All Publications

  • Misplaced intraspinal venous stent causing cauda equina syndrome: illustrative case. Journal of neurosurgery. Case lessons Shah, V., Johnstone, T., Haider, G., Marianayagam, N. J., Stienen, M. N., Chandra, V., Veeravagu, A. 2024; 7 (7)


    Endovenous stents for deep venous thrombosis treatment can be unintentionally placed in the spinal canal, resulting in neurological deficit.The authors report the case of a patient presenting to our institution with intraspinal misplacement of an endovenous stent, resulting in cauda equina syndrome. The authors also performed a systematic literature review, evaluating the few previously reported cases. This review was performed according to the updated Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. In four of five cases describing stent misplacement into the spinal canal, the authors report that only anteroposterior monoplanar imaging modalities were utilized for venous localization and stent deployment. The anteroposterior plane cannot assess the relative depth of structures, nor can it distinguish between superimposed structures well. Therefore, the use of biplanar imaging should at least be considered before stent deployment, as intraspinal stent placement can lead to disastrous consequences.This report should serve as an impetus for the use of biplanar or three-dimensional imaging modalities for iliac venous stent placement. Additionally, this work should increase spine surgeons' awareness about management and operative techniques when faced with this complication.

    View details for DOI 10.3171/CASE23482

    View details for PubMedID 38346298

  • Machine Learning in Neurosurgery: Toward Complex Inputs, Actionable Predictions, and Generalizable Translations CUREUS JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCE Schonfeld, E., Mordekai, N., Berg, A., Johnstone, T., Shah, A., Shah, V., Haider, G., Marianayagam, N. J., Veeravagu, A. 2024; 16 (1)
  • Machine Learning in Neurosurgery: Toward Complex Inputs, Actionable Predictions, and Generalizable Translations. Cureus Schonfeld, E., Mordekai, N., Berg, A., Johnstone, T., Shah, A., Shah, V., Haider, G., Marianayagam, N. J., Veeravagu, A. 2024; 16 (1): e51963


    Machine learning can predict neurosurgical diagnosis and outcomes, power imaging analysis, and perform robotic navigation and tumor labeling. State-of-the-art models can reconstruct and generate images, predict surgical events from video, and assist in intraoperative decision-making. In this review, we will detail the neurosurgical applications of machine learning, ranging from simple to advanced models, and their potential to transform patient care. As machine learning techniques, outputs, and methods become increasingly complex, their performance is often more impactful yet increasingly difficult to evaluate. We aim to introduce these advancements to the neurosurgical audience while suggesting major potential roadblocks to their safe and effective translation. Unlike the previous generation of machine learning in neurosurgery, the safe translation of recent advancements will be contingent on neurosurgeons' involvement in model development and validation.

    View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.51963

    View details for PubMedID 38333513

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10851045

  • Type II Odontoid Fractures in the Elderly Presenting to the Emergency Department: An Assessment of Factors Affecting In-Hospital Mortality and Discharge to Skilled Nursing Facilities. The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society Johnstone, T., Shah, V., Schonfeld, E., Sadeghzadeh, S., Haider, G., Stienen, M., Marianayagam, N. J., Veeravagu, A. 2023


    Type II odontoid fractures (OF) are among the most common cervical spine injuries in the geriatric population. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding their epidemiology. Additionally, the optimal management of these injuries remains controversial, and no study has evaluated the short-term outcomes of geriatric patients presenting to emergency departments (ED).This study aims to document the epidemiology of geriatric patients presenting to EDs with type II OFs and determine whether surgical management was associated with early adverse outcomes such as in-hospital mortality and discharge to skilled nursing facilities (SNF).This is a retrospective cohort study.Data was used from the 2016-2020 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Patient encounters corresponding to type II OFs were identified. Patients younger than 65 at the time of presentation to the ED and those with concomitant spinal pathology were excluded.The association between the surgical management of geriatric type II OFs and outcomes such as in-hospital mortality and discharge to SNFs.Patient, fracture, and surgical management characteristics were recorded. A propensity score matched cohort was constructed to reduce differences in age, comorbidities, and injury severity between patients undergoing operative and nonoperative management. Additionally, to develop a positive control for the analysis of geriatric patients with type II OFs and no other concomitant spinal pathology, a cohort of patients that had been excluded due to the presence of a concomitant spinal cord injury (SCI) was also constructed. Multivariate regressions were then performed on both the matched and unmatched cohorts to ascertain the associations between surgical treatment and in-hospital mortality, inpatient length of stay, encounter charges, and discharge to SNFs.11,325 encounters were included. The mean total charge per encounter was $60,221. 634 (5.6%) patients passed away during their encounters. 1,005 (8.9%) patients were managed surgically. Surgical management of type II OFs was associated with a 316% increase in visit charge (95% CI: 291%-341%, p<0.001), increased inpatient length of stay (IRR: 2.87, 95% CI: 2.62-3.12, p<0.001), and increased likelihood of discharge to SNFs (OR = 2.62, 95% CI: 2.26-3.05, p <0.001), but decreased in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.32, CI: 0.21-0.45, p<0.001). The propensity score matched cohort consisted of 2,010 patients, matching each of the 1,005 that underwent surgery to 1,005 that did not. These cohorts were well balanced across age (78.24 vs. 77.91 years), Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (3.68 vs. 3.71), and Injury Severity Score (30.15 vs 28.93). This matching did not meaningfully alter the associations determined between surgical management and in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.34, CI = 0.21-0.55, p<0.001) or SNF discharge (OR = 2.59, CI = 2.13-3.16, p<0.001). Lastly, the positive control cohort of patients with concurrent SCI had higher rates of SNF discharge (50.0% vs. 42.6%, p<0.001), surgical management (32.3% vs. 9.7%, p<0.001), and in-hospital mortality (28.9% vs. 5.6%, p<0.001).This study lends insight into the epidemiology of geriatric type II OFs and quantifies risk factors influencing adverse outcomes. Patient informed consent should include a discussion of the protective association between definitive surgical management and in-hospital mortality against potential operative morbidity, increased lengths of hospital stay, and increased likelihood of discharge to SNFs. This information may impact patient treatment selection and decision making.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.spinee.2023.11.023

    View details for PubMedID 38101547

  • Accuracy of predicted postoperative segmental lumbar lordosis in spinal fusion using an intraoperative robotic planning and guidance system. Journal of neurosurgical sciences Haider, G., Shah, V., Johnstone, T., Maldaner, N., Stienen, M., Veeravagu, A. 2023


    Restoring lumbar lordosis is one of the main goals in lumbar spinal fusion surgery. The Mazor X-AlignTM software allows for the prediction of postoperative segmental lumbar lordosis based on preoperative imaging. There is limited data on the accuracy of this preoperative prediction, especially in patients undergoing short segment lumbar fusion. The objective of our study was to determine the accuracy of predicted postoperative segmental lumbar lordosis using the Mazor X-AlignTM software in patients requiring short segmental fusion.Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing pedicle screw spinal instrumentation of not more than four levels using the Mazor XTM Robot (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) between July 2017 to June 2020. The robotic guidance software, Mazor X-AlignTM (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) was used to calculate the predicted segmental lumbar lordosis based on preoperative CT-imaging and the plan was executed under intraoperative robotic guidance. Predicted segmental lumbar lordosis was compared to achieved segmental lumbar lordosis on 1-month postoperative x-rays using the Cobb angle methodology.A total of 15 patients (46.6% female) with a mean age of 61.5±10.9 years were included. All patients underwent posterior lumbo-sacral spinal fusion with the Mazor XTM robotic system with 11 patients (73.3%) undergoing anterior column reconstruction prior to posterior fixation. Instrumentation was performed across a mean of 2.6 levels per case. Preoperative, the mean segmental lumbar lordosis was 30.2±13.6 degrees. The mean planned segmental lumbar lordosis was 35.5±17.0 degrees while the mean achieved segmental lumbar lordosis was 35.8±16.7 degrees. There was no significant mean difference between the planned and achieved segmental lumbar lordosis (P=0.334).The Mazor XTM intraoperative robotic planning and guidance is accurate in predicting postoperative segmental lumbar lordosis after short segmental fusion. Our findings may assure surgical decision making and planning.

    View details for DOI 10.23736/S0390-5616.23.06142-8

    View details for PubMedID 37997323

  • Perspectives on validation of clinical predictive algorithms. NPJ digital medicine de Hond, A. A., Shah, V. B., Kant, I. M., Van Calster, B., Steyerberg, E. W., Hernandez-Boussard, T. 2023; 6 (1): 86

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41746-023-00832-9

    View details for PubMedID 37149704

  • Clinical outcomes and cost differences between patients undergoing primary anterior cervical discectomy and fusion procedures with private or Medicare insurance: a propensity score matched study. World neurosurgery Shah, V., Rodrigues, A. J., Malhotra, S., Johnstone, T., Varshneya, K., Haider, G., Stienen, M. N., Veeravagu, A. 2023


    To assess whether insurance type reflects a patient's quality of care following an ACDF procedure, by comparing differences in post-operative complications, readmission rates, reoperation rates, length of hospital stay, and cost of treatment between patients with Medicare versus private insurance.Propensity score matching (PSM) was employed to match patient cohorts insured by Medicare and private insurance in the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database (2007-2016). Age, sex, year of operation, geographic region, comorbidities, and operative factors were used to match cohorts of patients undergoing an ACDF procedure.A total of 110,911 patients met the inclusion criteria, of which 97,543 patients (87.9%) were privately insured and 13,368 patients (12.1%) were insured by Medicare. The PSM algorithm matched 7,026 privately insured patients to 7,026 Medicare patients. After matching, there was no significant difference in 90-day post-operative complication rates, length of stay, or reoperation rates between the Medicare and privately insured cohorts. The Medicare group had lower post-operative readmission rates for all time points: 30 days (1.8% vs. 4.6%; p < 0.001), 60 days (2.5% vs. 6.3%; p < 0.001), and 90 days (4.2% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.001). The median payments to physicians were significantly lower for the Medicare group ($3,885 vs. $5,601; p < 0.001).In this study, propensity score matched patients covered by Medicare and private insurance that underwent an ACDF procedure were found to have similar treatment outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wneu.2023.02.129

    View details for PubMedID 36871653

  • Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Coated Catheters Decrease Astrocyte Adhesion and Improve Flow/Pressure Performance in an Invitro Model of Hydrocephalus. Children (Basel, Switzerland) Castaneyra-Ruiz, L., Lee, S., Chan, A. Y., Shah, V., Romero, B., Ledbetter, J., Muhonen, M. 2022; 10 (1)


    The leading cause of ventricular shunt failure in pediatric patients is proximal catheter occlusion. Here, we evaluate various types of shunt catheters to assess in vitro cellular adhesion and obstruction. The following four types of catheters were tested: (1) antibiotic- and barium-impregnated, (2) polyvinylpyrrolidone, (3) barium stripe, and (4) barium impregnated. Catheters were either seeded superficially with astrocyte cells to test cellular adhesion or inoculated with cultured astrocytes into the catheters to test catheter performance under obstruction conditions. Ventricular catheters were placed into a three-dimensional printed phantom ventricular replicating system through which artificial CSF was pumped. Differential pressure sensors were used to measure catheter performance. Polyvinylpyrrolidone catheters had the lowest median cell attachment compared to antibiotic-impregnated (18 cells), barium stripe (17 cells), and barium-impregnated (21.5 cells) catheters after culture (p < 0.01). In addition, polyvinylpyrrolidone catheters had significantly higher flow in the phantom ventricular system (0.12 mL/min) compared to the antibiotic coated (0.10 mL/min), barium stripe (0.02 mL/min) and barium-impregnated (0.08 mL/min; p < 0.01) catheters. Polyvinylpyrrolidone catheters showed less cellular adhesion and were least likely to be occluded by astrocyte cells. Our findings can help suggest patient-appropriate proximal ventricular catheters for clinical use.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/children10010018

    View details for PubMedID 36670569

  • Tutorial: implementing and visualizing machine learning (ML) clinical prediction models into web-accessible calculators using Shiny R ANNALS OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Eddington, H. S., Trickey, A. W., Shah, V., Harris, A. S. 2022
  • Inspiration out of Trauma: Meet Resurge Exchange Scholar Dr. David Silver Shah, V. ReSurge International. 2022
  • Meet the First Annual Matolase Mtonga Scholarship Winners Shah, V. ReSurge International. 2022
  • Algorithmic Prediction of Delayed Radiology Turn-Around-Time during Non-Business Hours. Academic radiology Shah, V., Chillakuru, Y. R., Rybkin, A., Seo, Y., Vu, T., Sohn, J. H. 2021


    Radiology turnaround time is an important quality measure that can impact hospital workflow and patient outcomes. We aimed to develop a machine learning model to predict delayed turnaround time during non-business hours and identify factors that contribute to this delay.This retrospective study consisted of 15,117 CT cases from May 2018 to May 2019 during non-business hours at two hospital campuses after applying exclusion criteria. Of these 15,177 cases, 7,532 were inpatient cases and 7,585 were emergency cases. Order time, scan time, first communication by radiologist, free-text indications, and other clinical metadata were extracted. A combined XGBoost classifier and Random Forest natural language processing model was trained with 85% of the data and tested with 15% of the data. The model predicted two measures of delay: when the exam was ordered to first communication (total time) and when the scan was completed to first communication (interpretation time). The model was analyzed with the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and feature importance. Source code: RESULTS: The algorithm reached an AUC of 0.85, with a 95% confidence interval [0.83, 0.87], when predicting delays greater than 245 minutes for "total time" and 0.71, with a 95% confidence interval [0.68, 0.73], when predicting delays greater than 57 minutes for "interpretation time". At our institution, CT scan description (e.g. "CTA chest pulmonary embolism protocol"), time of day, and year in training were more predictive features compared to body part, inpatient status, and hospital campus for both interpretation and total time delay.This algorithm can be applied clinically when a physician is ordering the scan to reasonably predict delayed turnaround time. Such a model can be leveraged to identify factors associated with delays and emphasize areas for improvement to patient outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acra.2021.05.026

    View details for PubMedID 34187741

  • I Can't Breathe, Pollution, and Racial Justice Shah, V. Society for Social Studies of Science. 4S Backchannels. 2021
  • Intrathecal Access Through Suboccipital Port in Patients With Spinal Muscular Atrophy and Complex Spines: Case Series and Technical Note. Cureus Tran, D. K., Shah, V., Muhonen, M. G. 2020; 12 (8): e9525


    Introduction Many patients with the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have complex spinal anatomy, secondary to thoraco-lumbar spinal fusions. Their fragile musculoskeletal anatomy potentiates limb and joint injury if conventional spinal fluid access modalities are utilized. This creates a challenge when attempting to deliver intrathecal medications such as nusinersen (Spinraza®). Catheter placement in the cervical subarachnoid space with a caudally directed tip is potentially beneficial. This article describes our experience with Spinraza injections into the thecal space through a suboccipital port. This allowed for simple, chronic, and reliable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) aspiration and intrathecal injections. Methods A total of 15 patients with SMA and complex spinal anatomy were implanted with a cervical subarachnoid catheter, connected to a suboccipital access port. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of these patients for clinical outcomes and complications. All patients then underwent serial port cannulation, aspiration of CSF, and injection of Spinraza following standard manufacturer dosage guidelines. Results The age range was 3 to 49. Two had type-1 SMA, 10 had type-2 SMA, and three had type-3 SMA. We were able to successfully cannulate the port, aspirate CSF, and inject Spinraza during all access attempts. Two incidents of subcutaneous CSF leaks were resolved through reoperation and one incident of transient CSF leak was resolved without surgical repair. Conclusion Patients with SMA requiring intrathecal injections of Spinraza can be treated safely and efficiently with this novel implantation technique. The complication rates are low and the injection time is dramatically lower than with conventional injection techniques.

    View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.9525

    View details for PubMedID 32905153

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7465927