All Publications

  • Precision Delivery of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into the Pancreas Via Intra-arterial Injection Prevents the Onset of Diabetes. Stem cells translational medicine Primavera, R., Regmi, S., Yarani, R., Levitte, S., Wang, J., Ganguly, A., Chetty, S., Guindani, M., Ricordi, C., Meyer, E., Thakor, A. S. 2024


    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapy to potentially treat diabetes given their potent anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory properties. While these regenerative cells have shown considerable promise in cell culture, their clinical translation has been challenging. In part, this can be attributed to these cells not reaching the pancreas to exert their regenerative effects following conventional intravenous (IV) injection, with the majority of cells being trapped in the lungs in the pulmonary first-pass effect. In the present study, we will therefore examine whether direct delivery of MSCs to the pancreas via an intra-arterial (IA) injection can improve their therapeutic efficacy. Using a mouse model, in which repetitive low doses of STZ induced a gentle, but progressive, hyperglycemia, we tested bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) which we have shown are enriched with pro-angiogenic and immunomodulatory factors. In cell culture studies, BM-MSCs were shown to preserve islet viability and function following exposure to proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha) through an increase in pAkt. When tested in our animal model, mice receiving IV BM-MSCs were not able to mitigate the effects of STZ, however those which received the same dose and batch of cells via IA injection were able to maintain basal and dynamic glycemic control, to similar levels as seen in healthy control animals, over 10 days. This study shows the importance of considering precision delivery approaches to ensure cell-based therapies reach their intended targets to enable them to exert their therapeutic effects.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/stcltm/szae020

    View details for PubMedID 38530131

  • Extracellular Vesicles: A New Avenue of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapies in Transplant Medicine. Stem cells and development Levitte, S. 2024

    View details for DOI 10.1089/

    View details for PubMedID 38386545

  • Point-of-Care Assays for Infliximab Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Patients with IBD: Is Quicker Better? Digestive diseases and sciences Levitte, S. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-023-08140-8

    View details for PubMedID 37943384

    View details for PubMedCentralID 8515794

  • Case Series of Precision Delivery of Methylprednisolone in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Feasibility, Clinical Outcomes, and Identification of a Vasculitic Transcriptional Program. Journal of clinical medicine Levitte, S., Yarani, R., Ganguly, A., Martin, L., Gubatan, J., Nadel, H. R., Franc, B., Gugig, R., Syed, A., Goyal, A., Park, K. T., Thakor, A. S. 2023; 12 (6)


    Systemic steroid exposure, while useful for the treatment of acute flares in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is associated with an array of side effects that are particularly significant in children. Technical advancements have enabled locoregional intraarterial steroid delivery directly into specific segments of the gastrointestinal tract, thereby maximizing tissue concentration while limiting systemic exposure. We investigated the feasibility of intraarterial steroid administration into the bowel in a cohort of nine pediatric patients who had IBD. This treatment approach provided symptom relief in all patients, with sustained relief (>2 weeks) in seven out of nine; no serious adverse effects occurred in any patient. In addition, we identified patterns of vascular morphologic changes indicative of a vasculopathy within the mesenteric circulation of inflamed segments of the bowel in pediatric patients with Crohn's disease, which correlated with disease activity. An analysis of publicly available transcriptomic studies identified vasculitis-associated molecular pathways activated in the endothelial cells of patients with active Crohn's disease, suggesting a possible shared transcriptional program between vasculitis and IBD. Intraarterial corticosteroid treatment is safe and has the potential to be widely accepted as a locoregional approach for therapy delivery directly into the bowel; however, this approach still warrants further consideration as a short-term "bridge" between therapy transitions for symptomatic IBD patients with refractory disease, as part of a broader steroid-minimizing treatment strategy.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/jcm12062386

    View details for PubMedID 36983386

  • Local Pentraxin-2 Deficit Is a Feature of Intestinal Fibrosis in Crohn's Disease. Digestive diseases and sciences Levitte, S., Peale, F. V., Jhun, I., McBride, J., Neighbors, M. 2023


    BACKGROUND: Pentraxin-2 (PTX-2) is a homo-pentameric plasma protein showing evidence of antifibrotic activity in Phase 2 clinical trials in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Whether PTX-2 plays a role in other fibrotic diseases, including intestinal fibrosis which commonly occurs in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), remains unknown.AIMS: This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively assess PTX-2 expression in fibrostenotic Crohn's disease (FCD) and determine whether expression is correlated with postsurgical restenosis.METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed in histologic sections of small bowel resected from patients with fibrostenotic Crohn's disease (FCD), comparing strictured segments with adjacent surgical margins from the same patient. Ileal resections from patients without inflammatory bowel disease were examined as controls.RESULTS: PTX-2 signal was analyzed in 18 patients with FCD and 15 patients without IBD and localized predominantly to submucosal vasculature, including arterial subendothelium and internal elastic lamina, and perivascular connective tissue. PTX-2 signal in the surgical margins from patients with FCD strictures (where tissue architecture was normal) was consistently lower than non-IBD samples. Fibrostenotic regions showed increased PTX-2 signal relative to surgical margins from the same patient in 14/15 paired samples. Submucosal/mural PTX-2 signal in fibrostenotic tissue was lower in patients who subsequently experienced re-stenosis (P=0.015).CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study is the first analysis of PTX-2 within the intestine, and demonstrates that PTX-2 signal is reduced in the architecturally normal bowel of patients with FCD. Lower submucosal PTX-2 levels in patients with re-stenosis raises the possibility of a protective role of PTX-2 in intestinal fibrosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-023-07909-1

    View details for PubMedID 36884186

  • Effects of CFTR modulators on serum biomarkers of liver fibrosis in children with cystic fibrosis. Hepatology communications Levitte, S., Fuchs, Y., Wise, R., Sellers, Z. M. 2023; 7 (2): e0010


    The cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator corrector/potentiator combinations lumacaftor/ivacaftor and elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor improve sweat chloride, pulmonary function, and nutrition. Yet it is unclear whether they may also impact the progression of liver fibrosis, which is a substantial source of morbidity and mortality for patients with CF. We conducted a retrospective, single-center analysis of children and adolescents with CF treated with lumacaftor/ivacaftor and/or elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor therapy, focusing on alterations in liver function tests and fibrosis indices using previously-established thresholds that corresponded with increased liver elastography. In pairwise comparisons of before and during treatment timepoints, we found that those with CF-associated liver involvement experienced significant decreases in gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet index, and gamma-glutamyl transferase-to-platelet ratio while on lumacaftor/ivacaftor. These differences were not observed in patients treated with elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor, nor were they observed in patients without underlying CF-associated liver disease. These results provide the first evidence that lumacaftor/ivacaftor may improve liver fibrosis in children and adolescents with CF and suggest it may be beneficial in the treatment of CF-associated liver disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/HC9.0000000000000010

    View details for PubMedID 36662672

  • Precision Delivery of Steroids as a Rescue Therapy for Gastrointestinal Graft-versus-Host Disease in Pediatric Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Journal of Clinical Medicine Levitte, s., Ganguly, A., Frolik, S., Guevara-Tique, A., et al 2023; 12 (4229)

    View details for DOI 10.3390/jcm12134229

  • Warning Labels and High-Powered Magnet Exposures. Pediatrics Middelberg, L. K., Leonard, J. C., Shi, J., Aranda, A., Brown, J. C., Cochran, C. L., Eastep, K., Haasz, M., Hoffmann, J. A., Koral, A., Lamoshi, A., Levitte, S., Lo, Y. H., Montminy, T., Myer, S., Novotny, N. M., Parrado, R. H., Ruan, W., Stewart, A. M., Talathi, S., Tavarez, M. M., Townsend, P., Zaytsev, J., Rudolph, B. 2022


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: High-powered magnets are among the most dangerous childhood foreign bodies. Consumer advocates and physicians have called for these products to be effectively banned, but manufacturers assert warning labels would sufficiently mitigate risk.METHODS: Subjects from Injuries, Morbidity, and Parental Attitudes Concerning Tiny High-powered Magnets (IMPACT of Magnets), a retrospective, multicenter study of children with high-powered magnet exposures (ie, ingestion or bodily insertion), were contacted. Consenting participants responded to a standardized questionnaire regarding the presence and utility of warning labels, magnet product manufacturer, and attitudes around risk.RESULTS: Of 596 patients in the IMPACT study, 173 parents and 1 adult patient were reached and consented to participate. The median age was 7.5 years. Subjects reported not knowing if a warning label was present in 60 (53.6%) cases, whereas 25 (22.3%) stated warnings were absent. Warnings were present in 28 (24.1%) cases but only 13 (46.4%) reported reading them. A manufacturer was identified by families in 28 (16.1%) exposures; 25 of these were domestic and 27 had warnings. Subjects reported knowing magnets were dangerous in 58% of the cases, although 44.3% believed they were children's toys and only 6.9% knew high-powered magnets were previously removed from the United States market.CONCLUSIONS: Over 90% of subjects from the IMPACT study didn't know if warning labels were present or failed to read them if they were, whereas almost half believed high-powered magnets were children's toys. Warning labels on high-powered magnet products are, therefore, unlikely to prevent injuries in children.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2022-056325

    View details for PubMedID 36189482

  • Rates and Predictors of Long-term Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Perianal Crohn's Disease on Biologic Therapy. Journal of clinical gastroenterology Gubatan, J., Frost, S., Levitte, S., Keyashian, K. 2022


    Perianal Crohn's disease (pCD) represents an aggressive phenotype with limited studies on long-term outcomes. We evaluated 5-year outcomes of these patients on biologic therapies.We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with pCD at a tertiary medical center. We used Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate rates and multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of long-term outcomes.We included 311 patients with pCD of which 168 patients were started on biologics [138 anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, 14 vedolizumab, 16 ustekinumab] at the time of diagnosis. Anti-TNF use at the time of diagnosis was associated with decreased rates of perianal abscess recurrence [hazard ratio (HR)=0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32-0.74], whereas ustekinumab use was associated with increased rates of perianal fistula closure (HR=3.58, 95% CI: 1.04-12.35) and decreased rates of perianal abscess recurrence (HR=0.20, 95% CI: 0.07-0.56) at follow-up. Among patients who failed their first anti-TNF, switching to another anti-TNF was associated with decreased rates of colectomy (HR=0.20, 95% CI: 0.04-0.90) and permanent diversion (HR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.03-0.94) compared with ustekinumab, whereas vedolizumab use was associated with decreased perianal fistula closure (HR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.96) compared with ustekinumab. Predictors of colectomy included colonic disease (odds ratio=2.71, 95% CI: 1.36-5.38) and anal stenosis (odds ratio=4.44, 95% CI: 1.59-12.43).Type of biologic use at the time of pCD diagnosis or after first anti-TNF failure may be associated with long-term outcomes in patients with pCD.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001729

    View details for PubMedID 35703262

  • High-Powered Magnet Exposures in Children: A Multi-Center Cohort Study. Pediatrics Middelberg, L. K., Leonard, J. C., Shi, J., Aranda, A., Brown, J. C., Cochran, C. L., Eastep, K., Gonzalez, R., Haasz, M., Herskovitz, S., Hoffmann, J. A., Koral, A., Lamoshi, A., Levitte, S., Lo, Y. H., Montminy, T., Novak, I., Ng, K., Novotny, N. M., Parrado, R. H., Ruan, W., Shapiro, J., Sinclair, E. M., Stewart, A. M., Talathi, S., Tavarez, M. M., Townsend, P., Zaytsev, J., Rudolph, B. 1800


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: High-powered magnets were effectively removed from the US market by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) in 2012 but returned in 2016 after federal court decisions. The United States Court of Appeals for the 10th Circuit cited imprecise data among other reasons as justification for overturning CPSC protections. Since then, incidence of high-powered magnet exposure has increased markedly, but outcome data are limited. In this study, we aim to describe the epidemiology and outcomes in children seeking medical care for high-powered magnets after reintroduction to market.METHODS: This is a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of patients aged 0 to 21 years with a confirmed high-powered magnet exposure (ie, ingestion or insertion) at 25 children's hospitals in the United States between 2017 and 2019.RESULTS: Of 596 patients with high-powered magnet exposures identified, 362 (60.7%) were male and 566 (95%) were <14 years of age. Nearly all sought care for magnet ingestion (n = 574, 96.3%), whereas 17 patients (2.9%) presented for management of nasal or aural magnet foreign bodies, 4 (0.7%) for magnets in their genitourinary tract, and 1 patient (0.2%) had magnets in their respiratory tract. A total of 57 children (9.6%) had a life-threatening morbidity; 276 (46.3%) required an endoscopy, surgery, or both; and 332 (55.7%) required hospitalization. There was no reported mortality.CONCLUSIONS: Despite being intended for use by those >14 years of age, high-powered magnets frequently cause morbidity and lead to high need for invasive intervention and hospitalization in children of all ages.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2021-054543

    View details for PubMedID 35112127

  • Biologic Therapy in Patients With Perianal Crohn's Disease and Association With Long-Term Rates of Surgical and Clinical Outcomes Gubatan, J., Frost, S., Levitte, S., Keyashian, K. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2021: S354
  • Clinical use of shear-wave elastography for detecting liver fibrosis in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Pediatric radiology Levitte, S. n., Lee, L. W., Isaacson, J. n., Zucker, E. J., Milla, C. n., Barth, R. A., Sellers, Z. M. 2021


    Complications from liver cirrhosis are a leading cause of death in children with cystic fibrosis. Identifying children at risk for developing liver cirrhosis and halting its progression are critical to reducing liver-associated mortality.Quantitative US imaging, such as shear-wave elastography (SWE), might improve the detection of liver fibrosis in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) over gray-scale US alone. We incorporated SWE in our pediatric CF liver disease screening program and evaluated its performance using magnetic resonance (MR) elastography.Ninety-four children and adolescents with CF underwent 178 SWE exams, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and platelet measurements. Of these, 27 children underwent 34 MR elastography exams. We evaluated SWE performance using 6-MHz and 9-MHZ point SWE, and 9-MHz two-dimensional (2-D) SWE.The 6-MHz point SWE was the only method that correlated with MR elastography (r=0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.20-0.74; P=0.003). SWE of 1.45 m/s distinguished normal from abnormal MR elastography (79% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value [PPV], 55% negative predictive value [NPV], area under the receiver operating characteristic [AUROC] curve 0.94). SWE of 1.84 m/s separated mild-moderate (3.00-4.77 kPa) from severe (>4.77 kPa) MR elastography (88% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 78% PPV, 93% NPV, AUROC 0.79). Elevations of AST, ALT, GGT and thrombocytopenia were associated with higher SWE. AST-to-platelet ratio index of 0.42, fibrosis-4 of 0.29, and GGT-to-platelet ratio of 1.43 all had >95% NPV for SWE >1.84 m/s.Given its correlation with MR elastography, SWE might be a clinically useful predictor of liver fibrosis. We identified imaging criteria delineating the use of SWE to identify increased liver stiffness in children with CF. With multicenter validation, these data might be used to improve the detection and monitoring of liver fibrosis in children with CF.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-021-05015-w

    View details for PubMedID 33759025

  • Artificial intelligence applications in inflammatory bowel disease: Emerging technologies and future directions. World journal of gastroenterology Gubatan, J. n., Levitte, S. n., Patel, A. n., Balabanis, T. n., Wei, M. T., Sinha, S. R. 2021; 27 (17): 1920-1935


    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex and multifaceted disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that is increasing in incidence worldwide and associated with significant morbidity. The rapid accumulation of large datasets from electronic health records, high-definition multi-omics (including genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metagenomics), and imaging modalities (endoscopy and endomicroscopy) have provided powerful tools to unravel novel mechanistic insights and help address unmet clinical needs in IBD. Although the application of artificial intelligence (AI) methods has facilitated the analysis, integration, and interpretation of large datasets in IBD, significant heterogeneity in AI methods, datasets, and clinical outcomes and the need for unbiased prospective validations studies are current barriers to incorporation of AI into clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most recent advances in the application of AI and machine learning technologies in the diagnosis and risk prediction, assessment of disease severity, and prediction of clinical outcomes in patients with IBD.

    View details for DOI 10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.1920

    View details for PubMedID 34007130

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8108036

  • Vitamin D is Associated with α4β7+ Immunophenotypes and Predicts Vedolizumab Therapy Failure in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Journal of Crohn's & colitis Gubatan, J., Rubin, S. J., Bai, L., Haileselassie, Y., Levitte, S., Balabanis, T., Patel, A., Sharma, A., Sinha, S. R., Habtezion, A. 2021


    Vitamin D downregulates the in vitro expression of the gut-tropic integrin α4β7 on immune cells. The clinical relevance of this finding in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D is associated with α4β7 immunophenotypes and risk of vedolizumab (anti- α4β7) failure in IBD.We performed single-cell immunophenotyping of peripheral and intestinal immune cells using mass cytometry (CyTOF) in vedolizumab-naïve patients with IBD (N=48). We analyzed whole-genome mucosal gene expression (GSE73661) from GEMINI I and GEMINI long-term safety (LTS) to determine the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) and integrin alpha-4 (ITGA4) and beta-7 (ITGB7) genes. We estimated the odds of vedolizumab failure with low pre-treatment vitamin D in a combined retrospective and prospective IBD cohort (N= 252) with logistic regression.Immunophenotyping revealed that higher 25(OH)D was associated with decreased α4β7+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (R = -0.400, P < 0.01) and α4β7+ intestinal leukocytes (R = -0.538, P= 0.03). Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with α4β7+ peripheral B cells and natural killer (NK) cells and α4β7+ intestinal B cells, NK cells, monocytes, and macrophages. Mucosal expression of VDR was inversely associated with ITGA4 and ITGB7 expression. In multivariate analysis, 25(OH)D < 25 ng/mL was associated with increased vedolizumab primary non-response during induction (OR 26.10, 95% CI 14.30-48.90, P<0.001) and failure at 1-year follow-up (OR 6.10, 95% CI 3.06-12.17, P<0.001).Low serum 25(OH)D is associated with α4β7+ immunophenotypes and predicts future vedolizumab failure in patients with IBD.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab114

    View details for PubMedID 34180967

  • Prevalence, risk factors and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with a history of pancreatitis in Northern California. Gut Gubatan, J. n., Levitte, S. n., Patel, A. n., Balabanis, T. n., Sharma, A. n., Jones, E. n., Lee, B. n., Manohar, M. n., Swaminathan, G. n., Park, W. n., Habtezion, A. n. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321772

    View details for PubMedID 32493828

  • SARS-CoV-2 Testing, Prevalence, and Predictors of COVID-19 in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Northern California. Gastroenterology Gubatan, J. n., Levitte, S. n., Balabanis, T. n., Patel, A. n., Sharma, A. n., Habtezion, A. n. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.009

    View details for PubMedID 32387541

  • Biologics During Pregnancy in Women With Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Risk of Infantile Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The American journal of gastroenterology Gubatan, J. n., Nielsen, O. H., Levitte, S. n., Juhl, C. B., Maxwell, C. n., Streett, S. E., Habtezion, A. n. 2020


    Biologics, such as tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, anti-integrins and anticytokines, are therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may increase the risk of infection. Most biologics undergo placental transfer during pregnancy and persist at detectable concentrations in exposed infants. Whether this is associated with an increased risk of infantile infections is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the risk of infantile infections after in utero exposure to biologics used to treat IBD.We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and CENTRAL from inception to June 2020 to evaluate the association of biologic therapy during pregnancy in women with IBD and risk of infantile infections. Odds ratios of outcomes were pooled and analyzed using a random effects model.Nine studies met the inclusion criteria comprising 8,013 women with IBD (5,212 Crohn's disease, 2,801 ulcerative colitis) who gave birth to 8,490 infants. Biologic use during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of all infantile infections (odds ratio [OR] 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-1.14, I = 30%). In a subgroup analysis for the type of infection, biologic use was associated with increased infantile upper respiratory infections (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.02-2.40, I = 4%). Biologic use during pregnancy was not associated with infantile antibiotic use (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.73-1.14, I = 30%) or infection-related hospitalizations (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.95-1.86, I = 26%).Biologics use during pregnancy in women with IBD is not associated with the overall risk of infantile infections or serious infections requiring antibiotics or hospitalizations but is associated with an increased risk of upper respiratory infections.

    View details for DOI 10.14309/ajg.0000000000000910

    View details for PubMedID 33110017

  • Lysosomal Disorders Drive Susceptibility to Tuberculosis by Compromising Macrophage Migration CELL Berg, R. D., Levitte, S., O'Sullivan, M. P., O'Leary, S. M., Cambier, C. J., Cameron, J., Takaki, K. K., Moens, C. B., Tobin, D. M., Keane, J., Ramakrishnan, L. 2016; 165 (1): 139-152


    A zebrafish genetic screen for determinants of susceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum identified a hypersusceptible mutant deficient in lysosomal cysteine cathepsins that manifests hallmarks of human lysosomal storage diseases. Under homeostatic conditions, mutant macrophages accumulate undigested lysosomal material, which disrupts endocytic recycling and impairs their migration to, and thus engulfment of, dying cells. This causes a buildup of unengulfed cell debris. During mycobacterial infection, macrophages with lysosomal storage cannot migrate toward infected macrophages undergoing apoptosis in the tuberculous granuloma. The unengulfed apoptotic macrophages undergo secondary necrosis, causing granuloma breakdown and increased mycobacterial growth. Macrophage lysosomal storage similarly impairs migration to newly infecting mycobacteria. This phenotype is recapitulated in human smokers, who are at increased risk for tuberculosis. A majority of their alveolar macrophages exhibit lysosomal accumulations of tobacco smoke particulates and do not migrate to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The incapacitation of highly microbicidal first-responding macrophages may contribute to smokers' susceptibility to tuberculosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2016.02.034

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372785600016

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4819607