The thematic focus of my clinical work and research centers on Women's Health. In the clinical domain, I care for patients spanning the continuum of conception through birth and afterwards, such as patients requiring assisted reproductive technologies at the REI Clinic, parturients presenting to Labor & Delivery, and patients requiring gynecologic or breast surgical procedures. In the research domain, I have previously been interested in the ways in which team performance and facility factors can affect patient safety as they relate to Women's and Neonatal Health. As a result, my scholarly publications have been related to obstetric simulation and team performance and maternal cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. After 6 years in private practice in Southern California, I've returned to The Farm as Program Director of the Obstetric Anesthesia Fellowship. In this next phase of my career, I'm going to focus my energies on mentoring fellows on the labor unit.

Clinical Focus

  • Anesthesia, Obstetrical
  • Anesthesia

Academic Appointments

  • Clinical Associate Professor, Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine

Administrative Appointments

  • Evaluation of the curriculum and program administration of fellowship, PEC: Division of Obstetric Anesthesia (2013 - Present)
  • Review performance for ABA RTID progress reports & milestones, CCC: Division of Obstetric Anesthesia (2013 - Present)
  • Patient Safety Committee, Society for Obstetric Anesthesia & Perinatology (2011 - Present)
  • Manuscript Review, Anesthesiology Research & Practice (2010 - Present)
  • Manuscript Review, Anesthesia & Analgesia (2008 - Present)
  • Manuscript Review, Simulation in Healthcare (2008 - Present)
  • Manuscript Review, International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia (2005 - Present)
  • Co-Director of OBSim Obstetric Crisis Training Course, Division of Obstetric Anesthesia (2005 - Present)
  • Labor & Delivery Safety Committee, Lucile Packard at Stanford Childrens Hospital (2005 - Present)
  • Resident Advisor, Dept of Anesthesia (2004 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Outstanding Interdepartmental Faculty Professor, Stanford University School of Medicine Dept of Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents (June 2016)
  • Nominated for for Alwin C. Rambar-James B.D. Mark Award for Excellence in Patient Care, LPCH (April 2015)
  • Outstanding Interdepartmental Faculty Professor, Stanford University School of medicine Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology (June 2014)
  • Co-author for 2015 AHA First Scientific Statement on Maternal Cardiac Arrest, American Heart Association (November 2013)
  • Invitation for oral presentation for best paper of the meeting competition, Society of Obstetric Anesthesia & Perinatology (April 2011)
  • Kaiser Award for Innovation in Medical Education (With Kay Daniels MD), Stanford University School of Medicine (June 2009)
  • Outstanding Interdepartmental Faculty Professor, Stanford University Department of Gynecology & Obstetrics (June 2007)
  • Outstanding Interdepartmental Faculty Professor, Stanford University Department of Gynecology & Obstetrics (June 2003)

Professional Education

  • Medical Education: Medical University of South Carolina (1996) SC
  • Fellowship: Stanford University School of Medicine CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, Anesthesia (2002)
  • Residency: Stanford University Medical Center (2001) CA
  • Internship: Oregon Health Sciences Univ Hospital (1997) OR
  • MOCA Written Exam, American Board of Anesthesiology, ABA Maintenance of Certification (2009)
  • Fellowship, Stanford Dept of Anesthesia, Obstetric Anesthesia (2002)
  • Bachelor of Arts, Duke University, English (1988)

Community and International Work

  • Expectant Parents lectures, Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital Auditorium


    Familiarization with Obstetric Anesthesia Service

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital

    Populations Served

    Pregnant individuals and their partners


    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Interplast, Campo Grande, Brazil


    Children and adults with hand injuries or functional defects requiring surgery

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Stanford University Department of Anesthesia

    Populations Served

    Underserved Brazilian children and adults



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


2023-24 Courses

Graduate and Fellowship Programs

All Publications

  • Analyzing the heterogeneity of labor and delivery units: A quantitative analysis of space and design PLOS ONE Austin, N., Kristensen-Cabrera, A., Sherman, J., Schwandt, D., McDonald, A., Hedli, L., Sie, L., Lipman, S., Daniels, K., Halamek, L. P., Lee, H. C. 2018; 13 (12)
  • Cardiac Arrest: Obstetric CPR/ACLS. Clinical obstetrics and gynecology Cobb, B., Lipman, S. 2017


    In contrast with other high-resource countries, maternal mortality has seen an increase in the United States. Caring for pregnant women in cardiac arrest may prove uniquely challenging given the rarity of the event coupled by the physiological changes of pregnancy. Optimization of resuscitative efforts warrants special attention as described in the 2015 American Heart Association's "Scientific Statement on Maternal Cardiac Arrest." Current recommendations address a variety of topics ranging from the basic components of chest compressions and airway management to some of the logistical complexities and operational challenges involved in maternal cardiac arrest.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000273

    View details for PubMedID 28079556

  • Opportunities to Foster Efficient Communication in Labor and Delivery Using Simulation. AJP reports Daniels, K., Hamilton, C., Crowe, S., Lipman, S. S., Halamek, L. P., Lee, H. C. 2017; 7 (1): e44-e48


    Introduction Communication errors are an important contributing factor in adverse outcomes in labor and delivery (L&D) units. The objective of this study was to identify common lapses in verbal communication using simulated obstetrical scenarios and propose alternative formats for communication. Methods Health care professionals in L&D participated in three simulated clinical scenarios. Scenarios were recorded and reviewed to identify questions repeated within and across scenarios. Questions that were repeated more than once due to ineffective communication were identified. The frequency with which the questions were asked across simulations was identified. Results Questions were commonly repeated both within and across 27 simulated scenarios. The median number of questions asked was 27 per simulated scenario. Commonly repeated questions focused on three general topics: (1) historical data/information (i.e., estimated gestational age), (2) maternal clinical status (i.e., estimated blood loss), and (3) personnel (i.e., "Has anesthesiologist been called?"). Conclusion Inefficient verbal communication exists in the process of transferring information during obstetric emergencies. These findings can inform improved training and development of information displays to improve teamwork and communication. A visual display that can report static historical information and specific dynamic clinical data may facilitate optimal human performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0037-1599123

    View details for PubMedID 28255522

  • Building Comprehensive Strategies for Obstetric Safety: Simulation Drills and Communication. Anesthesia and analgesia Austin, N., Goldhaber-Fiebert, S., Daniels, K., Arafeh, J., Grenon, V., Welle, D., Lipman, S. 2016; 123 (5): 1181-1190


    As pioneers in the field of patient safety, anesthesiologists are uniquely suited to help develop and implement safety strategies to minimize preventable harm on the labor and delivery unit. Most existing obstetric safety strategies are not comprehensive, lack input from anesthesiologists, are designed with a relatively narrow focus, or lack implementation details to allow customization for different units. This article attempts to address these gaps and build more comprehensive strategies by discussing the available evidence and multidisciplinary authors' local experience with obstetric simulation drills and optimization of team communication.

    View details for PubMedID 27749353

  • Checklists and multidisciplinary team performance during simulated obstetric hemorrhage. International journal of obstetric anesthesia Hilton, G., Daniels, K., Goldhaber-Fiebert, S. N., Lipman, S., Carvalho, B., Butwick, A. 2016; 25: 9-16


    Checklists can optimize team performance during medical crises. However, there has been limited examination of checklist use during obstetric crises. In this simulation study we exposed multidisciplinary teams to checklist training to evaluate checklist use and team performance during a severe postpartum hemorrhage.Fourteen multidisciplinary teams participated in a postpartum hemorrhage simulation occurring after vaginal delivery. Before participating, each team received checklist training. The primary study outcome was whether each team used the checklist during the simulation. Secondary outcomes were the times taken to activate our institution-specific massive transfusion protocol and commence red blood cell transfusion, and whether a designated checklist reader was used.The majority of teams (12/14 (86%)) used the checklist. Red blood cell transfusion was administered by all teams. The median [IQR] times taken to activate the massive transfusion protocol and transfuse red blood cells were 5min 14s [3:23-6:43] and 14min 40s [12:56-17:28], respectively. A designated checklist reader was used by 7/12 (58%) teams that used the checklist. Among teams that used a checklist with versus without a designated reader, we observed no differences in the times to activate the massive transfusion protocol or to commence red blood cell transfusion (P>0.05).Although checklist training was effective in promoting checklist use, multidisciplinary teams varied in their scope of checklist use during a postpartum hemorrhage simulation. Future studies are required to determine whether structured checklist training can result in more standardized checklist use during a postpartum hemorrhage.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijoa.2015.08.011

    View details for PubMedID 26421705

  • An Update on the American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy published in Circulation October 2015 Cobb, B., Steve, L. Society of Obstetric Anesthesia & Perinatology. Society of Obstetric Anesthesia & Perinatology Winter 2016 Newsletter. 2016
  • Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation Jeejeebhoy, F. M., Zelop, C. M., Lipman, S., Carvalho, B., Joglar, J., Mhyre, J. M., Katz, V. L., Lapinsky, S. E., Einav, S., Warnes, C. A., Page, R. L., Griffin, R. E., Jain, A., Dainty, K. N., Arafeh, J., Windrim, R., Koren, G., Callaway, C. W. 2015; 132 (18): 1747-1773


    This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on maternal resuscitation. This document will provide readers with up-to-date and comprehensive information, guidelines, and recommendations for all aspects of maternal resuscitation. Maternal resuscitation is an acute event that involves many subspecialties and allied health providers; this document will be relevant to all healthcare providers who are involved in resuscitation and specifically maternal resuscitation.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000300

    View details for PubMedID 26443610

  • Intact Survival After Obstetric Hemorrhage and 55 Minutes of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. A & A case reports Anast, N., Kwok, J., Carvalho, B., Lipman, S., Flood, P. 2015; 5 (1): 9-12


    Cardiac arrest occurs in approximately 1:12,000 parturients. Among nonpregnant patients who have in-hospital cardiac arrest, those whose spontaneous circulation does not return within 15 to 20 minutes have a high risk of death and disability, so life support efforts are generally stopped after this period. However, among parturients, witnessed in-hospital arrest is often reversible and has a better prognosis. We describe a successful clinical outcome after maternal cardiac arrest and 55 minutes of advanced cardiac life support. This case underscores the importance of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation and raises questions about the appropriate duration of resuscitation efforts in otherwise healthy young mothers with a potentially reversible cause of arrest.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000163

    View details for PubMedID 26125692

  • The society for obstetric anesthesia and perinatology consensus statement on the management of cardiac arrest in pregnancy. Anesthesia and analgesia Lipman, S., Cohen, S., Einav, S., Jeejeebhoy, F., Mhyre, J. M., Morrison, L. J., Katz, V., Tsen, L. C., Daniels, K., Halamek, L. P., Suresh, M. S., Arafeh, J., Gauthier, D., Carvalho, J. C., Druzin, M., Carvalho, B. 2014; 118 (5): 1003-1016


    This consensus statement was commissioned in 2012 by the Board of Directors of the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology to improve maternal resuscitation by providing health care providers critical information (including point-of-care checklists) and operational strategies relevant to maternal cardiac arrest. The recommendations in this statement were designed to address the challenges of an actual event by emphasizing health care provider education, behavioral/communication strategies, latent systems errors, and periodic testing of performance. This statement also expands on, interprets, and discusses controversial aspects of material covered in the American Heart Association 2010 guidelines.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000171

    View details for PubMedID 24781570

  • Multidisciplinary simulation drills improve efficiency of emergency medication retrieval. Obstetrics and gynecology Daniels, K., Clark, A., Lipman, S., Puck, A., Arafeh, J., Chetty, S. 2014; 123: 143S-4S


    Postpartum hemorrhage resulting from uterine atony is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity. If initial treatment for atony is unsuccessful, second-line uterotonics must be administered immediately.A retrospective observational study was performed to evaluate barriers to the management of postpartum hemorrhage on our unit. Fourteen multidisciplinary teams participated in postpartum hemorrhage simulation drills. Actions in the labor room and the medication room were video-recorded for analysis. Postsimulation video review revealed multiple system errors delaying the process of obtaining the secondary uterotonics: 1) computer-generated delay in entering the patient's identification; and 2) multiple locations for the three medications. A "postpartum hemorrhage kit" was developed by pharmacy services, which included methylergonovine, carboprost, and misoprostol. All three medications were then placed in the refrigerator in an insulated box. These changes 1) allowed all medications to be removed in a kit in one step; 2) the kit could be retrieved more easily as a result of adjustments made in the identification process; and 3) the foam insulation kept the carboprost cooled as required. The postpartum hemorrhage simulation scenario was repeated to evaluate delivery of uterotonic medications with access to the postpartum hemorrhage kit.After the corrections, time to retrieval of all three uterotonic medications decreased significantly from 2 minutes and 16 seconds before use of the kit to 29 seconds with the kit.Simulated scenarios exposed correctable delays in the retrieval of emergency medications. Simulation drills can be used to detect system errors, improve system processes, and potentially reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/

    View details for PubMedID 24770020

  • Response times for emergency cesarean delivery: use of simulation drills to assess and improve obstetric team performance JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Lipman, S. S., Carvalho, B., Cohen, S. E., Druzin, M. L., Daniels, K. 2013; 33 (4): 259-263


    We documented time to key milestones and determined reasons for transport-related delays during simulated emergency cesarean.Prospective, observational investigation of delivery of care processes by multidisciplinary teams of obstetric providers on the labor and delivery unit at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, CA, USA, during 14 simulated uterine rupture scenarios. The primary outcome measure was the total time from recognition of the emergency (time zero) to that of surgical incision.The median (interquartile range) from time zero until incision was 9 min 27 s (8:55 to 10:27 min:s).In this series of emergency cesarean drills, our teams required approximately nine and a half minutes to move from the labor room to the nearby operating room (OR) and make the surgical incision. Multiple barriers to efficient transport were identified. This study demonstrates the utility of simulation to identify and correct institution-specific barriers that delay transport to the OR and initiation of emergency cesarean delivery.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2012.98

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316833300002

    View details for PubMedID 22858890

  • Transport Decreases the Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation During Simulated Maternal Cardiac Arrest ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA Lipman, S. S., Wong, J. Y., Arafeh, J., Cohen, S. E., Carvalho, B. 2013; 116 (1): 162-167


    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for simulated maternal cardiac arrest rendered during transport to the operating room with that rendered while stationary in the labor room. We hypothesized that the quality of CPR would deteriorate during transport.Twenty-six teams composed of 2 providers (obstetricians, nurses, or anesthesiologists) were randomized to perform CPR on the Laerdal Resusci Anne SkillReporter™ mannequin during transport or while stationary. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of correctly delivered compressions, defined as compression rate ≥100 beats per minute, correct sternal hand placement, compression depth ≥1.5 inches (3.8 cm), and proper release. Secondary outcomes included interruptions in compressions, position of providers relative to the mannequin during the transport phase, and ventilation tidal volume.The median (interquartile range) percentage of correctly rendered compressions during phase II was 32% (10%-63%) in the transport group and 93% (58%-100%) in the stationary group (P = 0.002, 95% confidence interval of mean difference = 22%-58%). The median (interquartile range) compression rates were 124 (110-140) beats per minute in the transport group and 123 (115-132) beats per minute in the stationary group (P = 0.531). Interruptions in CPR were observed in 92% of transport and 7% of stationary drills (P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval of difference = 61%-92%). During transport, 18 providers kneeled next to the mannequin, 2 straddled the mannequin, and 4 ran alongside the gurney. Median (interquartile range) tidal volume was 270 (166-430) mL in the transport group and 390 (232-513) mL in the stationary group (P = 0.03).Our data confirm our hypothesis and demonstrate that transport negatively affects the overall quality of resuscitation on a mannequin during simulated maternal arrest. These findings, together with previously published data on transport-related delays when moving from the labor room to the operating room further strengthen recommendations that perimortem cesarean delivery should be performed at the site of maternal cardiac arrest.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0b013e31826dd889

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313145300020

    View details for PubMedID 23223106

  • Labor Room Setting Compared With the Operating Room for Simulated Perimortem Cesarean Delivery A Randomized Controlled Trial OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lipman, S., Daniels, K., Cohen, S. E., Carvalho, B. 2011; 118 (5): 1090-1094


    To compare the labor room and operating room for perimortem cesarean delivery during simulated maternal arrests occurring outside the operating room. We hypothesized transport to the operating room for perimortem cesarean delivery would delay incision and other important resuscitation milestones.We randomized 15 teams composed of obstetricians, nurses, anesthesiologists, and neonatal staff to perform perimortem cesarean delivery in the labor room or operating room. A manikin with an abdominal model overlay was used for simulated cesarean delivery. The scenario began in the labor room with maternal cardiopulmonary arrest and fetal bradycardia. The primary outcome was time to incision. Secondary outcomes included times to important milestones, percentage of tasks completed, and type of incision.The median (interquartile range) times from time zero to incision were 4:25 (3:59-4:50) and 7:53 (7:18-8:57) minutes in the labor room and operating room groups, respectively (P=.004). Fifty-seven percent of labor room teams and 14% of operating room teams achieved delivery within 5 minutes. Contacting the neonatal team, placing the defibrillator, resuming compressions after analysis, and endotracheal intubation all occurred more rapidly in the labor room group.Perimortem cesarean delivery performed in the labor room was significantly faster than perimortem cesarean delivery performed after moving to the operating room. Delivery within 5 minutes was challenging in either location despite optimal study conditions (eg, the manikin was light and easily moved; teams knew the scenario mandated perimortem cesarean delivery and were aware of being timed). Our findings imply that perimortem cesarean delivery during actual arrest would require more than 5 minutes and should be performed in the labor room rather than relocating to the operating room.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182319a08

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296292600017

    View details for PubMedID 22015877

  • The Case for OBLS: A Simulation-based Obstetric Life Support Program SEMINARS IN PERINATOLOGY Lipman, S. S., Daniels, K. I., Arafeh, J., Halamek, L. P. 2011; 35 (2): 74-79


    Errors by health care professionals result in significant patient morbidity and mortality, and the labor and delivery ward is one of the highest risk areas in the hospital. Parturients today are of higher acuity than anytime previously, and maternal mortality is increasing. Obstetrical staff must therefore be familiar with emergency protocols geared to the maternal-fetal dyad. However, the medical literature suggests that obstetrical providers are not optimally trained to render care during maternal cardiopulmonary arrest. We describe the evolution of immersive learning and simulation in the Neonatal Resuscitation Program, and suggest the development of a multidisciplinary team, simulation-enhanced obstetric crisis training program (OBLS) may likewise benefit obstetrical health care professionals. OBLS would emphasize high quality basic life support, uterine displacement, use of an automatic external defibrillator, and delivery of the fetus within 5 minutes of maternal arrest should resuscitative efforts prove ineffective.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.semperi.2011.01.006

    View details for PubMedID 21440814

  • Deficits in the provision of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during simulated obstetric crises AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lipman, S. S., Daniels, K. I., Carvalho, B., Arafeh, J., Harney, K., Puck, A., Cohen, S. E., Druzin, M. 2010; 203 (2)


    Previous work suggests the potential for suboptimal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the parturient but did not directly assess actual performance.We evaluated 18 videotaped simulations of maternal amniotic fluid embolus and resultant cardiac arrest. A checklist containing 10 current American Heart Association recommendations for advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) in obstetric patients was utilized. We evaluated which tasks were completed correctly and the time required to perform key actions.Proper compressions were delivered by our teams 56% of the time and ventilations 50% of the time. Critical interventions such as left uterine displacement and placing a firm back support prior to compressions were frequently neglected (in 44% and 22% of cases, respectively). The mean +/- SD overall composite score for the tasks was 45 +/- 12% (range, 20-60%). The neonatal team was called in a median (interquartile range) of 1:42 (0:44-2:18) minutes:seconds; 15 of 18 (83%) teams called only after the patient was completely unresponsive. Fifty percent of teams did not provide basic information to the neonatal teams as required by neonatal resuscitation provider guidelines.Multiple deficits were noted in the provision of CPR to parturients during simulated arrests, despite current ACLS certification for all participants. Current requirements for ACLS certification and training for obstetric staff may require revision.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2010.02.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280234500037

    View details for PubMedID 20417476

  • Accidental intrathecal sufentanil overdose during combined spinal-epidural analgesia for labor INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA Coleman, L., Carvalho, B., Lipman, S., Schmiesing, C., Riley, E. 2009; 18 (1): 78-80


    A laboring woman was accidentally given 45 microg of sufentanil intrathecally in the course of combined spinal-epidural analgesia. She experienced intense pruritus and transient swallowing difficulty without respiratory depression, but still had incomplete pain relief, with delivery and episiotomy repair requiring additional analgesia. This case highlights the importance of adding local anesthetic to intrathecal opioids to facilitate effective analgesia during the second stage of labor. The contributory systems issues and multiple factors that allowed this error to occur are examined.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijoa.2008.10.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262736700017

    View details for PubMedID 19111229

  • Use of Simulation Based Team Training for Obstetric Crises in Resident Education SIMULATION IN HEALTHCARE Daniels, K., Lipman, S., Harney, K., Arafeh, J., Druzin, M. 2008; 3 (3): 154-160


    Obstetric crises are unexpected and random. Traditionally, medical training for these acute events has included lectures combined with arbitrary clinical experiences. This educational paradigm has inherent limitations. During actual crises insufficient time exists for discussion and analysis of patient care. Our objective was to create a simulation program to fill this experiential gap.Ten L&D teams participated in high fidelity simulation training. A team consisted of two or three nurses, one anesthesia resident and one or two obstetric residents. Each team participated in two scenarios; epidural-induced hypotension followed by an amniotic fluid embolism. Each simulation was followed by a facilitated debriefing. All simulations were videotaped. Clinical performances of the obstetric residents were graded by two reviewers using the videotapes and a faculty-developed checklist. Recurrent errors were analyzed and graded using Health Failure Modes Effects Analysis. All team members completed a course evaluation.Performance deficiencies of the obstetric residents were identified by an expert team of reviewers. From this list of errors, the "most valuable lessons" requiring further focused teaching were identified and included 1) Poor communication with the pediatric team, 2) Not assuming a leadership role during the code, 3) Poor distribution of workload, and 4) Lack of proper use of low/outlet forceps. Participants reported the simulation course allowed them to learn new skills needed by teams during a crisis.Simulated obstetric crises training offers the opportunity for educators to identify specific performance deficits of their residents and the subsequent development of teaching modules to address these weaknesses.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SIH.0b013e31818187d9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000207536200005

    View details for PubMedID 19088659

  • Development and Implementation of Simulation Based Training for Obstetric Crises in Resident Education Simulation In Healthcare Daniels K, Lipman S, J Arafeh, K Harney, Druzin M 2008; 3 (3): 154-160
  • Intraoperative forced air-warming during cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia does not prevent maternal hypothermia ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA Butwick, A. J., Lipman, S. S., Carvalho, B. 2007; 105 (5): 1413-1419


    Prewarming and intraoperative warming with forced air-warming systems prevent perioperative hypothermia and shivering in patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery with epidural anesthesia. We tested the hypothesis that intraoperative lower body forced air-warming prevents hypothermia in patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia.Thirty healthy patients undergoing cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia were randomly assigned to forced air-warming or control groups (identical cover applied with forced air-warming unit switched off). A blinded investigator assessed oral temperature, shivering, and thermal comfort scores at 15-min intervals until discharge from the postanesthetic care unit. Umbilical cord blood gases and Apgar scores were also measured after delivery.The maximum core temperature changes were similar in the two groups (-1.3 degrees C +/- 0.4 degrees C vs -1.3 degrees C +/- 0.3 degrees C for the forced air-warming group and control group, respectively; P = 0.8). Core hypothermia (< or =35.5 degrees C) occurred in 8 of 15 patients receiving forced air-warming and in 10 of 15 unwarmed patients (P = 0.5). The incidence and severity of shivering did not significantly differ between groups. Umbilical cord blood gases and Apgar scores were similar in both groups (P = NS).We conclude that intraoperative lower body forced air-warming does not prevent intraoperative hypothermia or shivering in women undergoing elective cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/01.ane.0000286167.96410.27

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250317500039

    View details for PubMedID 17959975

  • Patient preferences for anesthesia outcomes associated with Cesarean delivery ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA Carvalho, B., Cohen, S. E., Lipman, S. S., Fuller, A., Mathusamy, A. D., Macario, A. 2005; 101 (4): 1182-1187


    When deciding on neuraxial medication (e.g., spinal opioids) for cesarean delivery (CS) under regional anesthesia, anesthesiologists make treatment decisions that "trade off" relieving pain with the potential for increased risk of side effects. No previous studies have examined obstetric patients' anesthesia preferences. Researchers administered 100 written surveys to pregnant women attending our institutions' expectant parent class. We determined patients' preferences for importance of specific intraoperative and postoperative anesthesia outcomes using priority ranking and relative value scales. We also explored patients' fears, concerns, and tolerance regarding CS and analgesics. Eighty-two of 100 surveys were returned and analyzed. Pain during and after CS was the greatest concern followed by vomiting, nausea, cramping, pruritus, and shivering. Ranking and relative value scores were closely correlated (R2 = 0.7). Patients would tolerate a visual analog pain score (0-100 mm) of 56 +/- 22 before exposing their baby to the potential effects of analgesics they receive. In contrast to previous general surgical population surveys that found nausea and vomiting as primary concerns, we found pain during and after CS as parturients' most important concern. Common side effects such as pruritus and shivering caused only moderate concern. This information should be used to guide anesthetic choices, e.g., inclusion of spinal opioids given in adequate doses.Medical care can be improved by incorporating patients' preferences into medical decision making. We surveyed obstetric patients to determine their preferences regarding potential cesarean delivery anesthesia outcomes. Unlike general surgical patients who rate nausea and vomiting highest, parturients considered pain during and after cesarean delivery the most important concern.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/01.ane.0000167774.36833.99

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232115400045

    View details for PubMedID 16192541

  • "Ultra-light" patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor: effects of varying regimens on analgesia and physician workload INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA Carvalho, B., Cohen, S. E., Giarrusso, K., Durbin, M., Riley, E. T., Lipman, S. 2005; 14 (3): 223-229


    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) offers many advantages over continuous epidural infusions for maintenance of labor analgesia. Some of these benefits may depend on the PCEA settings. This study evaluated several regimens for "ultra-light" (0.125%) PCEA with basal continuous infusion (CI) in labor with goals of minimizing physician interventions while providing good analgesia.Two hundred and twenty ASA I-II women receiving epidural analgesia during active labor (cervical dilation <5 cm) were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to four treatment groups (n=30 in each). Analgesia was maintained with a PCEA/CI pump using bupivacaine 0.0625% + sufentanil 0.35 microg/mL. PCEA settings were: group A: CI 10 mL/h, PCEA bolus 6 mL, 8-min lockout; group B: CI 10 mL/h, PCEA bolus 12 mL, 16-min lockout; group C: CI 15 mL/h, PCEA bolus 6 mL, 8-min lockout; group D: CI 15 mL/h, PCEA bolus 12 mL, 16-min lockout.In groups A, B, C and D, 76, 77, 75 and 85% of parturients respectively, required no physician rescue boluses. Pain scores were low and maternal satisfaction was high in all groups, with minimal differences among them. Spontaneous vaginal delivery occurred in 78% of patients overall, instrumental (forceps or vacuum) delivery in 10% and cesarean section in 12%.These ultra-light PCEA regimens provided excellent analgesia with minimal physician workload and a high spontaneous delivery rate. Use of moderate to high-volume, ultra-light PCEA/CI techniques should facilitate provision of labor analgesia in busy obstetric units.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijoa.2005.02.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230915700008

    View details for PubMedID 15935646

  • The demise of general anesthesia in obstetrics revisited: prescription for a cure INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA Lipman, S., Carvalho, B., Brock-Utne, J. 2005; 14 (1): 2-4

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijoa.2004.10.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226572000002

    View details for PubMedID 15627530