment of COVID-19 persistent OD compared to those with no OD and no prior history of COVID-19 infection.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/alr.23264

    View details for Web of Science ID 001063172600001

    View details for PubMedID 37676246

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10918027

  • Fluorescent Guided Sentinel Lymph Mapping of the Oral Cavity with Fluorescent-Labeled Tilmanocept LARYNGOSCOPE Guo, T., Jang, S. S., Ogawa, R., Davis, M., Ashworth, E., Barback, C. V., Hall, D. J., Vera, D. R. 2024; 134 (3): 1299-1307


    With the shift toward utilization of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in oral cavity cancer, improved techniques for intraoperative sentinel node identification are needed. This study investigates the feasibility of fluorescently labeled tilmanoscept in SLNB in an oral cancer rabbit model.An animal study was designed using 21 healthy male New Zealand rabbits. Gallium-68-labeled tilmanocept labeled with IRDye800CW was injected submucosally into the buccal mucosa (n = 6) or lateral tongue (n = 7) followed by PET imaging. One hour after injection, SLNB was performed using fluorescence imaging followed by a bilateral neck dissection and sampling of non-nodal surrounding tissue. All tissues were measured for radioactivity and fluorescence. In addition, eight rabbits were injected with delayed SLNB performed 48 h after injection.Buccal injections all had ipsilateral SLN drainage and tongue injections exhibited 18.2% contralateral drainage. An average of 1.9 ± 1.0 SLN (range 1-5) were identified. In addition, an average of 16.9 ± 3.3 non-sentinel lymph nodes were removed per animal. SLNs had an average of 0.69 ± 0.60 percent-of-injected dose (%ID) compared with non-sentinel nodes with 0.012 ± 0.025 %ID and surrounding tissue with 0.0067 ± 0.015 %ID. There was 98.0% agreement between sentinel lymph nodes identified using fluorescence compared to radioactivity with Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.879. In 48-h delayed SLNB, results were consistent with 97.8% agreement with radioactivity and Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.884. Fluorescence identified additional lymph nodes that were not identified by radioactivity, and with one false negative.Fluorescent-labeled Tc-99 m-tilmanocept represents a highly accurate adjunct to enhance SLNB for oral cavity cancer.N/A Laryngoscope, 134:1299-1307, 2024.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lary.31014

    View details for Web of Science ID 001061554100001

    View details for PubMedID 37668315

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10912359

  • Persistent post-COVID-19 smell loss is associated with immune cell infiltration and altered gene expression in olfactory epithelium SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Finlay, J. B., Brann, D. H., Hachem, R., Jang, D. W., Oliva, A. D., Ko, T., Gupta, R., Wellford, S. A., Mosema, E., Jang, S. S., Yan, C. H., Matsunami, H., Tsukahara, T., Datta, S., Goldstein, B. J. 2022; 14 (676): eadd0484


    SARS-CoV-2 causes profound changes in the sense of smell, including total smell loss. Although these alterations are often transient, many patients with COVID-19 exhibit olfactory dysfunction that lasts months to years. Although animal and human autopsy studies have suggested mechanisms driving acute anosmia, it remains unclear how SARS-CoV-2 causes persistent smell loss in a subset of patients. To address this question, we analyzed olfactory epithelial samples collected from 24 biopsies, including from nine patients with objectively quantified long-term smell loss after COVID-19. This biopsy-based approach revealed a diffuse infiltrate of T cells expressing interferon-γ and a shift in myeloid cell population composition, including enrichment of CD207+ dendritic cells and depletion of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Despite the absence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA or protein, gene expression in the barrier supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium, termed sustentacular cells, appeared to reflect a response to ongoing inflammatory signaling, which was accompanied by a reduction in the number of olfactory sensory neurons relative to olfactory epithelial sustentacular cells. These findings indicate that T cell-mediated inflammation persists in the olfactory epithelium long after SARS-CoV-2 has been eliminated from the tissue, suggesting a mechanism for long-term post-COVID-19 smell loss.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.add0484

    View details for Web of Science ID 000906897700001

    View details for PubMedID 36542694

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10317309

  • Use of platelet-rich plasma for COVID-19 related olfactory loss, a randomized controlled trial. International forum of allergy & rhinology Yan, C. H., Jang, S. S., Lin, H. C., Ma, Y., Khanwalker, A. R., Thai, A., Patel, Z. M. 2022


    This study evaluated the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), an autologous blood product with supraphysiologic concentrations of growth factors, in the treatment of prolonged COVID-19 related smell loss.This multi-institutional, randomized controlled trial recruited COVID-19 patients with objectively measured smell loss (University of Pennsylvania's Smell Identification Test, UPSIT≤33) between 6-12 months. Subjects were randomized to 3 intranasal injections of either PRP or sterile saline into their olfactory clefts. Primary outcome measure was change in Sniffin' sticks score (TDI) from baseline. Secondary endpoint measures included responder rate (achievement of a clinically significant improvement, ≥5.5 point TDI), change in individual TDI olfaction scores, and change in subjective olfaction via a visual analogue scale.35 subjects were recruited and 26 completed the study. PRP treatment resulted in a 3.67 point (95% CI: 0.05-7.29, p = 0.047) greater improvement in olfaction compared to the placebo group at 3-months and a higher response rate (57.1% versus 8.3%, odds ratio 12.5, 95% exact bootstrap CI 2.2-116.7). There was a greater improvement in smell discrimination following PRP treatment compared to placebo, but no difference in smell identification or threshold. There was no difference in subjective scores between PRP and placebo. No adverse effects were reported.Olfactory function following COVID-19 can improve spontaneously after 6 months and can improve to a greater extent with PRP injection. This data builds on the promise of PRP to be a safe potential treatment option for patients with COVID-19 smell loss, and larger-powered studies will help further assess efficacy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/alr.23116

    View details for PubMedID 36507615

  • Role of sentinel lymph node biopsy for oral squamous cell carcinoma: Current evidence and future challenges HEAD AND NECK-JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES AND SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK Jang, S. S., Davis, M. E., Vera, D. R., Lai, S. Y., Guo, T. W. 2023; 45 (1): 251-265


    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been used across oncological specialties for prognostication, staging, and identification of occult nodal metastasis. Recent studies demonstrated the potential clinical utility of SLNB in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). Elective neck dissection is the current standard of care in early management of OCSCC with depth of invasion greater than 2-4 mm; however, majority of patients ultimately do not have nodal disease on final pathology. SLNB is an alternative procedure widely adopted in early cancer management in many oncological subspecialities. Several considerations such as depth of invasion, nodal mapping, histopathology methods, operator variability, postoperative complications, and advancement in preoperative and intraoperative imaging technology can guide the appropriate application to SLNB in OCSCC. The aim of this review is to discuss the current evidence for SLNB in the treatment of early stage OCSCC, imaging technologies that support SLNB procedures, and studies that are currently underway.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hed.27207

    View details for Web of Science ID 000863672200001

    View details for PubMedID 36193862

  • Impact of COVID-19 versus chronic rhinosinusitis/rhinitis associated olfactory dysfunction on health utility and quality of life LARYNGOSCOPE INVESTIGATIVE OTOLARYNGOLOGY Thanh Luong, Jang, S. S., Said, M., DeConde, A. S., Yan, C. H. 2022; 7 (5): 1299-1307


    Olfactory dysfunction (OD) is associated with both post-viral and inflammatory etiologies such as COVID-19 and chronic rhinosinusitis/rhinitis (CRS/R) respectively, to result in reduced quality of life (QoL). However, the former typically induces a sudden-onset OD while the latter has a gradual presentation. This study aims to establish and compare health utility values (HUVs) and olfactory-specific QoL measurements between patients with COVID-19 and CRS/R related OD.This prospective study surveyed COVID-19 and CRS/R patients with self-reported OD using HUV assessments (EuroQol-visual analog scale [EQ-VAS], EuroQol-5 dimension [EQ-5D], time trade-off [TTO]) and olfactory and sinonasal QoL measures (questionnaire of olfactory disorders -negative and positive statements [QOD-NS + PS] and sino-nasal outcome test [SNOT-22]). A subgroup of subjects completed objective olfactory testing. Intergroup mean scores were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests.One hundred eleven subjects were enrolled: mean age ± SD (43.0 ± 15.4 years), 55.9% female. CRS/R was associated with lower HUVs as measured by EQ-VAS (CRS/R: 0.67 ± 0.18 vs. COVID-19: 0.74 ± 0.19, p = .03) and worse SNOT-22 scores in both overall (CRS/R: 49.03 ± 21.04 vs. COVID-19: 27.58 ± 18.45, p < .001) and subgroup analysis of objectively confirmed OD subjects (CRS/R: 52.40 ± 22.78 vs. COVID-19: 29.84 ± 21.10, p = .01). On the other hand, COVID-19 has greater burden on olfactory-specific QoL (QOD-NS + PS, COVID-19: 23.19 ± 13.73 vs. CRS/R: 17.25 ± 11.38, p = .04). Both groups demonstrated a similar decrease in health using the EQ-5D assessment.CRS/R associated OD has a more severe impact on general health and sinonasal specific QoL outcomes, while COVID-19 associated OD has a greater burden on olfactory-specific QoL.Level 2c.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lio2.921

    View details for Web of Science ID 000857295700001

    View details for PubMedID 36249088

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9538416

  • Retained Dental Implant in the Maxillary Sinus ENT-EAR NOSE & THROAT JOURNAL Liu, D., Jang, S., Suh, J. D., Borrelli, M., Nasrollahi, T., Raskin, J., Ference, E. H. 2022; 101 (10_SUPPL): 6S-11S


    Implant dentistry has become a popularized means of replacing damaged or missing teeth. Although it has become common practice, there are accounts of implants displacing into surrounding structures, commonly the maxillary sinus. We present the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with chronic left sided pain and pressure found to be secondary to a displaced implant obstructing the left maxillary outflow sinus tract. A systematic review was conducted to assess the current management and treatment options for dental implants displaced into the maxillary sinus. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and the lateral window approach were both found to be safe techniques with minimal postoperative complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/01455613221121043

    View details for Web of Science ID 000840491900001

    View details for PubMedID 35968734

  • Engineering analysis of aortic wall stress and root dilatation in the V-shape surgery for treatment of ascending aortic aneurysms INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY Dong, H., Liu, M., Qin, T., Liang, L., Ziganshin, B., Ellauzi, H., Zafar, M., Jang, S., Elefteriades, J., Sun, W. 2022; 34 (6): 1124-1131


    The study objective was to evaluate the aortic wall stress and root dilatation before and after the novel V-shape surgery for the treatment of ascending aortic aneurysms and root ectasia.Clinical cardiac computed tomography images were obtained for 14 patients [median age, 65 years (range, 33-78); 10 (71%) males] who underwent the V-shape surgery. For 10 of the 14 patients, the computed tomography images of the whole aorta pre- and post-surgery were available, and finite element simulations were performed to obtain the stress distributions of the aortic wall at pre- and post-surgery states. For 6 of the 14 patients, the computed tomography images of the aortic root were available at 2 follow-up time points post-surgery (Post 1, within 4 months after surgery and Post 2, about 20-52 months from Post 1). We analysed the root dilatation post-surgery using change of the effective diameter of the root at the two time points and investigated the relationship between root wall stress and root dilatation.The mean and peak max-principal stresses of the aortic root exhibit a significant reduction, P=0.002 between pre- and post-surgery for both root mean stress (median among the 10 patients presurgery, 285.46 kPa; post-surgery, 199.46 kPa) and root peak stress (median presurgery, 466.66 kPa; post-surgery, 342.40 kPa). The mean and peak max-principal stresses of the ascending aorta also decrease significantly from pre- to post-surgery, with P=0.004 for the mean value (median presurgery, 296.48 kPa; post-surgery, 183.87 kPa), and P=0.002 for the peak value (median presurgery, 449.73 kPa; post-surgery, 282.89 kPa), respectively. The aortic root diameter after the surgery has an average dilatation of 5.01% in total and 2.15%/year. Larger root stress results in larger root dilatation.This study marks the first biomechanical analysis of the novel V-shape surgery. The study has demonstrated significant reduction in wall stress of the aortic root repaired by the surgery. The root was able to dilate mildly post-surgery. Wall stress could be a critical factor for the dilatation since larger root stress results in larger root dilatation. The dilated aortic root within 4 years after surgery is still much smaller than that of presurgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/icvts/ivac004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000804720500026

    View details for PubMedID 35134955

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9159430

  • Clinical factors associated with lower health scores in COVID-19-related persistent olfactory dysfunction INTERNATIONAL FORUM OF ALLERGY & RHINOLOGY Said, M., Luong, T., Jang, S. S., Davis, M. E., DeConde, A. S., Yan, C. H. 2022; 12 (10): 1242-1253


    Patients with persistent COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction (OD) commonly report parosmia. Understanding the impact of COVID-19 OD and parosmia is critical to prioritizing research and interventions. In this study we investigate the impact of parosmia and other clinical and disease characteristics on health state utility values (HUVs) for those with persistent COVID-19 OD.Patients with a history of COVID-19 diagnosis and persistent OD were recruited from a tertiary medical center and a social media support forum for chemosensory dysfunction. Clinical characteristics and disease-specific symptoms were obtained along with self-reported history of smell function and presence of parosmia. HUVs were calculated using indirect (EuroQol 5-Dimension [EQ-5D]) and direct (VAS) measures.Our study included 286 subjects (75.52% women) with persistent COVID-19-related OD. Results (mean ± standard deviation) of HUVs based on EQ-5D and VAS were 0.81 ± 0.14 and 0.73 ± 0.21, respectively. Mean self-reported smell function (on a 0-10 scale) was 9.67 ± 1.25 pre-COVID-19, 0.93 ± 2.34 at diagnosis, and 3.39 ± 2.32 at most current assessment. A total of 89.16% of the subjects reported parosmia and 24.13% sought medical care for anosmia. Seeing an MD for OD (p < 0.001), female gender (EQ-5D only, p = 0.002), a history of chronic pain (p < 0.05) and depression/anxiety (EQ-5D only, p < 0.001) predicted worse health. Parosmia and persistent symptoms, such as shortness of breath, were associated with lower EQ-5D and VAS scores, but did not independently predict poorer health scores on multivariable analysis.Persistent COVID-19 OD results in health states comparable to other chronic diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/alr.22978

    View details for Web of Science ID 000748540800001

    View details for PubMedID 35032409

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9011709

  • A novel computational growth framework for biological tissues: Application to growth of aortic root aneurysm repaired by the V-shape surgery JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS Dong, H., Liu, M., Qin, T., Liang, L., Ziganshin, B., Ellauzi, H., Zafar, M., Jang, S., Elefteriades, J., Sun, W., Gleason, R. L. 2022; 127: 105081


    Ascending aortic aneurysms (AsAA) often include the dilatation of sinotubular junction (STJ) and extend proximally into the aortic root, which usually leads to aortic insufficiency. The novel surgery of the V-shape resection of the noncoronary sinus, for treatment of AsAA with root ectasia, has been shown to be a simpler procedure compared to traditional surgeries. Our previous study showed that the repaired aortic root aneurysms grew after the surgery. In this study, we developed a novel computational growth framework to model the growth of the aortic root repaired by the V-shape surgery. Specifically, the unified-fiber-distribution (UFD) model was applied to describe the hyperelastic deformation of the aortic tissue. A novel kinematic growth evolution law was proposed based on existing observations that the growth rate is linearly dependent on the wall stress. Moreover, we also obtained patient-specific geometries of the repaired aortic root post-surgery at two follow-up time points (Post-1 and Post-2) for 5 patients, based on clinical CT images. The novel computational growth framework was implemented into the Abaqus UMAT user subroutine and applied to model the growth of the aortic root from Post-1 to Post-2. Patient-specific growth parameters were obtained by an optimization procedure. The predicted geometry and stress of the aortic root at Post-2 agree well with the in vivo results. The novel computational growth framework and the optimized growth parameters could be applied to predict the growth of repaired aortic root aneurysms for new patients and to optimize repair strategies for AsAA.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2022.105081

    View details for Web of Science ID 000775926900002

    View details for PubMedID 35092917

  • Measurements of health utility value in COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction INTERNATIONAL FORUM OF ALLERGY & RHINOLOGY Said, M., Jang, S. S., Luong, T., Bernstein, J. D., DeConde, A. S., Yan, C. H. 2022; 12 (6): 863-867

    View details for DOI 10.1002/alr.22930

    View details for Web of Science ID 000738638000001

    View details for PubMedID 34821478

  • Discordance Between Subjective and Objective Measures of Smell and Taste in US Adults OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Jang, S. S., Choi, J. S., Kim, J. H., Kim, N., Ference, E. H. 2022; 166 (3): 572-579


    Examine the rates and factors associated with under- and overreporting of subjective changes in smell or taste as compared with objective measures.Cross-sectional analysis.National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013-2014).We examined participants ≥40 years old who completed subjective questionnaires (smell, n = 3510; taste, n = 3089), validated objective 8-odor pocket smell tests, and NaCl/quinine taste tests. Over- and underreporting was determined by the difference in subjective and objective results. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses incorporated sampling weights.A majority of participants correctly classified impairment: smell (73.7%; 95% CI, 71.2%-76.1%) and taste (78.3%; 95% CI, 75.6%-80.7%). Age ≥65 years (odds ratio, 2.23; P = .001) was associated with underreporting impairment, and persistent cold symptoms (odds ratio, 2.15; P = .001) were associated with overreporting smell impairment. Smoke, onion, and natural gas scents were incorrectly identified more frequently by individuals aged ≥65 years after Bonferroni correction. No factors were associated with under- and overreporting taste impairment.Although the concordance rate between subjective and objective assessment of smell and taste impairment remains high, we found that older age was associated with incorrect report of impairment. This suggests that the subjective perception of smell varies across demographical and clinical factors, and it is important to not overlook such factors in clinical practice. Potentially using a simplified odor assessment regularly in the clinical setting may aid in early detection and intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/01945998211018386

    View details for Web of Science ID 000682620000001

    View details for PubMedID 34154442

  • Smell and Taste Impairment in a Nationwide Sample of US Adults With Chronic Rhinosinusitis Symptoms OTO OPEN Kim, J. H., Choi, J., Jang, S. S., Wrobel, B. B., Ference, E. H. 2021; 5 (1): 2473974X20986756


    To estimate the prevalence of objectively confirmed olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in US adults reporting chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) symptoms in a nationally representative database.Cross-sectional epidemiologic analysis.Data were analyzed from the smell and taste component of the 2013-2014 NHANES data set (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).Individuals reporting the presence of ≥2 cardinal CRS symptoms (nasal blockage, sinus pain, discolored mucus, and dysosmia) were identified as patients with a potential diagnosis of CRS. Associations were examined between the presence of CRS symptoms and both self-reported and objectively measured smell and taste.One-third (33%) of adults who have ≥2 CRS symptoms report subjective olfactory impairment, though only 18% of these adults have quantifiable olfactory dysfunction on objective testing. Of these adults, 27% report subjective taste impairment, but just 17% have quantifiable gustatory dysfunction on objective testing. The presence of ≥2 CRS symptoms was not significantly associated with objective olfactory or gustatory dysfunction, although the individual symptoms of subjective dysosmia and discolored mucus were associated with objectively confirmed olfactory dysfunction.The prevalence of objective olfactory and gustatory dysfunction was higher among adults reporting the presence of ≥2 CRS symptoms, but the differences were not statistically significant. Specific sinonasal symptoms, including discolored mucus and subjective smell dysfunction, were significantly associated with objective smell impairment.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2473974X20986756

    View details for Web of Science ID 000900521600006

    View details for PubMedID 33598596

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7863166

  • Association Between Olfactory Dysfunction and Mortality in US Adults JAMA OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD & NECK SURGERY Choi, J. S., Jang, S. S., Kim, J., Hur, K., Ference, E., Wrobel, B. 2021; 147 (1): 49-55


    A study of olfactory dysfunction and mortality in a large national cohort will aid in better understanding their association when accounting for multiple relevant factors and possible underlying mechanisms.To investigate the association of olfactory dysfunction with all-cause 5-year mortality in US adults.This cohort study included participants 40 years or older from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey who had data on olfaction and mortality (n = 3503). Olfaction was assessed by self-report and objective test (8-odor Pocket Smell Test). Mortality was determined by linking with the National Death Index through February 24, 2019. Data were analyzed from July 1 to September 30, 2019.Olfaction and 5-year mortality. Cox proportional regression models were used to examine the associations between olfaction and mortality while adjusting for demographics and medical comorbidities. Multivariate models were further adjusted for depression and cognitive assessments.Among the 3503 participants (1831 women [52.3%]; mean [SD] age, 59.0 [12.0] years), the prevalence of olfactory dysfunction was 13.5% (95% CI, 11.0%-16.0%) based on results of an objective smell test and 21.6% (95% CI, 18.9%-24.2%) based on self-report. Risk of mortality increased by 18% (95% CI, 7%-29%) per 1-point decrease in smell test score in a multivariate model. The association was significant among adults 65 years or older in association with binary (hazard ratio [HR], 1.95; 95% CI, 1.19-3.21) and linear (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08-1.31) measures of objective olfactory dysfunction, but not among adults aged 40 to 64 years. There was no association between self-reported olfactory dysfunction and mortality. The association between objective olfactory dysfunction and mortality remained after further adjusting for cognitive assessment battery and depression among older adults (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.37).These findings suggest that objective olfactory dysfunction is associated with increased mortality among older adults. In addition to its effect on quality of life, the association of olfactory dysfunction with mortality has implications for physical and cognitive health.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaoto.2020.3502

    View details for Web of Science ID 000587483600001

    View details for PubMedID 33090196

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7582225

  • Celiac disease serology and gut microbiome following protein pump inhibitor treatment MEDICINE Jang, S., Lebwohl, B., Abrams, J. A., Green, P. R., Freedberg, D. E., Alaedini, A. 2020; 99 (35): e21488


    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy characterized by an aberrant immune response to ingested gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Studies have pointed to a rising prevalence of celiac disease in recent decades. Changes in diet and use of medication that may impact the gut microbiome have been suggested as potential contributors. Exposure to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) was recently found to be associated with an increased risk for subsequent diagnosis of celiac disease. We aimed to investigate potential mechanisms for this link by examining the relationship between PPI use and gluten-related immune responses in the context of changes in gut microbiome.We performed a post hoc analysis of blood and fecal samples from a recent randomized trial in order to assess the potential association between PPI use and development of celiac disease serology in conjunction with alterations in gastrointestinal microbial composition. The study included 12 healthy participants who were administered a PPI (Omeprazole; 40 mg twice daily) for 4 or 8 weeks.The analysis did not reveal an overall significant change in levels of serologic markers of celiac disease for the study cohort in response to PPI treatment. However, one individual developed a marked increase in the celiac disease-specific autoantibody response to transglutaminase 2 in conjunction with enhanced immune reactivity to gluten during the trial. Genotyping revealed positivity for the celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 alleles. Furthermore, the observed elevation in antibody responses was closely associated with a sharp increase in fecal abundance of bacteria of the order Actinomycetales.The results of this exploratory analysis support further investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in the contribution of PPIs to celiac disease risk through the potential enhancement of gluten immunopathology and changes in gut microbial population.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MD.0000000000021488

    View details for Web of Science ID 000579132500013

    View details for PubMedID 32871870

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7458245

  • Integration and Sustainability of Electronic Surgical Logbooks in Sub-Saharan Africa WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY Harrington, C. M., Jang, S. S., Mangaoang, D., O'Flynn, E., Minja, C., Chikoya, L., Bekele, A., Borgstein, E. 2020; 44 (10): 3259-3267


    Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa lack adequate surgical workforces to achieve safe and affordable care for their populations. The Global Surgery movement highlights the urgent need to address this situation. Interventions include not only financial, material and infrastructural support, but also collaborative information flow to support surgical training. In 2015, an electronic logbook was launched for surgical trainees across Sub-Saharan Africa.To assess the integration and context sustainability of surgical e-logbooks in Sub-Saharan Africa.In January 2019, a survey analysis of surgical trainees was employed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants (active trainees and recent fellows) completed an anonymous internet-based questionnaire evaluating end-user feedback, perceptions and self-reported compliance. Multi-point Likert Scale measures and free-text thematic analysis were used.358 (68.19%) eligible individuals across 21 Sub-Saharan countries and seven surgical specialties voluntarily participated. The e-resource demonstrated integration into local curricula with the majority of users maintaining activity and reporting moderate-high compliance. Context appropriateness measures were high with 203 (69.76%) deeming it convenient to use. The principle obstacle to compliance was internet connectivity (74, 25.96%), while behavioural factors including supervisor engagement were implicated. The e-logbook demonstrated future sustainability with the majority (243, 78.14%) of participants intent on maintaining usage beyond completion of surgical training.We describe the successful integration and sustainability of electronic surgical logbooks for trainees across Sub-Saharan Africa. However context-appropriate resources are essential for Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Internet connectivity may hinder the achievement of several Global Surgery objectives in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00268-020-05613-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000556448500002

    View details for PubMedID 32468406

  • Markers of non-coeliac wheat sensitivity in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome GUT Uhde, M., Indart, A. C., Yu, X. B., Jang, S. S., De Giorgio, R., Green, P. R., Volta, U., Vernon, S. D., Alaedini, A. 2019; 68 (2): 377-+

    View details for DOI 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-316133

    View details for Web of Science ID 000459027800025

    View details for PubMedID 29550784

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6352651