Clinical Focus

  • Pediatric Cardiology

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Director of Pediatric Cardiac Outreach, LPCH (2011 - 2016)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship: Boston Childrens Hospital Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship (1982) MA
  • Residency: Boston Childrens Hospital Pediatric Residency (1979) MA
  • Internship: Boston Childrens Hospital Pediatric Residency (1977) MA
  • Medical Education: UCLA David Geffen School Of Medicine Registrar (1976) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Cardiology (1983)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (1982)
  • MD, UCLA (1976)

2023-24 Courses

All Publications

  • Risk Estimates for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Lui, G. K., Rogers, I. S., Ding, V. Y., Hedlin, H. K., MacMillen, K., Maron, D. J., Sillman, C., Romfh, A., Dade, T. C., Haeffele, C., Grady, S. R., McElhinney, D. B., Murphy, D. J., Fernandes, S. M. 2017; 119 (1): 112-118


    The adult with congenital heart disease (CHD) is at risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We performed a cross-sectional study to describe established ASCVD risk factors and estimate 10-year and lifetime risk of ASCVD in adults over age 18 with CHD of moderate or great complexity using 3 validated risk assessment tools-the Framingham Study Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment, the Reynolds Risk Score, and the ASCVD Risk Estimator. We obtained extensive clinical and survey data on 178 enrolled patients, with average age 37.1 ± 12.6 years, 51% men. At least 1 modifiable ASCVD risk factor was present in 70%; the 2 most common were overweight/obesity (53%) and systemic hypertension (24%). Laboratory data were available in 103 of the 178 patients. Abnormal levels of glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and high-density lipoprotein were each found in around 30% of patients. The 10-year ASCVD predicted risk using all 3 tools was relatively low (i.e., at least 90% of patients <10% risk), yet the median estimated lifetime risk was 36%. In conclusion, ASCVD risk factors are prevalent in adults with CHD. The risk estimation tools suggest that this population is particularly vulnerable to ASCVD with aging and should undergo guideline-based screening and management of modifiable risk factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.09.023

    View details for PubMedID 28247847

  • Provision of Transition Education and Referral Patterns from Pediatric Cardiology to Adult Cardiac Care. Pediatric cardiology Harbison, A. L., Grady, S., Chi, K., Fernandes, S. M. 2016; 37 (2): 232-238


    ACC/AHA guidelines recommend a structured preparation for and transfer to adult-oriented cardiac care for adult survivors of pediatric onset heart disease (POHD). Given this, we sought to describe the transition and transfer practices for a cohort of young adults with POHD and to determine factors associated with successful transfer to adult-oriented cardiac care. We performed a single-center, retrospective chart review on patients ≥18 years of age, with POHD likely to require lifelong cardiac care, who were seen in outpatient pediatric cardiology (PC) between 2008 and 2011. Successful transfer was defined as the subsequent attendance at adult cardiology (AC) within 2 years of PC visit. We identified 118 patients who met study criteria. Mean age 22.4 ± 2.0 years, 59 % male, 64 % white and 40 % Hispanic. Mean transition education topics noted was 3.3 ± 1.8 out of 20 and covered the underlying cardiac disease (89 %), follow-up and current medications (56 %) and exercise limitations (34 %). Recommendations for follow-up were AC (57 %) and PC (33 %). Of those told to transfer to AC, 79 % successfully transferred. Characteristics of successful transfer included: prior cardiac surgery (p = 0.008), cardiac medication use (p = 0.006) and frequency of follow-up ≤1 year (p = 0.037). One-quarter of all subjects did not follow-up within at least 2 years. Despite published guidelines, transition education appears lacking and the approach to transfer to adult cardiac care is not consistent. Given the increased risk of morbidity and mortality in this patient population, standardization of transition education and transfer processes appear warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-015-1267-5

    View details for PubMedID 26385471

  • Variation in Use of Pediatric Cardiology Subspecialty Care A Total Population Study in California, 1983 to 2011 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Chamberlain, L. J., Fernandes, S. M., Saynina, O., Grady, S., Sanders, L., Staves, K., Wise, P. H. 2015; 66 (1): 37-44


    American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines emphasize regionalized systems of care for pediatric chronic illness. There remains a paucity of information on the status of regionalized systems of care for pediatric congenital heart disease (CHD).This study evaluated variations in use of pediatric cardiology specialty care centers (PCSCC) for pediatric patients with CHD in California between 1983 and 2011.We performed a retrospective, total population analysis of pediatric CHD patients using the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development unmasked database. PCSCCs were identified by California's Title V program.There were 164,310 discharges meeting inclusion criterion. Discharges from PCSCCs grew from 58% to 88% between 1983 and 2011. Regionalized care was highest for surgical (96%) versus nonsurgical (71%) admissions. Admissions with a public payer increased from 42% (1983) to 61% (2011). Total bed days nearly doubled, and median length of stay increased from 2 to 3 days (nonspecialty care) and from 4 to 5 days (specialty care). There was a decrease in the pediatric CHD in-hospital death rate from 5.1 to 2.3 per 100,000 between 1983 and 2011, and a shift toward a larger percent of deaths occurring in the newborn period.California's inpatient regionalized specialty care of pediatric CHD has increased substantially since 1983, especially for surgical CHD discharges. The death rate has decreased, the number of bed days has increased, and a large proportion of these discharges now have public payers. Health care reform efforts must consider these shifts while protecting advances in regionalization of pediatric CHD care.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.04.053

    View details for PubMedID 26139056

  • Trends in utilization of specialty care centers in california for adults with congenital heart disease. American journal of cardiology Fernandes, S. M., Chamberlain, L. J., Grady, S., Saynina, O., Opotowsky, A. R., Sanders, L., Wise, P. H. 2015; 115 (9): 1298-1304


    The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association guidelines recommend that management of adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) be coordinated by specialty ACHD centers and that ACHD surgery for patients with moderate or complex congenital heart disease (CHD) be performed by surgeons with expertise and training in CHD. Given this, the aim of this study was to determine the proportion of ACHD surgery performed at specialty ACHD centers and to identify factors associated with ACHD surgery being performed outside of specialty centers. This retrospective population analysis used California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development's discharge database to analyze ACHD cardiac surgery (in patients 21 to 65 years of age) in California from 2000 to 2011. Designation as a "specialty ACHD center" was defined on the basis of a national ACHD directory. A total of 4,611 ACHD procedures were identified. The proportion of procedures in patients with moderate and complex CHD delivered at specialty centers increased from 46% to 71% from 2000 to 2011. In multivariate analysis among those discharges for ACHD surgery in patients with moderate or complex CHD, performance of surgery outside a specialty center was more likely to be associated with patients who were older, Hispanic, insured by health maintenance organizations, and living farther from a specialty center. In conclusion, although the proportion of ACHD surgery for moderate or complex CHD being performed at specialty ACHD centers has been increasing, 1 in 4 patients undergo surgery at nonspecialty centers. Increased awareness of ACHD care guidelines and of the patient characteristics associated with differential access to ACHD centers may help improve the delivery of appropriate care for all adults with CHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.02.013

    View details for PubMedID 25765587

  • Accuracy of Interpretation of Preparticipation Screening Electrocardiograms JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Hill, A. C., Miyake, C. Y., Grady, S., Dubin, A. M. 2011; 159 (5): 783-788


    To evaluate the accuracy of pediatric cardiologists' interpretations of electrocardiograms (ECGs).A series of 18 ECGs that represented conditions causing pediatric sudden cardiac death or normal hearts were interpreted by 53 members of the Western Society of Pediatric Cardiology. Gold-standard diagnoses and recommendations were determined by 2 electrophysiologists (100% concordance).The average number of correct ECG interpretations per respondent was 12.4 ± 2.2 (69%, range 34%-98%). Respondents achieved a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 70% for recognition of any abnormality. The false-positive and false-negative rates were 30% and 32%, respectively. Based on actual ECG diagnosis, sports participation was accurately permitted in 74% of cases and accurately restricted in 81% of cases. Respondents gave correct sports guidance most commonly in cases of long QT syndrome and myocarditis (98% and 90%, respectively) and least commonly in cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and pulmonary hypertension (80%, 64%, and 38%, respectively). Respondents ordered more follow-up tests than did experts.Preparticipation screening ECGs are difficult to interpret. Mistakes in ECG interpretation could lead to high rates of inappropriate sports guidance. A consequence of diagnostic error is overuse of ancillary diagnostic tests.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.05.014

    View details for PubMedID 21752393