Visiting Instructor/Lecturer, Neurosurgery
Microvascular anatomy of the medial temporal region.
Journal of neurosurgery
OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the microvascular anatomy of the hippocampus and its implications for medial temporal tumor surgery. They aimed to reveal the anatomical variability of the arterial supply and venous drainage of the hippocampus, emphasizing its clinical implications for the removal of associated tumors.METHODS: Forty-seven silicon-injected cerebral hemispheres were examined using microscopy. The origin, course, irrigation territory, spatial relationships, and anastomosis of the hippocampal arteries and veins were investigated. Illustrative cases of hippocampectomy for medial temporal tumor surgery are also provided.RESULTS: The hippocampal arteries can be divided into 3 segments, the anterior (AHA), middle (MHA), and posterior (PHA) hippocampal artery complexes, which correspond to irrigation of the hippocampal head, body, and tail, respectively. The uncal hippocampal and anterior hippocampal-parahippocampal arteries contribute to the AHA complex, the posterior hippocampal-parahippocampal arteries serve as the MHA complex, and the PHA and splenial artery compose the PHA complex. Rich anastomoses between hippocampal arteries were observed, and in 11 (23%) hemispheres, anastomoses between each segment formed a complete vascular arcade at the hippocampal sulcus. Three veins were involved in hippocampal drainage-the anterior hippocampal, anterior longitudinal hippocampal, and posterior longitudinal hippocampal veins-which drain the hippocampal head, body, and tail, respectively, into the basal and internal cerebral veins.CONCLUSIONS: An understanding of the vascular variability and network of the hippocampus is essential for medial temporal tumor surgery via anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy and transsylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy. Stereotactic procedures in this region should also consider the anatomy of the vascular arcade at the hippocampal sulcus.
View details for DOI 10.3171/2021.9.JNS21390
View details for PubMedID 34952521
Microsurgical anatomy of the lateral posterior choroidal artery: implications for intraventricular surgery involving the choroid plexus.
Journal of neurosurgery
OBJECTIVE: The lateral posterior choroidal artery (LPChA) should be a major surgical consideration in the microsurgical management of lateral ventricular tumors. Here the authors aim to delineate the microsurgical anatomy of the LPChA by using anatomical microdissections. They describe the trajectory, segments, and variations of the LPChA and discuss the surgical implications when approaching the choroid plexus using different routes.METHODS: Twelve colored silicone-injected, lightly fixed, postmortem human head specimens were prepared for dissection. The origin, diameter, trunk, course, segment, length, spatial relationships, and anastomosis of the LPChA were investigated. The surgical landmarks of 4 different approaches to the LPChA were also examined thoroughly.RESULTS: The LPChA was present in 23 hemispheres (96%), and in 14 (61%) it originated from the posterior segment of the P2 (i.e., P2P); most commonly (61%) the LPChA had 2 trunks, and in 17 hemispheres (74%) it had a C-shaped trajectory. According to its course, the authors divided the LPChA into 3 segments: 1) cisternal, from PCA to choroidal fissure (length 10.6 ± 2.5 mm); 2) forniceal, starting at the choroidal fissure, 8.2 ± 5.7 mm posterior to the inferior choroidal point, and terminating at the posterior level of the choroidal fissure (length 28.7 ± 6.8 mm); and 3) pulvinar, starting at the posterior choroidal fissure and terminating in the pulvinar (length 5.9 ± 2.2 mm). The LPChA was divided into 3 patterns according to its entrance into the choroidal fissure: A (anterior) 78%; B (posterior) 13%; and C (mixed) 9%. The transsylvian trans-limen insulae approach provided the best exposure for cisternal and proximal forniceal segments; the lateral transtemporal approach facilitated a more direct approach to the forniceal segment, including cases with posterior entrance; the transparietal transcortical and contralateral posterior interhemispheric transfalcine transprecuneus approaches provided direct access to the pulvinar segment of the LPChA and to the posterior forniceal segment, including cases with posterior choroidal entrance.CONCLUSIONS: The LPChA typically runs in the medial border of the choroid plexus, which may facilitate its recognition during surgery. The distance between the AChA at the inferior choroidal point and the LPChA is a valuable reference during surgery, but there are cases of posterior choroidal entrance. Most frequently, there are 2 or more LPChA trunks, which makes possible the sacrifice of one trunk feeding the tumor while preserving the other that provides supply to relevant structures. The intraventricular approaches can be selected based on the tumor location and the LPChA anatomy.
View details for DOI 10.3171/2020.8.JNS202230
View details for PubMedID 33836500
Radiological outcomes for endovascular treatment of posterior communicating artery aneurysms: a retrospective multicenter study of the occlusion rate.
Journal of integrative neuroscience
2021; 20 (4): 919-931
Although several innovations in techniques and implantable devices were reported over the last decades, a consensus on the best endovascular treatment for intracranial aneurysms originating from the posterior communicating artery is still missing. This work investigates radiological outcomes of different endovascular techniques for posterior communicating artery aneurysms treatment in a retrospective multi-centric cohort. We included patients endovascularly treated for posterior communicating artery aneurysms from 2015 through 2020 in six tertiary referral hospitals. We evaluated the relationship between patients and aneurysms characteristics, baseline neurological status, radiological outcomes, and the different endovascular techniques. Overall, 250 patients were included in this study. Simple coiling was the most frequent treatment in 171 patients (68%), followed by flow-diverter stenting in 32 cases (13%). Complete occlusion was reported in 163 patients (65%), near-complete occlusion in 43 (17%), and incomplete occlusion in 44 (18%). Radiological follow-up was available for 247 (98%) patients. The occlusion rate was stable in 149 (60%), improved in 49 (19%), and worsened in 51 (21%). No significant difference in exclusion rate was seen between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms at the last follow-up (p = 0.4). Posterior communicating artery thrombosis was reported in 25 patients (9%), transient ischemic attack in 6 (2%), and in 38 patients (15%), subsequent procedures were needed due to incomplete occlusion or reperfusion. Endovascular strategies for posterior communicating artery aneurysms represent effective and relatively safe treatments. Simple coiling provides a higher immediate occlusion rate, although recanalization has been frequently reported, conversely, flow-diversion devices provide good long-term radiological outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.31083/j.jin2004093
View details for PubMedID 34997715
The Smith-Robinson Approach to the Subaxial Cervical Spine: A Stepwise Microsurgical Technique Using Volumetric Models From Anatomic Dissections.
Operative neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
The Smith-Robinson1 approach (SRA) is the most widely used route to access the anterior cervical spine. Although several authors have described this approach, there is a lack of the stepwise anatomic description of this operative technique. With the advent of new technologies in neuroanatomy education, such as volumetric models (VMs), the understanding of the spatial relation of the different neurovascular structures can be simplified.To describe the anatomy of the SRA through the creation of VMs of anatomic dissections.A total of 4 postmortem heads and a cervical replica were used to perform and record the SRA approach to the C4-C5 level. The most relevant steps and anatomy of the SRA were recorded using photogrammetry to construct VM.The SRA was divided into 6 major steps: positioning, incision of the skin, platysma, and muscle dissection with and without submandibular gland eversion and after microdiscectomy with cage positioning. Anatomic model of the cervical spine and anterior neck multilayer dissection was also integrated to improve the spatial relation of the different structures.In this study, we review the different steps of the classic SRA and its variations to different cervical levels. The VMs presented allow clear visualization of the 360-degree anatomy of this approach. This new way of representing surgical anatomy can be valuable resources for education and surgical planning.
View details for DOI 10.1093/ons/opaa265
View details for PubMedID 32864701