Clinical Focus

  • Diagnostic Neuroimaging

Academic Appointments

  • Clinical Assistant Professor, Radiology

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Radiology, Diagnostic Radiology (2017)
  • Medical Education: University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine Urbana (2011) IL
  • Fellowship: Barrow Neurological Institute St Josephs Hospital (2017) AZ
  • Residency: The University of Texas Medical School at Houston (2016) TX
  • Internship: The University of Texas Medical School at Houston (2012) TX

All Publications

  • Assessing the Performance of Artificial Intelligence Models: Insights from the American Society of Functional Neuroradiology Artificial Intelligence Competition. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology Jiang, B., Ozkara, B. B., Zhu, G., Boothroyd, D., Allen, J. W., Barboriak, D. P., Chang, P., Chan, C., Chaudhari, R., Chen, H., Chukus, A., Ding, V., Douglas, D., Filippi, C. G., Flanders, A. E., Godwin, R., Hashmi, S., Hess, C., Hsu, K., Lui, Y. W., Maldjian, J. A., Michel, P., Nalawade, S. S., Patel, V., Raghavan, P., Sair, H. I., Tanabe, J., Welker, K., Whitlow, C., Zaharcuk, G., Wintermark, M. 2024


    Artificial intelligence (AI) models in radiology are frequently developed and validated using datasets from a single institution and are rarely tested on independent, external datasets, raising questions about their generalizability and applicability in clinical practice. The American Society of Functional Neuroradiology (ASFNR) organized a multi-center AI competition to evaluate the proficiency of developed models in identifying various pathologies on NCCT, assessing age-based normality and estimating medical urgency.In total, 1201 anonymized, full-head NCCT clinical scans from five institutions were pooled to form the dataset. The dataset encompassed normal studies as well as pathologies including acute ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, and mass effect (detection of these-task 1). NCCTs were also assessed to determine if findings were consistent with expected brain changes for the patient's age (task 2: age-based normality assessment) and to identify any abnormalities requiring immediate medical attention (task 3: evaluation of findings for urgent intervention). Five neuroradiologists labeled each NCCT, with consensus interpretations serving as the ground truth. The competition was announced online, inviting academic institutions and companies. Independent central analysis assessed each model's performance. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for each AI model, along with the area under the ROC curve (AUROC).1177 studies were processed by four teams. The median age of patients was 62, with an interquartile range of 33. 19 teams from various academic institutions registered for the competition. Of these, four teams submitted their final results. No commercial entities participated in the competition. For task 1, AUROCs ranged from 0.49 to 0.59. For task 2, two teams completed the task with AUROC values of 0.57 and 0.52. For task 3, teams had little to no agreement with the ground truth.To assess the performance of AI models in real-world clinical scenarios, we analyzed their performance in the ASFNR AI Competition. The first ASFNR Competition underscored the gap between expectation and reality; the models largely fell short in their assessments. As the integration of AI tools into clinical workflows increases, neuroradiologists must carefully recognize the capabilities, constraints, and consistency of these technologies. Before institutions adopt these algorithms, thorough validation is essential to ensure acceptable levels of performance in clinical settings.ABBREVIATIONS: AI = artificial intelligence; ASFNR = American Society of Functional Neuroradiology; AUROC = area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; DICOM = Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine; GEE = generalized estimation equation; IQR = interquartile range; NPV = negative predictive value; PPV = positive predictive value; ROC = receiver operating characteristic; TBI = traumatic brain injury.

    View details for DOI 10.3174/ajnr.A8317

    View details for PubMedID 38663992

  • Arterial Spin-Labeling and DSC Perfusion Metrics Improve Agreement in Neuroradiologists' Clinical Interpretations of Posttreatment High-Grade Glioma Surveillance MR Imaging-An Institutional Experience. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology Yamin, G., Tranvinh, E., Lanzman, B. A., Tong, E., Hashmi, S. S., Patel, C. B., Iv, M. 2024


    MR perfusion has shown value in the evaluation of posttreatment high-grade gliomas, but few studies have shown its impact on the consistency and confidence of neuroradiologists' interpretation in routine clinical practice. We evaluated the impact of adding MR perfusion metrics to conventional contrast-enhanced MR imaging in posttreatment high-grade glioma surveillance imaging.This retrospective study included 45 adults with high-grade gliomas who had posttreatment perfusion MR imaging. Four neuroradiologists assigned Brain Tumor Reporting and Data System scores for each examination on the basis of the interpretation of contrast-enhanced MR imaging and then after the addition of arterial spin-labeling-CBF, DSC-relative CBV, and DSC-fractional tumor burden. Interrater agreement and rater agreement with a multidisciplinary consensus group were assessed with κ statistics. Raters used a 5-point Likert scale to report confidence scores. The frequency of clinically meaningful score changes resulting from the addition of each perfusion metric was determined.Interrater agreement was moderate for contrast-enhanced MR imaging alone (κ = 0.63) and higher with perfusion metrics (arterial spin-labeling-CBF, κ = 0.67; DSC-relative CBV, κ = 0.66; DSC-fractional tumor burden, κ = 0.70). Agreement between raters and consensus was highest with DSC-fractional tumor burden (κ = 0.66-0.80). Confidence scores were highest with DSC-fractional tumor burden. Across all raters, the addition of perfusion resulted in clinically meaningful interpretation changes in 2%-20% of patients compared with contrast-enhanced MR imaging alone.Adding perfusion to contrast-enhanced MR imaging improved interrater agreement, rater agreement with consensus, and rater confidence in the interpretation of posttreatment high-grade glioma MR imaging, with the highest agreement and confidence scores seen with DSC-fractional tumor burden. Perfusion MR imaging also resulted in interpretation changes that could change therapeutic management in up to 20% of patients.

    View details for DOI 10.3174/ajnr.A8190

    View details for PubMedID 38453410

  • Safety and efficacy of leriglitazone for preventing disease progression in men with adrenomyeloneuropathy (ADVANCE): a randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, placebo-controlled phase 2-3 trial. The Lancet. Neurology Kohler, W., Engelen, M., Eichler, F., Lachmann, R., Fatemi, A., Sampson, J., Salsano, E., Gamez, J., Molnar, M. J., Pascual, S., Rovira, M., Vila, A., Pina, G., Martin-Ugarte, I., Mantilla, A., Pizcueta, P., Rodriguez-Pascau, L., Traver, E., Vilalta, A., Pascual, M., Martinell, M., Meya, U., Mochel, F., ADVANCE Study Group, Mc Govern, E., Yazbeck, E., Barbier, M., Luton, M., Pousset, F., Hogrel, J., Adanyeguh, I., Then Bergh, F., Bergner, C., Unterlauft, A., Roicke, H., Hoffmann, K., Scherlach, C., Kalb, A., Meilick, B., Reuschel, M., Fenu, S., Mauro, E., Murphy, E., Krishna, G., Beyene, T., Sierra, A., Quinoa, S., Belen Canovas, A., Grosz, Z., Gyorgyi, B., van de Stadt, S. I., Huffnagel, I. C., van Ballegoij, W. J., Voermans, M. M., Seyedsadjadi, R., Corre, C., Godbole, N., Grant, N. R., Brito Pires, C. M., Trovato, M., Yeh, N., Goodman, J., Keller, J., Joseph, C., Van Haren, K., Sakamuri, S., Duong, T., Perrone, L., Tran, S., Dunaway Young, S., Hashmi, S. 2023; 22 (2): 127-136


    BACKGROUND: Adult patients with adrenoleukodystrophy have a poor prognosis owing to development of adrenomyeloneuropathy. Additionally, a large proportion of patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy develop life-threatening progressive cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Leriglitazone is a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist that regulates expression of key genes that contribute to neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes implicated in adrenoleukodystrophy disease progression. We aimed to assess the effect of leriglitazone on clinical, imaging, and biochemical markers of disease progression in adults with adrenomyeloneuropathy.METHODS: ADVANCE was a 96-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2-3 trial done at ten hospitals in France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, the UK, and the USA. Ambulatory men aged 18-65 years with adrenomyeloneuropathy without gadolinium enhancing lesions suggestive of progressive cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy were randomly assigned (2:1 without stratification) to receive daily oral suspensions of leriglitazone (150 mg starting dose; between baseline and week 12, doses were increased or decreased to achieve plasma concentrations of 200 mug·h/mL [SD 20%]) or placebo by means of an interactive response system and a computer-generated sequence. Investigators and patients were masked to group assignment. The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline in the Six-Minute Walk Test distance at week 96, analysed in the full-analysis set by means of a mixed model for repeated measures with restricted maximum likelihood and baseline value as a covariate. Adverse events were also assessed in the full-analysis set. This study was registered with, NCT03231878; the primary study is complete; patients had the option to continue treatment in an open-label extension, which is ongoing.FINDINGS: Between Dec 8, 2017, and Oct 16, 2018, of 136 patients screened, 116 were randomly assigned; 62 [81%] of 77 patients receiving leriglitazone and 34 [87%] of 39 receiving placebo completed treatment. There was no between-group difference in the primary endpoint (mean [SD] change from baseline leriglitazone: -27·7 [41·4] m; placebo: -30·3 [60·5] m; least-squares mean difference -1·2 m; 95% CI -22·6 to 20·2; p=0·91). The most common treatment emergent adverse events in both the leriglitazone and placebo groups were weight gain (54 [70%] of 77 vs nine [23%] of 39 patients, respectively) and peripheral oedema (49 [64%] of 77 vs seven [18%] of 39). There were no deaths. Serious treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 14 (18%) of 77 patients receiving leriglitazone and ten (26%) of 39 patients receiving placebo. The most common serious treatment emergent adverse event, clinically progressive cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy, occurred in six [5%] of 116 patients, all of whom were in the placebo group.INTERPRETATION: The primary endpoint was not met, but leriglitazone was generally well tolerated and rates of adverse events were in line with the expected safety profile for this drug class. The finding that cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy, a life-threatening event for patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy, occurred only in patients in the placebo group supports further investigation of whether leriglitazone might slow the progression of cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy.FUNDING: Minoryx Therapeutics.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00495-1

    View details for PubMedID 36681445

  • Safety and efficacy of leriglitazone for preventing disease progression in men with adrenomyeloneuropathy (ADVANCE): a randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, placebo-controlled phase 2-3 trial LANCET NEUROLOGY Koehler, W., Engelen, M., Eichler, F., Lachmann, R., Fatemi, A., Sampson, J., Salsano, E., Gamez, J., Molnar, M., Pascual, S., Rovira, M., Vila, A., Pina, G., Martin-Ugarte, I., Mantilla, A., Pizcueta, P., Rodriguez-Pascau, L., Traver, E., Vilalta, A., Pascual, M., Martinell, M., Meya, U., Mochel, F., Adv Study Grp 2023; 22 (2): 127-136
  • Thoracic and Lumbosacral Spine Anatomy. Neuroimaging clinics of North America Hashmi, S. S., Seifert, K. D., Massoud, T. F. 2022; 32 (4): 889-902


    We review anatomy of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spine. Knowledge of normal anatomy is vital when reviewing imaging of the spine because it allows for the detection of abnormal findings. We emphasize the normal appearance of the thoracic and lumbosacral spine on imaging, focusing on the most common imaging techniques of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as highlighting a few less common and emerging imaging techniques that can evaluate the spine.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nic.2022.07.024

    View details for PubMedID 36244729

  • Anatomy of the Spinal Cord, Coverings, and Nerves. Neuroimaging clinics of North America Hashmi, S. S., van Staalduinen, E. K., Massoud, T. F. 2022; 32 (4): 903-914


    The spinal cord is an elegant structure that serves as a conduit for the transfer of information between the brain and the peripheral nervous system. To enable the reader to understand its complex microstructural anatomy, we have created a detailed yet approachable anatomic reference for clinicians. We review gross and structural features of the spinal cord, its coverings, and nerves while also discussing spinal cord development, microscopic organization, and common anatomic variants. We detail how this anatomy appears on current neuroimaging techniques, with special attention to MR imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nic.2022.07.025

    View details for PubMedID 36244730

  • Headache Attributed to Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Practical Neurology Moskatel, L., Mallick-Searle, T., Carroll, I., Hashmi, S., Barad, M. 2021
  • Pearls and Oy-sters: Dural defect repair as treatment for refractory headache from CSF leak. Neurology Chan, T. L., Kim, D. D., Hashmi, S., Carrol, I. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1212/WNL.0000000000010476

    View details for PubMedID 32753442

  • Imaging Anatomy of the Vertebral Canal for Trans-Sacral Hiatus Puncture of the Lumbar Cistern. Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.) Trinh, A., Hashmi, S. S., Massoud, T. F. 2020


    A standard lumbar puncture may be impossible for many anatomic or technical reasons. Previous accounts of caudal epidural anesthesia and other procedures via the sacral hiatus prompted us to test if image-guided percutaneous trans-sacral hiatus access to the lumbosacral subarachnoid cistern would be anatomically feasible. To study vertebral canal morphometry and curvature, we analyzed midsagittal CT-myelogram images of 40 normal subjects and digitally measured sacral curvatures between S1 to S5 and S2 to S4 using two methods whereby a lower angle signifies a straighter sacrum. We measured midsagittal vertebral canal area, hiatus width, dural sac termination levels, and distance from sacral hiatus to the dural sac tip (needle distance). Subjects were F:M=25:15, with a mean age of 44.9years. The two S1-S5 full sacral curvature mean angles were 57.3° and 60.4°. Almost all sacral hiatuses were at S4, and dural sac terminations were at S1-S2. The mean S2-S4 sacral curvature was 25.1°, and the mean needle distance was 57.7mm. Using two-way ANOVA, there were significant sex differences for needle distances (p=.001), and full and limited sacral curvatures (p=.02, and p=.046, respectively). There were no significant linear regression correlations between age and sacral curvature, needle distance, canal area, or hiatus width. Therefore, despite a frequently prominent full sacral curvature, the combination of S1-S2 dural sac termination plus a relatively straight trajectory of the lower vertebral canal between S2 and S4 support the theoretical feasibility of percutaneous trans-sacral hiatus and vertebral canal access to the lumbosacral cistern using a standard spinal needle. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ca.23612

    View details for PubMedID 32323367

  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak in the context of Pars Interarticularis Fracture: A Case Series Chan, L., Cowan, R., Hindiyeh, N., Hashmi, S., Lanzman, B., Carroll, I. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2020
  • A within-coil optical prospective motion-correction system for brain imaging at 7T. Magnetic resonance in medicine DiGiacomo, P. n., Maclaren, J. n., Aksoy, M. n., Tong, E. n., Carlson, M. n., Lanzman, B. n., Hashmi, S. n., Watkins, R. n., Rosenberg, J. n., Burns, B. n., Skloss, T. W., Rettmann, D. n., Rutt, B. n., Bammer, R. n., Zeineh, M. n. 2020


    Motion artifact limits the clinical translation of high-field MR. We present an optical prospective motion correction system for 7 Tesla MRI using a custom-built, within-coil camera to track an optical marker mounted on a subject.The camera was constructed to fit between the transmit-receive coils with direct line of sight to a forehead-mounted marker, improving upon prior mouthpiece work at 7 Tesla MRI. We validated the system by acquiring a 3D-IR-FSPGR on a phantom with deliberate motion applied. The same 3D-IR-FSPGR and a 2D gradient echo were then acquired on 7 volunteers, with/without deliberate motion and with/without motion correction. Three neuroradiologists blindly assessed image quality. In 1 subject, an ultrahigh-resolution 2D gradient echo with 4 averages was acquired with motion correction. Four single-average acquisitions were then acquired serially, with the subject allowed to move between acquisitions. A fifth single-average 2D gradient echo was acquired following subject removal and reentry.In both the phantom and human subjects, deliberate and involuntary motion were well corrected. Despite marked levels of motion, high-quality images were produced without spurious artifacts. The quantitative ratings confirmed significant improvements in image quality in the absence and presence of deliberate motion across both acquisitions (P < .001). The system enabled ultrahigh-resolution visualization of the hippocampus during a long scan and robust alignment of serially acquired scans with interspersed movement.We demonstrate the use of a within-coil camera to perform optical prospective motion correction and ultrahigh-resolution imaging at 7 Tesla MRI. The setup does not require a mouthpiece, which could improve accessibility of motion correction during 7 Tesla MRI exams.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.28211

    View details for PubMedID 32077521

  • Spinal cerebrospinal fluid leak in the context of pars interarticularis fracture. BMC neurology Chan, T. L., Cowan, R. n., Hindiyeh, N. n., Hashmi, S. n., Lanzman, B. n., Carroll, I. n. 2020; 20 (1): 162


    Spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak can lead to intracranial hypotension and is an important differential diagnosis to consider in patients with sudden-onset chronic daily headaches. Pars interarticularis (PI) fracture is a potential rare cause of suspected spinal CSF leak.This is a retrospective case series of 6 patients with suspected spinal CSF leak evaluated between January 2016 and September 2019. All patients received a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain with and without gadolinium, MRI whole spine and full spine computed tomography (CT) myelogram. Targeted epidural patches with fibrin sealant were performed. Treatment response at return visit (3 months post-patch) was documented.Six patients (4 females, 2 males) were diagnosed with a suspected spinal CSF leak and PI fracture. Mean age at the time of headache onset was 39 years old, and a range from 32 to 50 years old. Mean time to targeted epidural patches with fibrin sealant was 4.5 years. All 6 patients had PI fractures identified on CT myelogram and received targeted epidural patches with fibrin sealant at the site of the PI fracture. All patients had significant improvement in their headache intensity.Our study highlights: 1) the importance of PI fracture as a possible culprit of suspected spinal CSF leak in patients with intracranial hypotension; 2) the added benefit of CT imaging for detecting bony abnormalities such as fractures in patients with intracranial hypotension; and 3) the successful treatment of suspected spinal CSF leak when targeting the fracture site.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12883-020-01740-1

    View details for PubMedID 32349710

  • MR Diffusion Concepts and Value in Brain Imaging Glioblastoma: State-of-the-Art Clinical Neuroimaging Hsu, K., Liu, X., Singh, R., Hashmi, S., Iv, M. 2019
  • Structural MRI and CT Features of Glioblastomas and Differential Diagnosis Glioblastoma: State-of-the-Art Clinical Neuroimaging Yoon, B., Liu, X., Singh, R., Hashmi, S., Iv, M. 2019
  • Central Nervous System and Head and Neck Histiocytoses: A Comprehensive Review on the Spectrum of Imaging Findings. Neurographics (2011) Hashmi, S. S., Guha-Thakurta, N., Ketonen, L., Williams, M. D., Shah, S., Debnam, J. M. 2016; 6 (2): 114-122


    The histiocytoses are a rare group of varied but related disorders characterized by abnormal tissue proliferation of macrophages and dendritic cells within tissues. The purpose of this article was to review the imaging findings in patients presenting with CNS and with head and neck manifestations of these disorders. Histiocytoses include but are not limited to Rosai-Dorfman disease, Erdheim Chester disease, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, histiocytic sarcoma, and juvenile xanthogranuloma. A review of the literature was performed to determine the sites of disease involvement. This article includes the demographics, histopathologic criteria for diagnosis, and imaging features of these histiocytoses, and describes the manifestations in locations known to harbor disease: intraaxial and extra-axial intracranial regions, the calvaria, skull base, hypothalamopituitary axis, orbits, paranasal sinuses, spine, and the head and neck region. Histiocytoses have variable imaging appearances in the CNS and in the head and neck region, and radiologists should be aware of the spectrum of findings to avoid mistaking them for other disease processes.To understand the general pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and typical imaging characteristics of the most common histiocytoses; comprehend the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of these histiocytoses and the hallmark findings on pathology; and be able to differentiate between these disorders based on their most common presentations.

    View details for DOI 10.3174/ng.2160150

    View details for PubMedID 30417172

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6221469

  • Multicenter imaging outcomes study of The Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma patient cohort: imaging predictors of overall and progression-free survival. Neuro-oncology Wangaryattawanich, P., Hatami, M., Wang, J., Thomas, G., Flanders, A., Kirby, J., Wintermark, M., Huang, E. S., Bakhtiari, A. S., Luedi, M. M., Hashmi, S. S., Rubin, D. L., Chen, J. Y., Hwang, S. N., Freymann, J., Holder, C. A., Zinn, P. O., Colen, R. R. 2015; 17 (11): 1525-1537


    Despite an aggressive therapeutic approach, the prognosis for most patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of preoperative MRI variables, both quantitative and qualitative, with regard to overall and progression-free survival in GBM.We retrospectively identified 94 untreated GBM patients from the Cancer Imaging Archive who had pretreatment MRI and corresponding patient outcomes and clinical information in The Cancer Genome Atlas. Qualitative imaging assessments were based on the Visually Accessible Rembrandt Images feature-set criteria. Volumetric parameters were obtained of the specific tumor components: contrast enhancement, necrosis, and edema/invasion. Cox regression was used to assess prognostic and survival significance of each image.Univariable Cox regression analysis demonstrated 10 imaging features and 2 clinical variables to be significantly associated with overall survival. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that tumor-enhancing volume (P = .03) and eloquent brain involvement (P < .001) were independent prognostic indicators of overall survival. In the multivariable Cox analysis of the volumetric features, the edema/invasion volume of more than 85 000 mm(3) and the proportion of enhancing tumor were significantly correlated with higher mortality (Ps = .004 and .003, respectively).Preoperative MRI parameters have a significant prognostic role in predicting survival in patients with GBM, thus making them useful for patient stratification and endpoint biomarkers in clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/neuonc/nov117

    View details for PubMedID 26203066

  • Percutaneous Cholecystostomy for Acute Cholecystitis: Ten-Year Experience JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY Joseph, T., Unver, K., Hwang, G. L., Rosenberg, J., Sze, D. Y., Hashimi, S., Kothary, N., Louie, J. D., Kuo, W. T., Hofmann, L. V., Hovsepian, D. M. 2012; 23 (1): 83-88


    To review the clinical course of patients with acute cholecystitis treated by percutaneous cholecystostomy, and to identify risk factors retrospectively that predict outcome.A total of 106 patients diagnosed with acute cholecystitis were treated by percutaneous cholecystostomy during a 10-year period. Seventy-one (67%) presented to the emergency department (ED) specifically for acute cholecystitis, and 35 (23%) were inpatients previously admitted for other conditions. Outcomes of the two groups were compared with respect to severity of illness, leukocytosis, bile culture, liver function tests, imaging features, time intervals from onset of symptoms to medical and percutaneous intervention, and whether surgical cholecystectomy was later performed.Overall, 72 patients (68%) showed an improvement clinically, whereas 34 (32%) showed no improvement or a clinically worsened condition after cholecystostomy. Patients who presented to the ED primarily with acute cholecystitis fared better (84% of patients showed improvement) than inpatients (34% showed improvement; P < .0001). Gallstones were identified in 54% of patients who presented to the ED, whereas acalculous cholecystitis was more commonly diagnosed in inpatients (54%). Patients with sepsis had worse outcomes overall (P < .0001). Bacterial bile cultures were analyzed in 95% of patients and showed positive results in 52%, with no overall effect on outcome. There was no correlation between the time of onset of symptoms until antibiotic therapy or cholecystostomy in either group. Long-term outcomes for both groups were better for those who later underwent cholecystectomy (P < .0001).Outcomes after percutaneous cholecystostomy for acute cholecystitis are better when the disease is primary and not precipitated by concurrent illness.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvir.2011.09.030

    View details for PubMedID 22133709