Family history of diabetes moderates metabolic depression endophenotypes in overweight/obese adults.
Journal of psychiatric research
2022; 151: 583-589
Insulin resistance (IR) is linked to depressive disorders, and there is growing evidence that targeting IR may be beneficial in treating them. We examine the association between depressive symptoms and a direct measure of IR, and whether family history of type 2 diabetes (FHx-T2DM) or major depressive disorder (FHx-MDD) moderate this relationship.Cross-sectional data were collected from 96 primarily overweight/obese adults ages 25-50 without diabetes or clinical depression. Multiple regression and correlation analyses were used to assess the association between depressive symptoms and a direct measure of IR (steady-state plasma glucose) as well as moderating effects of FHx-T2DM or FHx-MDD.In the total sample, elevated depressive symptoms were positively associated with IR (p = 0.005). IR was associated with depressive symptoms in subjects with FHx-T2DM (p = 0.002) or FHx-MDD (p = 0.009) whereas BMI was associated with depressive symptoms in subjects without FHx-T2DM (p = 0.049) or FHx-MDD (p = 0.029). The odds of being in the top tertile of IR increased with elevated depressive symptoms alone (OR, 4.22; 95%CI, 1.15 to 17.33), presence of FHx-T2DM alone (OR, 3.42; 95%CI, 1.26 to 10.00), and presence of both FHx-T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms (OR, 10.08; 95%CI, 1.94 to 96.96).Our findings indicate that depressive symptoms are positively associated with a direct measure of IR in overweight/obese individuals without diabetes or clinical depression. This association is moderated by FHx-T2DM. Early identification of groups vulnerable to IR related to depressive symptomatology may be useful for determining personalized interventions that have the potential to reduce morbidity in later years.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.05.018
View details for PubMedID 35636036
Depression Symptoms and Insulin Resistance in Individuals With Family History of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Major Depressive Disorder
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2021: S232
View details for Web of Science ID 000645683800556
Patient constructive learning behavior in cognitive therapy: A pathway for improving patient memory for treatment?
BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
2019; 116: 80-89
Patient memory for treatment is poor and associated with worse outcome. The Memory Support Intervention was designed to improve outcome by enhancing patient memory for treatment. Half of the strategies comprising the Memory Support Intervention (termed constructive memory support strategies) involve therapists inviting patients to construct new ideas, inferences, or connections related to treatment material that go beyond information already presented by therapists. This study investigated the relationship between patient responses to therapist use of constructive memory support strategies and patient recall of treatment contents. Therapist uses of constructive memory support strategies were coded from sessions recorded during a pilot trial of the Memory Support Intervention in the context of cognitive therapy for depression (n = 44 patients). Patients who successfully constructed new ideas, inferences, or connections (termed patient constructive learning behavior) in response to therapist use of constructive memory support strategies showed greater recall of treatment contents. Mediation analyses provided some evidence that patient constructive learning behavior may be a mechanism through which the Memory Support Intervention results in enhanced patient memory. Results highlight patient constructive learning behavior as a potential pathway for improving patient memory for treatment.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2019.02.006
View details for Web of Science ID 000464298000009
View details for PubMedID 30852323
Corticostriatal Transmission Is Selectively Enhanced in Striatonigral Neurons with Postnatal Loss of Tsc1
2018; 23 (11): 3197-3208
mTORC1 is a central signaling hub that integrates intra- and extracellular signals to regulate a variety of cellular metabolic processes. Mutations in regulators of mTORC1 lead to neurodevelopmental disorders associated with autism, which is characterized by repetitive, inflexible behaviors. These behaviors may result from alterations in striatal circuits that control motor learning and habit formation. However, the consequences of mTORC1 dysregulation on striatal neuron function are largely unknown. To investigate this, we deleted the mTORC1 negative regulator Tsc1 from identified striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons and examined how cell-autonomous upregulation of mTORC1 activity affects their morphology and physiology. We find that loss of Tsc1 increases the excitability of striatonigral, but not striatopallidal, neurons and selectively enhances corticostriatal synaptic transmission. These findings highlight the critical role of mTORC1 in regulating striatal activity in a cell type- and input-specific manner, with implications for striatonigral pathway dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disease.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.05.037
View details for Web of Science ID 000435196500008
View details for PubMedID 29898392
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6089242
Patient recall of specific cognitive therapy contents predicts adherence and outcome in adults with major depressive disorder
BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
2017; 97: 189-199
The current study examined whether and which specific contents of patients' memory for cognitive therapy (CT) were associated with treatment adherence and outcome. Data were drawn from a pilot RCT of forty-eight depressed adults, who received either CT plus Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual. Patients' memory for treatment was measured using the Patient Recall Task and responses were coded into cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) codes, such as CBT Model and Cognitive Restructuring, and non-CBT codes, such as individual coping strategies and no code. Treatment adherence was measured using therapist and patient ratings during treatment. Depression outcomes included treatment response, remission, and recurrence. Total number of CBT codes recalled was not significantly different comparing CT + Memory Support to CT-as-usual. Total CBT codes recalled were positively associated with adherence, while non-CBT codes recalled were negatively associated with adherence. Treatment responders (vs. non-responders) exhibited a significant increase in their recall of Cognitive Restructuring from session 7 to posttreatment. Greater recall of Cognitive Restructuring was marginally significantly associated with remission. Greater total number of CBT codes recalled (particularly CBT Model) was associated with non-recurrence of depression. Results highlight the important relationships between patients' memory for treatment and treatment adherence and outcome.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.006
View details for Web of Science ID 000412258200021
View details for PubMedID 28822879
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5600705