I am the associate director and a lecturer in the Symbolic Systems Program, and a researcher at the Center for the Study of Language and Information, at Stanford University. I have a Ph.D. in cognitive psychology, an M.S. in data analysis and statistical computing, and a B.S. in statistics, all from Stanford. I have also served as a computer scientist at the Artificial Intelligence Center, SRI International, assistant professor of psychology at Koç University in Istanbul, and, most recently, faculty in residence at the Stanford Bing Overseas Studies Program in Oxford and a visiting fellow at Brasenose College. I do research on digital democracy, deliberation, social decisions, information policy, and collective behavior. My main website is

Current Role at Stanford

Associate Director, Symbolic Systems Program
Lecturer, Symbolic Systems Program
Researcher, Center for the Study of Language and Information
Faculty Affiliate, Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute

2023-24 Courses

All Publications

  • The Primacy of Intention and the Duty to Truth: A Gandhi-Inspired Argument for Retranslating Hiṃsā and Ahiṃsā Gandhi's Wisdom: Insights from the Founding Father of Modern Psychology in the East Davies, T. Palgrave Macmillan. 2022; 1st: 227-246
  • Online Deliberation and #CivicTech: A Symposium Journal of Deliberative Democracy Zhang, W., Davies, T., Przybylska, A. 2021; 17 (1): 76-77
  • Digital Democracy: Episode IV---A New Hope, How a Corporation for Public Software Could Transform Digital Engagement for Government and Civil Society Digital Government: Research and Practice Gastil, J., Davies, T. 2020; 1 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1145/3342194

  • Coordination technology for active support networks: context, needfinding, and design AI & SOCIETY Rosenschein, S. J., Davies, T. 2018; 33 (1): 113–23
  • The Message or the Messenger? Inferring Virality and Diffusion Structure from Online Petition Signature Data Social Informatics: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference, SocInfo 2017 Chi Ling, C., Lai, J., Hooi, B., Davies, T. Springer. 2017: 499–517
  • Mind change: How digital technologies are leaving their mark on our brains (Book Review) NEW MEDIA & SOCIETY Book Review Authored by: Davies, T. 2016; 18 (9): 2139–41
  • Effectiveness of public deliberation methods for gathering input on issues in healthcare: Results from a randomized trial SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE Carman, K. L., Mallery, C., Maurer, M., Wang, G., Garfinkel, S., Yang, M., Gilmore, D., Windham, A., Ginsburg, M., Sofaer, S., Gold, M., Pathak-Sen, E., Davies, T., Siegel, J., Mangrum, R., Fernandez, J., Richmond, J., Fishkin, J., Chao, A. S. 2015; 133: 11-20
  • Equality of Participation Online Versus Face to Face: Condensed Analysis of the Community Forum Deliberative Methods Demonstration Electronic Participation: Proceedings of the 7th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2015 Showers, E., Tindall, N., Davies, T. Springer. 2015: 53–67
  • Design for Online Deliberative Processes and Technologies: Towards a Multidisciplinary Research Agenda Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI EA '15 Xiao, L., Zhang, W., Przybylska, A., Convertino, G., Davies, T., Klein, M. ACM. 2015: 865–868

    View details for DOI 10.1145/2702613.2727687

  • Digital Rights and Freedoms: A Framework for Surveying Users and Analyzing Policies 6th International Conference on Social Informatics (SocInfo) Davies, T. SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN. 2014: 428–443
  • Community Forum Deliberative Methods Demonstration: Evaluating Effectiveness and Eliciting Public Views on Use of Evidence Carman, K. L., Maurer, M., Mallery, C., Wang, G., Garfinkel, S., Richmond, J., Gilmore, D., Windham, A., Yang, M., Mangrum, R., Ginsburg, M., Sofaer, S., Fernandez, J., Gold, M., Pathak-Sen, E., Davies, T., Siu, A., Fishkin, J., Rosenberg, M., Fratto, A. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Washington, D.C.. 2014 ; AHRQ Publication (14-EHC007-EF):
  • Дизайн онлайн-делиберации: Выбор, критерии и эмпирические данные [translation of "Online Deliberation Design: Choices, Criteria, and Evidence"] Политическая наука Davies, T., Chandler, R., Translator: Kulik, A. 2013: 83-132
  • Online Deliberation Design: Choices, Criteria, and Evidence Democracy in Motion: Evaluating the Practice and Impact of Deliberative Civic Engagement Davies, T., Chandler, R. Oxford University Press. 2012: 103–131
  • The Space of Conflict in Communicative Action: Implications for System Design Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Systems, CTS 2012 Davies, T. IEEE. 2012: xxxiv-xxxv

    View details for DOI 10.1109/CTS.2012.6261012

  • Document-Centered Discussion and Decision Making in the Deme Platform Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Systems, CTS 2012 Davies, T., Mintz, M. D., Tobin, J., Ben-Avi, N. IEEE. 2012: lxv-lxviii

    View details for DOI 10.1109/CTS.2012.6261014

  • Relational Access Control with Bivalent Permissions in a Social Web/Collaboration Architecture Proceedings of the 2010 International Symposium on Collaborative Technologies and Systems, CTS 2010 Davies, T., Mintz, M. D. IEEE. 2010: 57–66

    View details for DOI 10.1109/CTS.2010.5478523

  • Online Deliberation: Design, Research, and Practice CSLI Lecture Notes edited by Davies, T., Gangadharan, S. P. CSLI Publications/University of Chicago Press. 2009; 182
  • Design Features for the Social Web: The Architecture of Deme Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Web-Oriented Software Technologies, IWWOST 2009 Davies, T. R., Mintz, M. D. 2009: 40–51
  • An Online Environment for Democratic Deliberation: Motivations, Principles, and Design Online Deliberation: Design, Research, and Practice Davies, T., OÇonnor, B., Cochran, A., Effrat, J. J., Parker, A., Newman, B., Tam, A. CSLI Publications/University of Chicago Press. 2009: 275–292
  • Introduction: The Blossoming Field of Online Deliberation Online Deliberation: Design, Research, and Practice Davies, T. CSLI Publications/University of Chicago Press. 2009: 1–19
  • A Behavioral Perspective on Technology Evolution and Domain Name Regulation Pacific McGeorge Global Business & Development Law Journal Davies, T. 2008; 21 (1): 1-25
  • Document Centered Discussion: A Design Pattern for Online Deliberation Liberating Voices: A Pattern Language for Communication Revolution Davies, T., Newman, B., O'Connor, B., Tam, A., Perry, L. MIT Press. 2008: 384–386
  • Remarks for Grassroots Discussion Panel on Civil Society and Regulation Alternatives on Media Content, Journalism, and Regulation: The Grassroots Discussion Panels at the 2007 ICA Conference Davies, T. Tartu University Press. 2007: 63–66
  • Displaying Asynchonous Reactions to a Document: Two Goals and a Design [Original Version of "Document CenteredDiscussion: A Design Pattern for Online Deliberation"] Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 20th Anniversary -Conference Supplement Davies, T., Newman, B., O'Connor, B., Tam, A., Perry, L. Association for Computing Machinery. 2006: 169–170
  • Radical contingency in sharing behavior and its consequences BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES Davies, T. 2005; 28 (6): 821-+
  • Community Democracy Online: A Preliminary Report from East Palo Alto Davies, T., Sywulka, B., Saffold, R., Jhaveri, R. Political Research Online (PROceedings): 98th Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. 2002


    This paper reports on the first year of a research collaboration between Stanford University's Symbolic Systems Program and the East Palo Alto Community Network. We are exploring whether and how the Internet can enhance the participation of East Palo Alto residents in community decision making. We aim to apply knowledge of the political and social environment in East Palo Alto, as well as results from community network and electronic democracy projects elsewhere, to the development of an online environment for expanding community democracy. We report on our experiences and study of East Palo Alto, and their implications for future design and intervention using Internet tools.

  • Confidence Following Choice Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Psychology Davies, T. R. Stanford University. 1995

    View details for DOI 10.2139/ssrn.2213084

  • Knowledge Bases and Neural Network Synthesis Artificial Intelligence in the Pacific Rim: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Davies, T. IOS Press, Inc.. 1991: 717–722
  • A Logical Approach to Reasoning by Analogy [Originally published in Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), 1987] Readings in Machine Learning Davies, T. R., Russell, S. J. Morgan Kaufman Publishers, Inc.. 1990: 657–663
  • Some Notes on the Probabilistic Semantics of Logistic Function Parameters in Neural Networks Neural Networks Davies, T. R. 1988; 1: 88
  • A Survey of Architectures for Distributed Artificial Intelligence Davies, T. R. Artificial Intelligence Center, SRI International. Menlo Park, CA. 1988 ; Technical Note (424):
  • Determination, Uniformity and Relevance: Normative Criteria for Generalization and Reasoning by Analogy Analogical Reasoning: Perspectives of Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Science, and Philosophy Davies, T. R. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1988: 227–250
  • Commonsense Metaphysics and Lexical Semantics Computational Linguistics Hobbs, J. R., Croft, W., Davies, T., Edwards, D., Laws, K. 1987; 13 (3&4): 241-250
  • The FINITE STRING Newsletter Site Report Overview of the TACITUS Project Computational Linguistics Hobbs, J. R., Bear, J., Croft, W., Davies, T., Edwards, D., Laws, K., Martin, P., Pereira, F., Perrault, R., Shieber, S., Stickel, M., Tyson , M. 1986; 12 (3): 220-222
  • Analogy Davies, T. Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University. Stanford, CA. 1985 ; CSLI Informal Notes (IN-CSLI-85-4):


    This thesis constructs a theory of analogy as it applies to argumentation and reasoning, especially as used in fields such as philosophy and law. The word "analogy" has been used in different senses, which the essay defines. The theory developed herein applies to "analogia rationis," or analogical reasoning. Building on the framework of situation theory, a type of logical relation called "determination" is defined. This determination relation solves a puzzle about analogy in the context of logical argument, namely, whether an analogous situation contributes anything logically over and above what could be inferred from the application of prior knowledge to a present situation. Scholars of reasoning have often claimed that analogical arguments are never logically valid, and that they therefore lack cogency. However, when the right type of determination structure exists, it is possible to prove that projecting a conclusion inferred by analogy onto the situation about which one is reasoning is both valid and non-redundant. Various other properties and consequences of the determination relation are also proven. Some analogical arguments are based on principles such as similarity, which are not logically valid. The theory therefore provides us with a way to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate arguments. It also provides an alternative to procedures based on the assessment of similarity for constructing analogies in artificial intelligence systems.