- Emergency Medicine
- Point of Care Ultrasound
- Patient and Family Centered Medicine
Clinical Associate Professor, Emergency Medicine
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Member, Founding Patient and Family Advisory Council (2015 - Present)
Member, Cancer Center Patient and Family Advisory Council (2014 - Present)
Associate Editor, Visual Journal of Emergency Medicine (2014 - Present)
Reviewer, Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (2013 - Present)
Residency: Drexel University Emergency Medicine Residency (2012) PA
Medical Education: Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (2009) NJ
Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine (2013)
A randomized controlled trial of simulation-based mastery learning to teach the extended focused assessment with sonography in trauma.
AEM education and training
2021; 5 (3): e10606
Background: Mastery learning has gained popularity for training residents in procedural skills due to its demonstrated superiority over traditional methods. However, no studies have compared the efficacy of traditional versus mastery learning methods in residency point-of-care ultrasound education. We hypothesized that mastery learning would improve residents' skills in performing the extended focused assessment with sonography in trauma (eFAST).Methods: All first-year emergency medicine (EM) resident physicians at a single university hospital underwent a crossover randomized controlled trial to receive mastery-learning eFAST training either at the beginning of the academic year or 6months into intern year. Participants were taught using a checklist validated by a panel of experts using Mastery Angoff methods and were given feedback on missed tasks until each trainee completed the eFAST with a minimum passing standard (MPS). Our primary outcome was technical proficiency between the two groups for eFAST examinations performed in the emergency department during the academic year.Results: Sixteen interns were enrolled; eight were randomized to each group. The group that received mastery training at the beginning of the year had mean clinical eFAST proficiency scores above the MPS in the first two quarters of the academic year, while the control group did not. Once the control group underwent eFAST mastery training at the midpoint of the year, both groups had mean proficiency scores above the MPS for the remainder of the year.Conclusion: Simulation-based mastery learning is an effective method of teaching the eFAST examination. This training during intern orientation conferred early proficiency in clinical performance of eFAST among EM residents. This difference in proficiency was no longer present after the control group received mastery learning education halfway through the academic year.
View details for DOI 10.1002/aet2.10606
View details for PubMedID 34141999
Using a Simulated Model and Mastery Learning Approach to Teach the Ultrasound-guided Serratus Anterior Plane Block to Emergency Medicine Residents: A Pilot Study.
AEM education and training
2021; 5 (3): e10525
Background: The serratus anterior plane block (SAPB) is a safe, single-injection alternative for pain control in patients with rib fractures. This pilot study aims to teach the ultrasound-guided SAPB to emergency medicine (EM) residents using a mastery learning approach.Methods: A 19-item checklist was created and mastery was determined to be 17 of 19 items correct. This pass score was established using a Mastery Angoff standard-setting exercise with a group of EM experts. Learners participated in baseline testing on a simulated model and performance was assessed by two raters. Learners then watched an instructional video and participated in an individualized teaching session. Learners underwent deliberate practice followed by posttesting until mastery was achieved. Score differences in baseline testing and posttesting were analyzed using a paired t-test. Pre- and posttesting surveys were also completed by participants.Results: Twenty-eight PGY-1 to -4 residents volunteered to participate in the study. The range of reported SAPBs seen previously was 0 to 5. The mean (±SD) number of items correct on the checklist for initial testing was 8.5 of 19 (±2.7), while the mean (±SD) final score was 18 of 19 (±0.6; p<0.001). All participants met mastery standards after the curriculum intervention. Median self-reported procedural confidence was 2 out of 5 on a 5-point Likert scale before the session and 5 out of 5 after the session (Z=-4.681, p<0.001).Conclusions: Using a mastery learning approach and simulated model, we were able to successfully train EM residents to perform the SAPB at a level of mastery and increase their overall confidence in executing this procedure.
View details for DOI 10.1002/aet2.10525
View details for PubMedID 34041432
Lung Ultrasound Findings in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19.
Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
OBJECTIVES: Lung ultrasound (LUS) can accurately diagnose several pulmonary diseases, including pneumothorax, effusion, and pneumonia. LUS may be useful in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19.METHODS: This study was conducted at two United States hospitals from 3/21/2020 to 6/01/2020. Our inclusion criteria included hospitalized adults with COVID-19 (based on symptomatology and a confirmatory RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2) who received a LUS. Providers used a 12-zone LUS scanning protocol. The images were interpreted by the researchers based on a pre-developed consensus document. Patients were stratified by clinical deterioration (defined as either ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death within 28days from the initial symptom onset) and time from symptom onset to their scan.RESULTS: N = 22 patients (N = 36 scans) were included. Eleven (50%) patients experienced clinical deterioration. Among N = 36 scans, only 3 (8%) were classified as normal. The remaining scans demonstrated B-lines (89%), consolidations (56%), pleural thickening (47%), and pleural effusion (11%). Scans from patients with clinical deterioration demonstrated higher percentages of bilateral consolidations (50 versus 15%; P = .033), anterior consolidations (47 versus 11%; P = .047), lateral consolidations (71 versus 29%; P = .030), pleural thickening (69 versus 30%; P = .045), but not B-lines (100 versus 80%; P = .11). Abnormal findings had similar prevalences between scans collected 0-6days and 14-28days from symptom onset.DISCUSSION: Certain LUS findings may be common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, especially for those that experience clinical deterioration. These findings may occur anytime throughout the first 28days of illness. Future efforts should investigate the predictive utility of these findings on clinical outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jum.15683
View details for PubMedID 33665872
Interobserver agreement of lung ultrasound findings of COVID-19.
Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound (LUS) has received considerable interest in the clinical evaluation of patients with COVID-19. Previously described LUS manifestations for COVID-19 include B-lines, consolidations, and pleural thickening. The interrater reliability (IRR) of these findings for COVID-19 is unknown.METHODS: This study was conducted between March and June 2020. Nine physicians (hospitalists: n = 4; emergency medicine: n = 5) from 3 medical centers independently evaluated n = 20 LUS scans (n = 180 independent observations) collected from patients with COVID-19, diagnosed via RT-PCR. These studies were randomly selected from an image database consisting of COVID-19 patients evaluated in the emergency department with portable ultrasound devices. Physicians were blinded to any patient information or previous LUS interpretation. Kappa values (kappa) were used to calculate IRR.RESULTS: There was substantial IRR on the following items: normal LUS scan (kappa = 0.79 [95% CI: 0.72-0.87]), presence of B-lines (kappa = 0.79 [95% CI: 0.72-0.87]), ≥3 B-lines observed (kappa = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.64-0.79]). Moderate IRR was observed for the presence of any consolidation (kappa = 0.57 [95% CI: 0.50-0.64]), subpleural consolidation (kappa = 0.49 [95% CI: 0.42-0.56]), and presence of effusion (kappa = 0.49 [95% CI: 0.41-0.56]). Fair IRR was observed for pleural thickening (kappa = 0.23 [95% CI: 0.15-0.30]).DISCUSSION: Many LUS manifestations for COVID-19 appear to have moderate to substantial IRR across providers from multiple specialties utilizing differing portable devices. The most reliable LUS findings with COVID-19 may include the presence/count of B-lines or determining if a scan is normal. Clinical protocols for LUS with COVID-19 may require additional observers for the confirmation of less reliable findings such as consolidations.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jum.15620
View details for PubMedID 33426734
The Utility of Color Doppler to Confirm Endotracheal Tube Placement: A Pilot Study.
The western journal of emergency medicine
2020; 21 (4): 871–76
INTRODUCTION: Grayscale ultrasound (US) imaging has been used as an adjunct for confirming endotracheal tube (ETT) placement in recent years. The addition of color Doppler imaging (CDI) has been proposed to improve identification but has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to assess whether CDI improves correct localization of ETT placement.METHODS: A convenience sample of emergency and critical care physicians at various levels of training and experience participated in an online assessment. Participants viewed US video clips of patients, which included either tracheal or esophageal intubations captured in grayscale or with CDI; there were five videos of each for a total of 20 videos. Participants were asked to watch each clip and then assess the location of the ETT.RESULTS: Thirty-eight subjects participated in the online assessment. Levels of training included medical students (13%), emergency medicine (EM) residents (50%), EM attendings (32%), and critical care attendings (5%). The odds ratio of properly assessing tracheal placement using color relative to a grayscale imaging technique was 1.5 (p = 0.21). Regarding the correct assessment of esophageal placement, CDI had 1.4 times the odds of being correctly assessed relative to grayscale (p = 0.26). The relationship between training level and correct assessments was not significant for either tracheal or esophageal placements.CONCLUSION: In this pilot study we found no significant improvement in correct identification of ETT placement using color Doppler compared to grayscale ultrasound; however, there was a trend toward improvement that might be better elucidated in a larger study.
View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2020.5.45588
View details for PubMedID 32726258
The Efficacy of a Brief Educational Training Session in Point-of-Care Pediatric Hip Ultrasound.
Pediatric emergency care
Pediatric limp is a common presenting complaint to emergency departments. Despite this, diagnosis can be difficult in young patients with no history of trauma. Ultrasound can be used to identify a hip effusion, which may be the etiology of limp in pediatric patients. Brief educational training sessions have successfully been used to introduce novice ultrasound users to point-of-care (POC) ultrasound; however, the education of POC hip ultrasound is underexplored, and the efficacy of educational training sessions in this domain remains unknown.To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of using a brief educational training session to teach novice ultrasound users to identify hip anatomy and effusions.Medical and physician assistant students were enrolled during an ultrasound education conference. A pretest evaluated prior knowledge, experience, and confidence level regarding POC hip ultrasound. Students attended a brief didactic session and then completed an objective structured assessment of technical skill as well as a posttest.Twenty-eight students naive to hip ultrasound participated in this study. Levels of training included medical and physician assistant students. Mean test scores increased from the pretest (4.8 of 9, SD = 1.6) to the posttest (7.9 of 9, SD = 0.72) (P < 0.001). Average objective structured assessment of technical skill was 4.6 of 5 (SD, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 4.3-4.9). After the sessions, confidence levels in identifying landmarks, joint space, and a joint effusion significantly increased (P < 0.001).Pediatric hip ultrasound knowledge, performance, skills, and confidence improved as demonstrated by novice ultrasound users after a brief educational training session. Our study shows that a brief, targeted educational intervention was a feasible and effective method of introducing pediatric POC hip ultrasound to novices.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PEC.0000000000002202
View details for PubMedID 32796351
- Interstitial Pulmonary Edema Assessed by Lung Ultrasound on Ascent to High Altitude and Slight Association with Acute Mountain Sickness: A Prospective Observational Study HIGH ALTITUDE MEDICINE & BIOLOGY 2019
Interstitial Pulmonary Edema Assessed by Lung Ultrasound on Ascent to High Altitude and Slight Association with Acute Mountain Sickness: A Prospective Observational Study.
High altitude medicine & biology
Alsup, Carl, Grant S. Lipman, David Pomeranz, Rwo-Wen Huang, Patrick Burns, Nicholas Juul, Caleb Phillips, Carrie Jurkiewicz, Mary Cheffers, Christina Evans, Anirudh Saraswathula, Peter Baumeister, Lucinda Lai, Jessica Rainey, and Viveta Lobo. Interstitial pulmonary edema assessed by lung ultrasound on ascent to high altitude and slight association with acute mountain sickness: A prospective observational study. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2019. Background: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common disease that may have a pulmonary component, as suggested by interstitial pulmonary edema quantified by the B-line score (BLS) on ultrasound (US). This subclinical pulmonary edema has been shown to increase with ascent to high altitude and AMS severity, but has not been prospectively associated with AMS incidence in a large prospective study. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was part of a randomized controlled trial enrolling healthy adults over four weekends ascending White Mountain, California. Subjects were assessed by lung US and the Lake Louise Questionnaire at 4110 ft (1240 m), upon ascent to 12,500 ft (3810 m), and the next morning at 12,500 ft (3810 m). Results: Three hundred five USs in total were completed on 103 participants, with 73% total incidence of AMS. The mean (±standard deviation) BLS increased from baseline (1.15 ± 1.80) to high altitude (2.56 ± 2.86), a difference of 1.37 (±2.48) (p = 0.04). Overall BLS was found, on average, to be higher among those diagnosed with AMS than without (2.97 vs. 2.0, p = 0.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] -∞ to -0.04). The change in BLS (ΔBLS) from low altitude baseline was significantly associated with AMS (0.88 vs. 1.72, r2 = 0.023, 95% CI -∞ to -0.01, p = 0.048). Conclusions: Interstitial subclinical pulmonary edema by lung US was found to have a small but significant association with AMS.
View details for PubMedID 31045443
Point-of-care Ultrasonography for Detecting the Etiology of Unexplained Acute Respiratory and Chest Complaints in the Emergency Department: A Prospective Analysis.
2018; 10 (8): e3218
Introduction Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is increasingly used as a diagnostic tool in emergency departments. As the number and type of POCUS protocols expand, there is a need to validate their efficacy in comparison with current diagnostic standards. This study compares POCUS to chest radiography in patients with undifferentiated respiratory or chest complaints. Methods A prospective convenience sample of 59 adult patients were enrolled from those presenting with unexplained acute respiratory or chest complaints (and having orders for chest radiography) to a single emergency department in an academic tertiary-care hospital. After a brief educational session, a medical student, blinded to chest radiograph results, performed and interpreted images from the modified Rapid Assessment of Dyspnea in Ultrasound (RADiUS) protocol. The images were reviewed by a blinded ultrasound fellowship-trained emergency physician and compared to chest radiography upon chart review. The primary "gold standard" endpoint diagnosis was the diagnosis at discharge. A secondary analysis was performed using the chest computed tomography (CT) diagnosis as the endpoint diagnosis in the subset of patients with chest CTs. Results When using diagnosis at discharge as the endpoint diagnosis, the modified RADiUS protocol had a higher sensitivity (79% vs. 67%) and lower specificity (71% vs. 83%) than chest radiography. When using chest CT diagnosis as the endpoint diagnosis (in the subset of patients with chest CTs), the modified RADiUS protocol had a higher sensitivity (76% vs. 65%) and lower specificity (71% vs. 100%) than chest radiography. The medical student performed and interpreted the 59 POCUS scans with 92% accuracy. Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity of POCUS using the modified RADiUS protocol was not significantly different than chest radiography. In addition, a medical student was able to perform the protocol and interpret scans with a high level of accuracy. POCUS has potential value for diagnosing the etiology of undifferentiated acute respiratory and chest complaints in adult patients presenting to the emergency department, but larger clinical validation studies are required.
View details for PubMedID 30405993
Isolated Renal Laceration on Point-of-care Ultrasound.
2018; 10 (1): e2113
We report a renal laceration identified on a point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) performed in the emergency department on a 58-year-old female presenting after blunt trauma. Emergency workup demonstrated a right flank abrasion with tenderness to palpation, hematuria, and decreasing hematocrit. A Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) exam, performed as part of the intake trauma protocol, identified positive intraperitoneal fluid in the right upper quadrant. A computed tomography (CT) scan established a diagnosis of isolated right renal hematoma arising from a Grade IV laceration, with no collecting duct involvement. This report reviews the sonographic distinction between a renal hematoma and a positive FAST exam, and emphasizes the vital role ultrasound plays in the evaluation of the trauma patient.
View details for PubMedID 29581925
B-line detection using amplitude modulation-frequency modulation (AM-FM) features
SPIE MEDICAL IMAGING
View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2285224
The Sound Games: Introducing Gamification into Stanford's Orientation on Emergency Ultrasound.
2017; 9 (9): e1699
Point-of-care ultrasound is a critical component of graduate medical training in emergency medicine. Innovation in ultrasound teaching methods is greatly needed to keep up with a changing medical landscape. A field-wide trend promoting simulation and technology-enhanced learning is underway in an effort to improve patient care, as well as patient safety. In an effort to both motivate students and increase their skill retention, training methods are shifting towards a friendly competition model and are gaining popularity nationwide.In line with this emerging trend, Stanford incorporated the Sound Games - an educational ultrasound event with a distinctly competitive thread - within its existing two-day point-of-care ultrasound orientation course for emergency medicine interns. In this study, we demonstrate successful implementation of the orientation program, significant learning gains in participants, and overall student satisfaction with the course.
View details for PubMedID 29159006
Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Austere Environments A Complete Review of Its Utilization, Pitfalls, and Technique for Common Applications in Austere Settings
EMERGENCY MEDICINE CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA
2017; 35 (2): 409-?
With the advent of portable ultrasound machines, point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has proven to be adaptable to a myriad of environments, including remote and austere settings, where other imaging modalities cannot be carried. Austere environments continue to pose special challenges to ultrasound equipment, but advances in equipment design and environment-specific care allow for its successful use. This article describes the technique and illustrates pathology of common POCUS applications in austere environments. A brief description of common POCUS-guided procedures used in austere environments is also provided.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.emc.2016.12.007
View details for PubMedID 28411935
Caudal Edge of the Liver in the Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) View Is the Most Sensitive Area for Free Fluid on the FAST Exam.
The western journal of emergency medicine
2017; 18 (2): 270-280
The focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) exam is a critical diagnostic test for intraperitoneal free fluid (FF). Current teaching is that fluid accumulates first in Morison's pouch. The goal of this study was to evaluate the "sub-quadrants" of traditional FAST views to determine the most sensitive areas for FF accumulation.We analyzed a retrospective cohort of all adult trauma patients who had a recorded FAST exam by emergency physicians at a Level I trauma center from January 2012 - June 2013. Ultrasound fellowship-trained faculty with three emergency medicine residents reviewed all FAST exams. We excluded studies if they were incomplete, of poor image quality, or with incorrect medical record information. Positive studies were assessed for FF localization, comparing the traditional abdominal views and on a sub-quadrant basis: right upper quadrant (RUQ)1 - hepato-diaphragmatic; RUQ2 - Morison's pouch; RUQ3 - caudal liver edge and superior paracolic gutter; left upper quadrant (LUQ)1 - splenic-diaphragmatic; LUQ2 - spleno-renal; LUQ3 - around inferior pole of kidney; suprapubic area (SP)1 - bilateral to bladder; SP2 - posterior to bladder; SP3 - posterior to uterus (females). FAST results were confirmed by chart review of computed tomography results or operative findings.Of the included 1,008 scans, 48 (4.8%) were positive. The RUQ was the most positive view with 32/48 (66.7%) positive. In the RUQ sub-quadrant analysis, the most positive view was the RUQ3 with 30/32 (93.8%) positive.The RUQ is most sensitive for FF assessment, with the superior paracolic gutter area around the caudal liver edge (RUQ3) being the most positive sub-quadrant within the RUQ.
View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2016.11.30435
View details for PubMedID 28210364
Integration of Ultrasound in Undergraduate Medical Education at the California Medical Schools: A Discussion of Common Challenges and Strategies From the UMeCali Experience.
Journal of ultrasound in medicine
2016; 35 (2): 221-233
Since the first medical student ultrasound electives became available more than a decade ago, ultrasound in undergraduate medical education has gained increasing popularity. More than a dozen medical schools have fully integrated ultrasound education in their curricula, with several dozen more institutions planning to follow suit. Starting in June 2012, a working group of emergency ultrasound faculty at the California medical schools began to meet to discuss barriers as well as innovative approaches to implementing ultrasound education in undergraduate medical education. It became clear that an ongoing collaborative could be formed to discuss barriers, exchange ideas, and lend support for this initiative. The group, termed Ultrasound in Medical Education, California (UMeCali), was formed with 2 main goals: to exchange ideas and resources in facilitating ultrasound education and to develop a white paper to discuss our experiences. Five common themes integral to successful ultrasound education in undergraduate medical education are discussed in this article: (1) initiating an ultrasound education program; (2) the role of medical student involvement; (3) integration of ultrasound in the preclinical years; (4) developing longitudinal ultrasound education; and (5) addressing competency.
View details for DOI 10.7863/ultra.15.05006
View details for PubMedID 26764278
Thymic Tumor Extension into the Heart, a Rare Finding Found by Point-of-Care Ultrasound.
2016; 8 (8)
We report a cardiac mass detected by point-of-care ultrasound performed within the emergency department on a 65-year-old male with thymic cancer who presented with chronic cough and fever. Results from the initial emergency workup, which included blood tests, urinalysis, and a computerized tomography with angiography scan with venous phasing of the chest, did not result in a definitive diagnosis. A point-of-care echocardiogram was performed to evaluate for possible infective endocarditis, but alternatively identified a large mass in the right atria and ventricle. The mass was later confirmed to be metastatic tumor from the patient's known thymic cancer. This case emphasizes the vital role ultrasound can play in the acute care setting.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.724
View details for PubMedID 27625910
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5010378
CRITICAL CARE CLINICS
2014; 30 (1): 47-?
Focused cardiac echocardiography has become a critical diagnostic tool for the emergency physician and critical care physician caring for patients in shock and following trauma to the chest, and those presenting with chest pain and shortness of breath,. Cardiac echocardiography allows for immediate diagnosis of pericardial effusions and cardiac tamponade, evaluation of cardiac contractility and volume status, and detection of right ventricular strain possibly seen with a significant pulmonary embolus. This article addresses how to perform cardiac echocardiography using the standard windows, how to interpret a focused goal-directed examination, and how to apply this information clinically at the bedside.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccc.2013.08.003
View details for PubMedID 24295841
CRITICAL CARE CLINICS
2014; 30 (1): 93-?
Thoracic ultrasonography (US) has proved to be a valuable tool in the evaluation of the patient with shortness of breath, chest pain, hypoxia, or after chest trauma. Its sensitivity and specificity for detecting disease is higher than that of a chest radiograph, and it can expedite the diagnosis for many emergent conditions. This article describes the technique of each thoracic US application, illustrating both normal and abnormal findings, as well as discussing the literature. Bedside thoracic US has defined imaging benefits in a wide range of thoracic disease, and US guidance has been shown to facilitate thoracic and airway procedures.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccc.2013.08.002
View details for PubMedID 24295842