Bio


Thomas S. Dee, Ph.D., is the Barnett Family Professor at Stanford University’s Graduate School of Education (GSE), a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), a Senior Fellow at the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research (SIEPR) and the Faculty Director of the John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities. His research focuses largely on the use of quantitative methods to inform contemporary issues of public policy and practice. The Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) awarded his collaborative research the Raymond Vernon Memorial Award in 2015 and again in 2019. He currently serves on the editorial boards of the American Educational Research Journal, the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, and Education Finance and Policy.

Administrative Appointments


  • Faculty Director, John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities (2018 - Present)
  • Member, Steering Committee, Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis (2015 - Present)
  • Member, Executive Committee, Public Policy Program, Stanford University (2014 - Present)
  • Associate Dean for Faculty Affairs, Graduate School of Education, Stanford University (2015 - 2018)
  • Director, Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis (CEPA) (2015 - 2018)

Honors & Awards


  • Community Outcomes and Impact Award, International Association for Research on Service Learning and Community Engagement (2020)
  • Raymond Vernon Memorial Award, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (2019)
  • Raymond Vernon Memorial Award, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (2015)
  • Postdoctoral Fellowship, National Academy of Education/Spencer Foundation (2002-2003)
  • Dissertation Fellowship, American Educational Research Association (1996-1997)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Research Associate, Programs on the Economics of Education, Health Economics, and Children, National Bureau of Economic Research (2000 - Present)
  • Member, Economics of Education, CESifo Research Network (2009 - Present)
  • Editorial Board, American Educational Research Journal (2020 - Present)
  • Editorial Board, Education Finance and Policy (2019 - Present)
  • Editorial Board, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management (2014 - Present)
  • Associate Editor, Economic Inquiry (2019 - Present)
  • Co-Editor, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management (2010 - 2014)

Program Affiliations


  • Public Policy

All Publications


  • Patterns in the Pandemic Decline of Public School Enrollment EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER Dee, T. S., Murphy, M. 2021
  • My Brother's Keeper? The Impact of Targeted Educational Supports Journal of Policy Analysis and Management Dee, T. S., Penner, E. K. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pam.22328

  • Ethnic studies increases longer-run academic engagement and attainment Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences Bonilla, S., Dee, T. S., Penner, E. K. 2021; 118 (37)
  • Vanished Classmates: The Effects of Local Immigration Enforcement on School Enrollment AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL Dee, T. S., Murphy, M. 2020; 57 (2): 694–727
  • The Effects of Accountability Incentives in Early Childhood Education JOURNAL OF POLICY ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT Bassok, D., Dee, T. S., Latham, S. 2019; 38 (4): 838-+

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pam.22149

    View details for Web of Science ID 000485001700003

  • The gift of time? School starting age and mental health HEALTH ECONOMICS Dee, T. S., Sievertsen, H. 2018; 27 (5): 781–802

    Abstract

    Using linked Danish survey and register data, we estimate the causal effect of age at kindergarten entry on mental health. Danish children are supposed to enter kindergarten in the calendar year in which they turn 6 years. In a "fuzzy" regression-discontinuity design based on this rule and exact dates of birth, we find that a 1-year delay in kindergarten entry dramatically reduces inattention/hyperactivity at age 7 (effect size = -0.73), a measure of self-regulation with strong negative links to student achievement. The effect is primarily identified for girls but persists at age 11.

    View details for PubMedID 29424005

  • The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence From an Ethnic Studies Curriculum AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL Dee, T. S., Penner, E. K. 2017; 54 (1): 127-166
  • Incentives, Selection, and Teacher Performance: Evidence from IMPACT JOURNAL OF POLICY ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT Dee, T. S., Wyckoff, J. 2015; 34 (2): 267-?

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pam.21818

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351222000003

  • The Impact of No Child Left Behind on Student Achievement JOURNAL OF POLICY ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT Dee, T. S., Jacob, B. 2011; 30 (3): 418-U60

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pam.20586

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291362200002

  • Are there civic returns to education? JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ECONOMICS Dee, T. S. 2004; 88 (9-10): 1697-1720
  • Teachers, race, and student achievement in a randomized experiment REVIEW OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS Dee, T. S. 2004; 86 (1): 195-210
  • IS EFFECTIVE TEACHER EVALUATION SUSTAINABLE? EVIDENCE FROM DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA PUBLIC SCHOOLS EDUCATION FINANCE AND POLICY Dee, T. S., James, J., Wyckoff, J. 2021; 16 (2): 313-346
  • Assessing the Impact of a Test Question: Evidence from the "Underground Railroad" Controversy EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT-ISSUES AND PRACTICE Dee, T. S., Domingue, B. W. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1111/emip.12411

    View details for Web of Science ID 000599977400001

  • The Effects of School Reform under NCLB Waivers: Evidence from Focus Schools in Kentucky EDUCATION FINANCE AND POLICY Bonilla, S., Dee, T. S. 2020; 15 (1): 75–103
  • School Performance, Accountability, and Waiver Reforms: Evidence From Louisiana EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS Dee, T. S., Dizon-Ross, E. 2019; 41 (3): 316–49
  • The Causes and Consequences of Test Score Manipulation: Evidence from the New York Regents Examinations AMERICAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL-APPLIED ECONOMICS Dee, T. S., Dobbie, W., Jacob, B. A., Rockoff, J. 2019; 11 (3): 382–423
  • Text as Data Methods for Education Research JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Fesler, L., Dee, T., Baker, R., Evans, B. 2019; 12 (4): 707-727
  • How a data-driven course planning tool affects college students' GPA: Evidence from two field experiments Chaturapruek, S., Dee, T. S., Johari, R., Kizilcec, R. F., Stevens, M. L., ACM ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2018
  • Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS Adnot, M., Dee, T., Katz, V., Wyckoff, J. 2017; 39 (1): 54-76
  • Understanding and addressing teacher shortages in the United States Dee, T. S., Goldhaber, D. Brookings Institution, Hamilton Project. 2017
  • Be a Good Samaritan to a Good Samaritan: Field evidence of other-regarding preferences in China CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Chang, S., Dee, T. S., Tse, C. W., Yu, L. 2016; 41: 23-33
  • A Randomized Experiment Testing the Efficacy of a Scheduling Nudge in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) AERA OPEN Baker, R., Evans, B., Dee, T. 2016; 2 (4)
  • PROPERTY TAXES AND POLITICIANS: EVIDENCE FROM SCHOOL BUDGET ELECTIONS NATIONAL TAX JOURNAL Barr, A. C., Dee, T. S. 2016; 69 (3): 517-544
  • Persistence Patterns in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) JOURNAL OF HIGHER EDUCATION Evans, B. J., Baker, R. B., Dee, T. S. 2016; 87 (2): 206-242
  • The achievement and course-taking effects of magnet schools: Regression-discontinuity evidence from urban China ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Dee, T., Lan, X. 2015; 47: 128-142
  • Social Identity and Achievement Gaps: Evidence From an Affirmation Intervention JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Dee, T. S. 2015; 8 (2): 149-168
  • STEREOTYPE THREAT AND THE STUDENT-ATHLETE ECONOMIC INQUIRY Dee, T. S. 2014; 52 (1): 173-182

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ecin.12006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000339801700010

  • Do parental involvement laws deter risky teen sex? JOURNAL OF HEALTH ECONOMICS Colman, S., Dee, T. S., Joyce, T. 2013; 32 (5): 873-880

    Abstract

    Parental involvement (PI) laws require that physicians notify or obtain consent from a parent(s) of a minor seeking an abortion before performing the procedure. Several studies suggest that PI laws curb risky sexual behavior because teens realize that they would be compelled to discuss a subsequent pregnancy with a parent. We show that prior evidence based on gonorrhea rates overlooked the frequent under-reporting of gonorrhea by race and ethnicity, and present new evidence on the effects of PI laws using more current data on the prevalence of gonorrhea and data that are novel to this literature (i.e., chlamydia rates and data disaggregated by year of age). We improve the credibility of our estimates over those in the existing literature using an event-study design in addition to standard difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) models. Our findings consistently suggest no association between PI laws and rates of sexually transmitted infections or measures of sexual behavior.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2013.06.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000326061000010

    View details for PubMedID 23892483

  • The Effects of NCLB on School Resources and Practices EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS Dee, T. S., Jacob, B., Schwartz, N. L. 2013; 35 (2): 252-279
  • When a Nudge Isn't Enough: Defaults and Savings among Low-Income Tax Filers National Tax Journal Bronchetti, E. T., Dee, T. S., Huffman, D. B., Magenheim, E. 2013; 66 (3): 609-634
  • Rational Ignorance in Education A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism JOURNAL OF HUMAN RESOURCES Dee, T. S., Jacob, B. A. 2012; 47 (2): 397-434
  • Stereotype Threat in the Real World Stereotype threat: Theory, process, and application Aronson, J., Dee, T. Oxford University Press. 2012: 264-278
  • Conditional cash penalties in education: Evidence from the Learnfare experiment ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Dee, T. S. 2011; 30 (5): 924-937
  • The Non-Cognitive Returns to Class Size EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS Dee, T. S., West, M. R. 2011; 33 (1): 23-46
  • Conditional cash penalties in education: Evidence from the Learnfare experiment Economics of Education Review Dee, T. S. 2011; 30 (5): 924-937
  • The non-cognitive returns to class size Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis Dee, T. S., West, M. R. 2011; 33 (1): 23-46
  • The Impact of No Child Left Behind on Students, Teachers, and Schools Brookings Papers on Economic Activity Dee, T. S., Jacob, B. 2010; 2: 149-194
  • Motorcycle helmets and traffic safety JOURNAL OF HEALTH ECONOMICS Dee, T. S. 2009; 28 (2): 398-412

    Abstract

    Between 1997 and 2005, the number of annual motorcyclist fatalities doubled. Motorcyclist fatalities now account for over 10 percent of all traffic-related fatalities. However, over the last three decades, states have generally been eliminating laws that require helmet use among all motorcyclists. This study examines the effectiveness of helmet use and state laws that mandate helmet use in reducing motorcyclist fatalities. Within-vehicle comparisons among two-rider motorcycles indicate that helmet use reduces fatality risk by 34 percent. State laws requiring helmet use appear to reduce motorcyclist fatalities by 27 percent. Fatality reductions of this magnitude suggest that the health benefits of helmet-use laws are not meaningfully compromised by compensating increases in risk-taking by motorcyclists.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2008.12.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264949000011

    View details for PubMedID 19157608

  • Teens and Traffic Safety Risky Behavior among Youth: An Economic Analysis Dee, T. S., Evans, W. N. University of Chicago Press. 2009
  • Forsaking all others? The effects of same-sex partnership laws on risky sex ECONOMIC JOURNAL Dee, T. S. 2008; 118 (530): 1055-1078
  • Out-of-Field Teachers and Student Achievement Evidence from Matched-Pairs Comparisons PUBLIC FINANCE REVIEW Dee, T. S., Cohodes, S. R. 2008; 36 (1): 7-32
  • Technology and voter intent: Evidence from the california recall election REVIEW OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS Dee, T. S. 2007; 89 (4): 674-683
  • The strength of graduated drivers license programs and fatalities among teen drivers and passengers ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION Morrisey, M. A., Grabowski, D. C., Dee, T. S., Campbell, C. 2006; 38 (1): 135-141

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of differentially stringent graduated drivers license programs on teen driver fatalities, day-time and night-time teen driver fatalities, fatalities of teen drivers with passengers present, and fatalities among teen passengers.The study uses 1992-2002 data on motor vehicle fatalities among 15-17-year-old drivers from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System to identify the effects of "good", "fair", and "marginal" GDL programs based upon designations by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Analysis is conducted using conditional negative binomial regressions with fixed effects."Good" programs reduce total fatalities among young drivers by 19.4% (c.i. -33.0%, -5.9%). "Fair" programs reduce night-time young driver fatalities by 12.6% (c.i. -23.9%, -1.2%), but have no effect on day-time fatalities. "Marginal" programs had no statistically meaningful effect on driver fatalities. All three types of programs reduced teen passenger fatalities, but the effects of limitations on the number of passengers appear to have had only minimal effects in reducing fatalities among young drivers themselves.Stronger GDL programs are more effective than weaker programs in reducing teenage motor vehicle fatalities.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.aap.2005.08.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233493600018

    View details for PubMedID 16171767

  • The Effects of School Size on Parental Involvement and Social Capital: Evidence from the ELS: 2002 Brookings Papers on Education Policy Dee, T. S., Jacob, B. A., Ha, W. 2006; 9: 77-97
  • The effects of catholic schooling on civic participation INTERNATIONAL TAX AND PUBLIC FINANCE Dee, T. S. 2005; 12 (5): 605-625
  • Graduated driver licensing and teen traffic fatalities JOURNAL OF HEALTH ECONOMICS Dee, T. S., Grabowski, D. C., Morrisey, M. A. 2005; 24 (3): 571-589

    Abstract

    Over the last 8 years, nearly every state has introduced graduated driver licensing (GDL) for teens. These new licensing procedures require teen drivers to advance through distinct stages where they are subject to a variety of restrictions (e.g., adult supervision, daytime driving, passenger limits). In this study, we present evidence on whether these restrictions have been effective in reducing traffic fatalities among teens. These evaluations are based on state-by-year panel data from 1992 to 2002. We assess the reliability of our basic inferences in several ways including an examination of contemporaneous data for older cohorts who were not directly affected by these policies. Our results indicate that GDL regulations reduced traffic fatalities among 15-17-year-olds by at least 5.6%. We also find that the life-saving benefits of these regulations were plausibly related to their restrictiveness. And we find no evidence that these benefits were attenuated by an increase in fatality risks during the full-licensure period available to older teens.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2004.09.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228715000008

    View details for PubMedID 15811544

  • Expense Preference and Student Achievement in School Districts Eastern Economic Journal Dee, T. S. 2005; 31 (1): 23-44
  • The fate of new funding: Evidence from Massachusetts' education finance reforms EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS Dee, T. S., Levine, J. 2004; 26 (3): 199-215
  • Does merit pay reward good teachers? Evidence from a randomized experiment JOURNAL OF POLICY ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT Dee, T. S., Keys, B. J. 2004; 23 (3): 471-488

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pam.20022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222150500005

  • Do charter schools skim students or drain resources? ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Dee, T. S., Fu, H. 2004; 23 (3): 259-271
  • Lotteries, litigation, and education finance SOUTHERN ECONOMIC JOURNAL Dee, T. S. 2004; 70 (3): 584-599

    View details for DOI 10.2307/4135332

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188228900008

  • Comment on "Peer Effects in Higher Education" College Choices: The Economics of Where to Go, When to Go, and How to Pay For It Dee, T. S. University of Chicago Press. 2004
  • The fatality effects of highway speed limits by gender and age ECONOMICS LETTERS Dee, T. S., Sela, R. J. 2003; 79 (3): 401-408
  • AIDS mortality may have contributed to the decline in syphilis rates in the United States in the 1990s SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES Chesson, H. W., Dee, T. S., Aral, S. O. 2003; 30 (5): 419-424

    Abstract

    The mortality associated with AIDS among men may have had an influence on primary and secondary syphilis trends among men in the United States, through the loss of men at high risk for acquisition or transmission of syphilis in this population and/or by prompting safer sexual behaviors in response to the threat of AIDS.The goal of this study was to examine the association between AIDS mortality rates and primary and secondary syphilis incidence rates among men in the United States from 1984 to 1997.We used a fixed-effects regression analysis of state-level AIDS mortality rates and primary and secondary syphilis incidence rates for men.Our analysis showed a significant association between higher AIDS mortality and lower rates of syphilis incidence, after we controlled for confounding factors. Our model estimates suggested that every 20 AIDS deaths per 100,000 adult men are associated with declines of about 7% to 12% in syphilis incidence rates among men.Increases in AIDS-associated mortality may have accounted for one-third to one-half of the decline in syphilis rates among men in the early 1990s. Recent declines in AIDS mortality in the United States may have contributed to the recent outbreaks of syphilis, particularly among men who have sex with men. Our findings underscore the importance of providing STD prevention services to men with HIV infection and the need for STD surveillance in communities at risk for syphilis outbreaks.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/00007435-200305000-00008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183048300008

    View details for PubMedID 12916133

  • Until death do you part: The effects of unilateral divorce on spousal homicides ECONOMIC INQUIRY Dee, T. S. 2003; 41 (1): 163-182
  • The "First Wave" of Accountability No Child Left Behind? The Politics and Practice of Accountability Dee, T. Brookings Institution Press. 2003
  • Teen drinking and educational attainment: Evidence from two-sample instrumental variables estimates JOURNAL OF LABOR ECONOMICS Dee, T. S., Evans, W. N. 2003; 21 (1): 178-209

    View details for DOI 10.1086/344127

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180964600006

  • The effects of minimum legal drinking ages on teen childbearing Dee, T. S. UNIV WISCONSIN PRESS. 2001: 823-838

    View details for DOI 10.2307/3069643

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172162200009

  • Behavioral policies and teen traffic safety Dee, T. S., Evans, W. N. AMER ECONOMIC ASSOC. 2001: 91-96
  • Alcohol abuse and economic conditions: Evidence from repeated cross-sections of individual-level data HEALTH ECONOMICS Dee, T. S. 2001; 10 (3): 257-270

    Abstract

    This study presents novel evidence on the relationship between macroeconomic conditions and patterns of alcohol consumption. Prior research has suggested that alcohol abuse varies procyclically, implying that income effects dominate any drinking patterns related to the opportunity cost of time or the psychological stress of recessions. However, those inferences have been based either on aggregate measures of consumption volume or possibly confounded cross-sectional identification strategies. This study examines these issues by evaluating detailed consumption data from the more than 700 000 respondents who participated in the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys over the 1984-1995 period. The results provide robust evidence that the prevalence of binge drinking is strongly countercyclical. Furthermore, even among those who remain employed, binge drinking increased substantially during economic downturns. This combination of results suggests that recession-induced increases in the prevalence of binge drinking do not simply reflect an increased availability of leisure and may instead reflect the influence of economic stress.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hec.588

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168302300006

    View details for PubMedID 11288191

  • Does Setting Limits Save Lives? The Case of 0.08 BAC Laws Journal of Policy Analysis and Management Dee, T. S. 2001; 20 (1): 111-128
  • The capitalization of education finance reforms JOURNAL OF LAW & ECONOMICS Dee, T. S. 2000; 43 (1): 185-214

    View details for DOI 10.1086/467452

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087182500008

  • The complementarity of teen smoking and drinking JOURNAL OF HEALTH ECONOMICS Dee, T. S. 1999; 18 (6): 769-793

    Abstract

    Teen drinkers are over twice as likely as abstainers to smoke cigarettes. This empirical study provides evidence of a robust complementarity between these health behaviors by exploiting the "cross-price" effects. The results indicate that the movement away from minimum legal drinking ages of 18 reduced teen smoking participation by 3 to 5%. The corresponding instrumental variable estimates suggest that teen drinking roughly doubles the mean probability of smoking participation. Similarly, higher cigarette taxes and reductions in teen smoking are associated with a lower prevalence of teen drinking. However, the results which rely on cigarette taxes for identification are estimated imprecisely.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0167-6296(99)00018-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084161000005

    View details for PubMedID 10847934

  • Who loses HOPE? Attrition from Georgia's College Scholarship program SOUTHERN ECONOMIC JOURNAL Dee, T. S., Jackson, L. A. 1999; 66 (2): 379-390

    View details for DOI 10.2307/1061149

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083197400010

  • Data watch - Research data in the economics of education JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES Dee, T. S., Evans, W. N., Murray, S. E. 1999; 13 (3): 205-216
  • Competition and the quality of public schools ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Dee, T. S. 1998; 17 (4): 419-427
  • Reconsidering the effects of seat belt laws and their enforcement status ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION Dee, T. S. 1998; 30 (1): 1-10

    Abstract

    The debate over the benefits of mandatory seat belt laws and their enforcement status has focused on a controversial empirical enigma: why have these policies, which appear to have increased belt use sharply, had a relatively small impact on traffic fatalities? In this paper, I offer new insights into this question by examining panel data on observed belt use from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and self-reported data on belt use from pooled cross-sections of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 1985-1993 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. By exploiting the panel nature of these data, I demonstrate that prior estimates, which have not conditioned on the unobserved time-varying determinants of belt use, have dramatically overestimated the impact of seat belt laws and their enforcement status on belt use. The true effects are more consistent with the modest impact these policies have had on traffic fatalities without having to appeal to the possibility of risk compensation by drivers. However, I find strong evidence in support of the selective recruitment hypothesis. Belt use among those most likely to be involved in traffic accidents (e.g. males, drinkers of alcohol, the young) has been significantly less responsive to seat belt laws and their enforcement status.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0001-4575(97)00056-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071301700001

    View details for PubMedID 9542539