Dr. Wendy DeMartini is a Professor in the Department of Radiology at Stanford University School of Medicine. She currently serves as the Associate Chair for Clinical Faculty Affairs in the Department of Radiology, and is the past Division Chief of Breast Imaging. Her work is focused upon high quality patient care, clinical research and education.

Dr. DeMartini completed her fellowship in Breast Imaging at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle, Washington. She then served as Breast Imaging faculty at the University of Washington where she became Associate Professor and Associate Director of Clinical Services, and at the University of Wisconsin where she became Professor and Chief of Breast Imaging.

Dr. DeMartini has more than 100 research presentations, abstracts/publications, review articles or book chapters. Her research is directed toward the appropriate evidence-based use of imaging tests to optimize the detection and evaluation of breast cancer. She has served as an investigator on several studies of breast MRI funded by the National Cancer Institute and by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN). Particular research topics have included the development of a pilot tool for predicting the probability of malignancy of breast MRI lesions, assessment of the impact of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on breast MRI accuracy, and evaluation of utilization patterns of breast MRI and other emerging technologies.  She also served as the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Breast Imaging from 2023 to 2024.

Dr. DeMartini is a highly sought-after educator. She lectures on a broad spectrum of breast imaging topics nationally and internationally, including in the Americas, Europe, Australasia and Africa. She is the past Co-Director of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Education Center Breast MRI with Biopsy Course. Dr. DeMartini is an active member of many professional organizations and committees, including in the Radiologic Society of North America, the American College of Radiology and the Society of Breast Imaging (SBI). She was elected as an SBI Fellow in 2009 and served as President of the SBI in 2017-2018.

Clinical Focus

  • Diagnostic Radiology
  • Breast Diseases

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Fellowship: University of Washington Medical Center (2004) WA
  • Medical Education: Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine Registrar (1997) VA
  • Fellowship: St Joseph's Medical Center (2003) AZ
  • Board Certification: American Board of Radiology, Diagnostic Radiology (2002)
  • Residency: University of Washington School of Medicine (2002) WA
  • Internship: Mayo Clinic - Scottsdale (1998) AZ

All Publications

  • Promoting and Improving Breast Imaging Patient Care and Outcomes. Journal of breast imaging DeMartini, W. B. 2024; 6 (2): 113-115

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbi/wbae010

    View details for PubMedID 38558137

  • The Postoperative Breast: Imaging Findings and Diagnostic Pitfalls After Breast-Conserving Surgery and Oncoplastic Breast Surgery. Journal of breast imaging Pittman, S. M., Rosen, E. L., DeMartini, W. B., Nguyen, D. H., Poplack, S. P., Ikeda, D. M. 2024


    Breast surgery is the cornerstone of treatment for early breast cancer. Historically, mastectomy and conventional breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were the main surgical techniques for treatment. Now, oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS), introduced in the 1990s, allows for a combination of BCS and reconstructive surgery to excise the cancer while preserving or enhancing the contour of the breast, leading to improved aesthetic results. Although imaging after conventional lumpectomy demonstrates typical postsurgical changes with known evolution patterns over time, OBS procedures show postsurgical changes/fat necrosis in locations other than the lumpectomy site. The purpose of this article is to familiarize radiologists with various types of surgical techniques for removal of breast cancer and to distinguish benign postoperative imaging findings from suspicious findings that warrant further work-up.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbi/wbad105

    View details for PubMedID 38262628

  • New Year, New Paradigms. Journal of breast imaging DeMartini, W. B. 2024; 6 (1): 1-3

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbi/wbad094

    View details for PubMedID 38243863

  • Sustaining Mammography Image Quality With a Technologist Coaching Program in the Era of the Enhancing Quality Using the Inspection Program (EQUIP). Journal of breast imaging Kozlov, A., Larson, D., DeMartini, W. B., Pal, S., Cowart, P., Strain, A., Ikeda, D. M. 2023; 5 (6): 675-684


    To evaluate the ability of a long-term technologist coaching program to sustain gains in mammography quality made by a previously implemented quality improvement (QI) initiative.Mammography quality metrics from July 2014 to June 2020 were reviewed. Numbers of screening mammograms performed/audited, monthly average mammogram overall quality pass rates, changes in facilities/staffing, and technical recall rates were evaluated. Performance metrics at baseline (July 2013), during the improvement (July 2014 to January 2015), postimprovement (February 2015 to August 2015), and sustained coaching periods (after initiation of the technologist coaching model, from September 2015 to June 2020) were compared.During the postimprovement and sustained coaching periods, 93% (501/541) and 90% (8902/9929) of audited mammograms, respectively, met overall passing criteria, achieving or exceeding the QI goal of 90%, and results for both periods were significantly higher than that during the improvement period (74%, 1098/1489), at P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively. The technical recall rates during the improvement and postimprovement periods were 2.6% (85/3321) and 1.7% (54/3236), respectively; the rate during the sustained coaching period was significantly lower than these, at 1.2% (489/40 440) (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0232, respectively). Sustained quality passing rates and lower technical recall rates were observed despite statistically significantly increases in screening volumes.A technologist coaching program resulted in sustained high mammographic quality for almost 5 years.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbi/wbad075

    View details for PubMedID 38141238

  • Calcifications, Cryoablation, and Much More. Journal of breast imaging DeMartini, W. B. 2023; 5 (6): 633-634

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbi/wbad076

    View details for PubMedID 38141242

  • Sustaining Mammography Image Quality With a Technologist Coaching Program in the Era of the Enhancing Quality Using the Inspection Program (EQUIP) JOURNAL OF BREAST IMAGING Kozlov, A., Larson, D., Demartini, W. B., Pal, S., Cowart, P., Strain, A., Ikeda, D. M. 2023
  • From Patient Care to Career Care. Journal of breast imaging DeMartini, W. B. 2023; 5 (5): 505-507

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbi/wbad062

    View details for PubMedID 38416919

  • From Patient Care to Career Care JOURNAL OF BREAST IMAGING Demartini, W. B. 2023
  • Foundations to Future JOURNAL OF BREAST IMAGING DeMartini, W. B. 2023; 5 (4): 381-382
  • Foundations to Future. Journal of breast imaging DeMartini, W. B. 2023; 5 (4): 381-382

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbi/wbad044

    View details for PubMedID 38416911

  • Radiologists staunchly support patient safety and autonomy, in opposition to the SCOTUS decision to overturn Roe v Wade. Clinical imaging Karandikar, A., Solberg, A., Fung, A., Lee, A. Y., Farooq, A., Taylor, A. C., Oliveira, A., Narayan, A., Senter, A., Majid, A., Tong, A., McGrath, A. L., Malik, A., Brown, A. L., Roberts, A., Fleischer, A., Vettiyil, B., Zigmund, B., Park, B., Curran, B., Henry, C., Jaimes, C., Connolly, C., Robson, C., Meltzer, C. C., Phillips, C. H., Dove, C., Glastonbury, C., Pomeranz, C., Kirsch, C. F., Burgan, C. M., Scher, C., Tomblinson, C., Fuss, C., Santillan, C., Daye, D., Brown, D. B., Young, D. J., Kopans, D., Vargas, D., Martin, D., Thompson, D., Jordan, D. W., Shatzkes, D., Sun, D., Mastrodicasa, D., Smith, E., Korngold, E., Dibble, E. H., Arleo, E. K., Hecht, E. M., Morris, E., Maltin, E. P., Cooke, E. A., Schwartz, E. S., Lehrman, E., Sodagari, F., Shah, F., Doo, F. X., Rigiroli, F., Vilanilam, G. K., Landinez, G., Kim, G. G., Rahbar, H., Choi, H., Bandesha, H., Ojeda-Fournier, H., Ikuta, I., Dragojevic, I., Schroeder, J. L., Ivanidze, J., Katzen, J. T., Chiang, J., Nguyen, J., Robinson, J. D., Broder, J. C., Kemp, J., Weaver, J. S., Conyers, J. M., Robbins, J. B., Leschied, J. R., Wen, J., Park, J., Mongan, J., Perchik, J., Barbero, J. P., Jacob, J., Ledbetter, K., Macura, K. J., Maturen, K. E., Frederick-Dyer, K., Dodelzon, K., Cort, K., Kisling, K., Babagbemi, K., McGill, K. C., Chang, K. J., Feigin, K., Winsor, K. S., Seifert, K., Patel, K., Porter, K. K., Foley, K. M., Patel-Lippmann, K., McIntosh, L. J., Padilla, L., Groner, L., Harry, L. M., Ladd, L. M., Wang, L., Spalluto, L. B., Mahesh, M., Marx, M. V., Sugi, M. D., Sammer, M. B., Sun, M., Barkovich, M. J., Miller, M. J., Vella, M., Davis, M. A., Englander, M. J., Durst, M., Oumano, M., Wood, M. J., McBee, M. P., Fischbein, N. J., Kovalchuk, N., Lall, N., Eclov, N., Madhuripan, N., Ariaratnam, N. S., Vincoff, N. S., Kothary, N., Yahyavi-Firouz-Abadi, N., Brook, O. R., Glenn, O. A., Woodard, P. K., Mazaheri, P., Rhyner, P., Eby, P. R., Raghu, P., Gerson, R. F., Patel, R., Gutierrez, R. L., Gebhard, R., Andreotti, R. F., Masum, R., Woods, R., Mandava, S., Harrington, S. G., Parikh, S., Chu, S., Arora, S. S., Meyers, S. M., Prabhu, S., Shams, S., Pittman, S., Patel, S. N., Payne, S., Hetts, S. W., Hijaz, T. A., Chapman, T., Loehfelm, T. W., Juang, T., Clark, T. J., Potigailo, V., Shah, V., Planz, V., Kalia, V., DeMartini, W., Dillon, W. P., Gupta, Y., Koethe, Y., Hartley-Blossom, Z., Wang, Z. J., McGinty, G., Haramati, A., Allen, L. M., Germaine, P. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clinimag.2022.07.011

    View details for PubMedID 36064645

  • Tumor volume doubling time estimated from digital breast tomosynthesis mammograms distinguishes invasive breast cancers from benign lesions. European radiology Sadeghipour, N., Tseng, J., Anderson, K., Ayalasomayajula, S., Kozlov, A., Ikeda, D., DeMartini, W., Hori, S. S. 2022


    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether lesion size metrics on consecutive screening mammograms could predict malignant invasive carcinoma versus benign lesion outcome.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed suspicious screen-detected lesions confirmed by biopsy to be invasive breast cancers or benign that were visible on current and in-retrospect prior screening mammograms performed with digital breast tomosynthesis from 2017 to 2020. Four experienced radiologists recorded mammogram dates, breast density, lesion type, lesion diameter, and morphology on current and prior exams. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the association of invasive breast cancer outcome with lesion size metrics such as maximum dimension, average dimension, volume, and tumor volume doubling time (TVDT).RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients with invasive ductal carcinoma or invasive lobular carcinoma and 40 patients with benign lesions were identified. The mean TVDT was significantly shorter for invasive breast cancers compared to benign lesions (0.84 vs. 2.5 years; p = 0.0025). Patients with a TVDT of less than 1 year were shown to have an odds ratio of invasive cancer of 6.33 (95% confidence interval, 2.18-18.43). Logistic regression adjusted for age, lesion maximum dimension, and lesion volume demonstrated that shorter TVDT was the size variable significantly associated with invasive cancer outcome.CONCLUSION: Invasive breast cancers detected on current and in-retrospect prior screening mammograms are associated with shorter TVDT compared to benign lesions. If confirmed to be sufficiently predictive of benignity in larger studies, lesions visible on mammograms which in comparison to prior exams have longer TVDTs could potentially avoid additional imaging and/or biopsy.KEY POINTS: We propose tumor volume doubling time as a measure to distinguish benign from invasive breast cancer lesions. Logistic regression results summarized the utility of the odds ratio in retrospective clinical mammography data.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00330-022-08966-2

    View details for PubMedID 35779088

  • Frequency and Outcomes of Ipsilateral Axillary Lymphadenopathy After COVID-19 Vaccination. JAMA network open Zhou, W., DeMartini, W. B., Ikeda, D. M. 2022; 5 (6): e2216172

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.16172

    View details for PubMedID 35675077

  • Radiomic features quantifying pixel-level characteristics of breast tumors from magnetic resonance imaging predict risk factors in triple-negative breast cancer. Mantz, A. B., Zhou, R., Kozlov, A., DeMartini, W., Chen, S., Okamoto, S., Ikeda, D. M., Mattonen, S. A., Napel, S., Alkim, E., Sledge, G. W., Kurian, A. W., Liu, M., Telli, M. L., Itakura, H. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022
  • Harnessing artificial intelligence to automate delineation of volumetric breast cancers from magnetic resonance imaging to improve tumor characterization. Zhou, R., Kozlov, A., Chen, S., Okamoto, S., Ikeda, D. M., DeMartini, W., Kurian, A. W., Sledge, G. W., Telli, M. L., Lee, K., Mantz, A. B., Itakura, H. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022
  • Influence of Imaging Features and Technique on US-guided Tattoo Ink Marking of Axillary Lymph Nodes Removed at Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Women With Breast Cancer. Journal of breast imaging Pajcini, M., Wapnir, I., Tsai, J., Edquilang, J., DeMartini, W., Ikeda, D. 2021; 3 (5): 583-590


    To describe tattoo ink marking of axillary lymph nodes (TIMAN) and the elements leading to successful removal at sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB).An IRB-approved retrospective image review was conducted of breast cancer patients who underwent SLNB after TIMAN from February 2013 to August 2017, noting patient and tattooed lymph node (TLN) features, initial biopsy type, time to surgery, if the TLN was identified at surgery, and correlation with the SLN. Cases were divided into two groups: the presurgical group, which had primary surgery, and the pre-neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) group, which underwent surgery after completing NACT.Of 30 patients who underwent 32 TIMAN procedures, 10 (33.3%) were presurgical and 20 (66.7%) were pre-NACT. The average lymph node (LN) depth from the skin was 1.6 cm, with an average of 0.3 mL of tattoo ink injected. Of 32 procedures, 29 (90.6%) had US images demonstrating the injection. Of these, 10 (34.5%) were injected in the LN cortex surface and 19 (65.5%) in the middle cortex. Seven (24.1%) were injected in the LN lateral aspect, 12 (41.4%) in the mid aspect, and 10 (34.5%) in the medial aspect. Of 32 LNs, 28 (87.5%) were tattooed immediately after initial biopsy and 4 (12.5%) at a later date. At SLNB, all 32 (100%) TLNs were identified, all correlated with the SLN, and 10 (31.3%) were positive for cancer.Using an average of 0.3 mL of tattoo ink, all TLNs were successfully identified for removal at surgery, despite variability in LN and injection factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbi/wbab049

    View details for PubMedID 38424950

  • Influence of Imaging Features and Technique on US-guided Tattoo Ink Marking of Axillary Lymph Nodes Removed at Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Women With Breast Cancer JOURNAL OF BREAST IMAGING Pajcini, M., Wapnir, I., Tsai, J., Edquilang, J., DeMartini, W., Ikeda, D. 2021; 3 (5): 583-590
  • FDG Avid Abnormalities in the Breast: Breast Cancer Mimics CURRENT RADIOLOGY REPORTS Faast, A., Ikeda, D. M., Pittman, S., DeMartini, W., Kozlov, A. 2021; 9 (8)
  • Factors Affecting Image Quality and Lesion Evaluability in Breast Diffusion-weighted MRI: Observations from the ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group Multisite Trial (A6702). Journal of breast imaging Whisenant, J. G., Romanoff, J., Rahbar, H., Kitsch, A. E., Harvey, S. M., Moy, L., DeMartini, W. B., Dogan, B. E., Yang, W. T., Wang, L. C., Joe, B. N., Wilmes, L. J., Hylton, N. M., Oh, K. Y., Tudorica, L. A., Neal, C. H., Malyarenko, D. I., McDonald, E. S., Comstock, C. E., Yankeelov, T. E., Chenevert, T. L., Partridge, S. C. 2021; 3 (1): 44–56


    Objective: The A6702 multisite trial confirmed that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measures can improve breast MRI accuracy and reduce unnecessary biopsies, but also found that technical issues rendered many lesions non-evaluable on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). This secondary analysis investigated factors affecting lesion evaluability and impact on diagnostic performance.Methods: The A6702 protocol was IRB-approved at 10 institutions; participants provided informed consent. In total, 103 women with 142 MRI-detected breast lesions (BI-RADS assessment category 3, 4, or 5) completed the study. DWI was acquired at 1.5T and 3T using a four b-value, echo-planar imaging sequence. Scans were reviewed for multiple quality factors (artifacts, signal-to-noise, misregistration, and fat suppression); lesions were considered non-evaluable if there was low confidence in ADC measurement. Associations of lesion evaluability with imaging and lesion characteristics were determined. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were compared using bootstrapping.Results: Thirty percent (42/142) of lesions were non-evaluable on DWI; 23% (32/142) with image quality issues, 7% (10/142) with conspicuity and/or localization issues. Misregistration was the only factor associated with non-evaluability (P = 0.001). Smaller (≤10 mm) lesions were more commonly non-evaluable than larger lesions (p <0.03), though not significant after multiplicity correction. The AUC for differentiating benign and malignant lesions increased after excluding non-evaluable lesions, from 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50-0.71) to 0.75 (95% CI: 0.65-0.84).Conclusion: Image quality remains a technical challenge in breast DWI, particularly for smaller lesions. Protocol optimization and advanced acquisition and post-processing techniques would help to improve clinical utility.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbi/wbaa103

    View details for PubMedID 33543122

  • Mean Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Is a Sufficient Conventional Diffusion-weighted MRI Metric to Improve Breast MRI Diagnostic Performance: Results from the ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group A6702 Diffusion Imaging Trial. Radiology McDonald, E. S., Romanoff, J., Rahbar, H., Kitsch, A. E., Harvey, S. M., Whisenant, J. G., Yankeelov, T. E., Moy, L., DeMartini, W. B., Dogan, B. E., Yang, W. T., Wang, L. C., Joe, B. N., Wilmes, L. J., Hylton, N. M., Oh, K. Y., Tudorica, L. A., Neal, C. H., Malyarenko, D. I., Comstock, C. E., Schnall, M. D., Chenevert, T. L., Partridge, S. C. 2020: 202465


    Background The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Group A6702 multicenter trial helped confirm the potential of diffusion-weighted MRI for improving differential diagnosis of suspicious breast abnormalities and reducing unnecessary biopsies. A prespecified secondary objective was to explore the relative value of different approaches for quantitative assessment of lesions at diffusion-weighted MRI. Purpose To determine whether alternate calculations of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) can help further improve diagnostic performance versus mean ADC values alone for analysis of suspicious breast lesions at MRI. Materials and Methods This prospective trial ( identifier: NCT02022579) enrolled consecutive women (from March 2014 to April 2015) with a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category of 3, 4, or 5 at breast MRI. All study participants underwent standardized diffusion-weighted MRI (b = 0, 100, 600, and 800 sec/mm2). Centralized ADC measures were performed, including manually drawn whole-lesion and hotspot regions of interest, histogram metrics, normalized ADC, and variable b-value combinations. Diagnostic performance was estimated by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Reduction in biopsy rate (maintaining 100% sensitivity) was estimated according to thresholds for each ADC metric. Results Among 107 enrolled women, 81 lesions with outcomes (28 malignant and 53 benign) in 67 women (median age, 49 years; interquartile range, 41-60 years) were analyzed. Among ADC metrics tested, none improved diagnostic performance versus standard mean ADC (AUC, 0.59-0.79 vs AUC, 0.75; P = .02-.84), and maximum ADC had worse performance (AUC, 0.52; P < .001). The 25th-percentile ADC metric provided the best performance (AUC, 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.88), and a threshold using median ADC provided the greatest reduction in biopsy rate of 23.9% (95% CI: 14.8, 32.9; 16 of 67 BI-RADS category 4 and 5 lesions). Nonzero minimum b value (100, 600, and 800 sec/mm2) did not improve the AUC (0.74; P = .28), and several combinations of two b values (0 and 600, 100 and 600, 0 and 800, and 100 and 800 sec/mm2; AUC, 0.73-0.76) provided results similar to those seen with calculations of four b values (AUC, 0.75; P = .17-.87). Conclusion Mean apparent diffusion coefficient calculated with a two-b-value acquisition is a simple and sufficient diffusion-weighted MRI metric to augment diagnostic performance of breast MRI compared with more complex approaches to apparent diffusion coefficient measurement. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2020202465

    View details for PubMedID 33201788

  • Pure Fibrocystic Change Diagnosed at MRI-guided Vacuum-assisted Breast Biopsy: Imaging Features and Follow-up Outcomes. Journal of breast imaging Chen, S. T., Okamoto, S., Daniel, B. L., Covelli, J., DeMartini, W. B., Ikeda, D. M. 2020; 2 (2): 141-146


    Fibrocystic change (FCC) is considered one of the most common benign findings in the breast and may be commonly seen on breast MRI. We performed this study to identify MRI characteristics of pure FCC on MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) without other associated pathologies and describe the findings on MRI follow-up and outcomes.A retrospective review was performed for 598 lesions undergoing 9-gauge MRI-guided VABB at our institution from January 2015 to April 2018, identifying 49 pure FCC lesions in 43 patients. The associations between variables and lesion changes on follow-up MRI were analyzed using exact Mann-Whitney tests and Fisher's exact tests.MRI features of pure FCC are predominantly clumped nonmass enhancement (19/49, 39%) or irregular masses with initial fast/late washout kinetics (9/49, 18%). There was no upgrade to high-risk or cancerous lesions among the 11 patients (25.6%) who underwent surgery. There were 22 pure FCC lesions in 19 (44.2%) patients who had follow-up MRI (mean 18.0 months, range 11-41 months) showing regression (13, 59%), stability (8, 36%), or progression (1, 5%) of the lesion size, and no cancers were found on follow-up at the site of the MRI biopsy for fibrocystic changes. No patient demographics or lesion features were associated with lesion regression or stability (P > 0.05).Our study shows that MRI features of VABB-proven FCC lesions may mimic malignancy. After VABB of pure FCC, given that adequate sampling has been performed, a 12-month follow-up MRI may be reasonable.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbi/wbz090

    View details for PubMedID 38424890

  • Pure Fibrocystic Change Diagnosed at MRI-guided Vacuum-assisted Breast Biopsy: Imaging Features and Follow-up Outcomes JOURNAL OF BREAST IMAGING Chen, S., Okamoto, S., Daniel, B. L., Covelli, J., DeMartini, W. B., Ikeda, D. M. 2020; 2 (2): 141–46

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbi/wbz090

    View details for Web of Science ID 000604353200008

  • A randomized phase II study comparing surgical excision versus NeOadjuvant Radiotherapy followed by delayed surgical excision of Ductal carcinoma In Situ (NORDIS) Wapnir, I., DeMartini, W., Allison, K., Stone, K., Dirbas, F., Marquez, C., Ikeda, D., Pal, S., Tsai, J., Yang, R., West, R., McMillan, A., Telli, M., Horst, K. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2020
  • Clumped vs non-clumped internal enhancement patterns in linear non-mass enhancement on breast MRI Chen, S., Covelli, J., Okamoto, S., Daniel, B., DeMartini, W., Ikeda, D. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2020
  • Clumped vs non-clumped internal enhancement patterns in linear non-mass enhancement on breast MRI. The British journal of radiology Chen, S. T., Covelli, J. n., Okamoto, S. n., Daniel, B. L., DeMartini, W. B., Ikeda, D. M. 2020: 20201166


    To compare positive predictive values (PPVs) of clumped vs non-clumped (homogenous and heterogeneous) internal enhancement on MRI detected linear non-mass enhancement (NME) on MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (MRI-VABB).With IRB (Institutional Review Board) approval, we retrospectively reviewed 598 lesions undergoing MRI-VABB from January 2015 to April 2018 that showed linear NME. We reviewed the electronic medical records for MRI-VABB pathology, any subsequent surgery and clinical follow-up. The X2 test was performed for univariate analysis.There were 120/598 (20%) linear NME MRI-VABB lesions with clumped (52/120, 43%) vs non-clumped (68/120, 57%) internal enhancement, average size 1.8 cm (range 0.6-7.6 cm). On MRI-VABB, cancer was identified in 22/120 (18%) lesions, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was found in 18/22 (82%) and invasive cancer in 4 (18%). 3/31 (10%) high-risk lesions upgraded to DCIS at surgery, for a total of 25/120 (21%) malignancies. Malignancy was found in 12/52 (23%) clumped lesions and in 13/68 (19%) of non-clumped lesions that showed heterogeneous (5/13, 38%) or homogenous (8/13, 62%) internal enhancement. The PPV of linear NME with clumped internal enhancement (23.1%) was not significantly different from the PPV of non-clumped linear NME (19.1%) (p = 0.597). The PPV of linear NME lesions <1 cm (33.3%) was not significantly different from the PPV of lesions ≥1 cm (18.6%) (p = 0.157).Linear NME showed malignancy in 21% of our series. Linear NME with clumped or non-clumped internal enhancement patterns, regardless of lesion size, might need to undergo MRI-VABB in appropriate populations.Evaluation of linear NME lesions on breast MRI focuses especially on internal enhancement pattern.

    View details for DOI 10.1259/bjr.20201166

    View details for PubMedID 33332980

  • Utility of Diffusion-weighted Imaging to Decrease Unnecessary Biopsies Prompted by Breast MRI: A Trial of the ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group (A6702) CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Rahbar, H., Zhang, Z., Chenevert, T. L., Romanoff, J., Kitsch, A. E., Hanna, L. G., Harvey, S. M., Moy, L., DeMartini, W. B., Dogan, B., Yang, W. T., Wang, L. C., Joe, B. N., Oh, K. Y., Neal, C. H., McDonald, E. S., Schnall, M. D., Lehman, C. D., Comstock, C. E., Partridge, S. C. 2019; 25 (6): 1756–65
  • Utility of Diffusion Weighted Imaging to Decrease Unnecessary Biopsies Prompted by Breast MRI: A Trial of the ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group (A6702). Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research Rahbar, H., Zhang, Z., Chenevert, T. L., Romanoff, J., Kitsch, A., Hanna, L. G., Harvey, S. M., Moy, L., DeMartini, W. B., Dogan, B. E., Yang, W., Wang, L., Joe, B. N., Oh, K. Y., Neal, C. H., McDonald, E. S., Schnall, M., Lehman, C., Comstock, C., Partridge, S. C. 2019


    PURPOSE: Conventional breast MRI is highly sensitive for cancer detection but prompts some false-positives. We performed a prospective, multicenter study to determine whether apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) can decrease MRI false-positives.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 107 women with MRI-detected BI-RADS 3, 4, or 5 lesions were enrolled from March 2014 to April 2015. ADCs were measured both centrally and at participating sites. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to assess diagnostic performance of centrally-measured ADCs and identify optimal ADC thresholds to reduce unnecessary biopsies. Lesion reference standard was based on either definitive biopsy result or at least 337 days of follow-up after the initial MRI procedure.RESULTS: Of 107 women enrolled, 67 patients (median age 49, range 24-75 years) with 81 lesions with confirmed reference standard (28 malignant, 53 benign) and evaluable DWI were analyzed. 67/81 lesions were BI-RADS 4 (n=63) or 5 (n=4) and recommended for biopsy. Malignancies exhibited lower mean centrally-measured ADCs (mm2/s) than benign lesions (1.21*10-3 vs.1.47*10-3, p<0.0001, area under ROC curve=0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.84). In centralized analysis, application of an ADC threshold (1.53*10-3 mm2/s) lowered the biopsy rate by 20.9% (14/67; 95% CI 11.2-31.2%) without affecting sensitivity. Application of a more conservative threshold (1.68*10-3mm2/s) to site-derived ADCs reduced the biopsy rate by 26.2%(16/61) but missed three cancers.CONCLUSION: DWI can re-classify a substantial fraction of suspicious breast MRI findings as benign and thereby decrease unnecessary biopsies. ADC thresholds identified in this trial should be validated in future Phase III studies.

    View details for PubMedID 30647080

  • High-risk lesions diagnosed at MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: imaging characteristics, outcome of surgical excision or imaging follow-up. Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan) Okamoto, S. n., Chen, S. T., Covelli, J. D., DeMartini, W. B., Daniel, B. L., Ikeda, D. M. 2019


    To evaluate imaging characteristics, outcome of surgical excision or imaging follow-up on high-risk lesions diagnosed at MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (MRI-VABB).We retrospectively reviewed 598 lesions undergoing 9-gauge MRI-VABB from January 2015 to April 2018 to identify high risk breast lesions. We collected patient demographics, breast MRI BI-RADS descriptors, histopathological diagnosis at MRI-VABB and surgical excision, frequency of upgrade to malignancy and imaging follow-up of high-risk lesions. The x2 test and Fisher exact tests were performed for univariate analysis.114 patients with 124/598 findings (20.7%) had high-risk lesions at MRI-VABB, including atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) (21/124, 16.9%), lobular neoplasia (40/124, 32.3%), radial scar/complex sclerosing lesion (RS/CSL) (13/124, 10.5%), papillary lesions (49/124, 39.5%), and flat epithelial atypia (FEA) (1/124, 0.8%). 84/124 (67.7%) high-risk lesions were excised. 19/84 (22.6%) were upgraded to malignancy (7 invasive cancer, 12 DCIS). The upgrade rate for ADH and lobular neoplasia was 7/18 (38.9%) and 9/31 (29.0%), respectively. The upgrade rate for RS/CSL was 1/10 (10%). Of the 25 papillary lesions excised, 2 (8%) demonstrated pathologic atypia and were upgraded to DCIS. The other 23 papillary lesions had no upgrade or atypia. Excised high-risk lesions showing upgrade varied from 0.4 to 6 cm in length (mean 1.6 cm). There was a non-significant trend (p = 0.054) between larger lesion and upgrade to malignancy; however, there were no other specific imaging features to predict malignancy upgrade.There were no specific MRI imaging characteristics of high-risk lesions to predict malignancy upgrade. Therefore, surgical excision is recommended for high-risk lesions, especially ADH or lobular neoplasia.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12282-019-01032-8

    View details for PubMedID 31838725

  • Influence of Menstrual Cycle Timing on Screening Breast MRI Background Parenchymal Enhancement and Diagnostic Performance in Premenopausal Women. Journal of breast imaging Dontchos, B. N., Rahbar, H. n., Partridge, S. C., Lehman, C. D., DeMartini, W. B. 2019; 1 (3): 205–11


    To assess the influence of menstrual cycle timing on background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and performance on screening breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in premenopausal women at high risk for developing breast cancer.After Institutional Review Board approval, all screening breast MRIs performed from January 2007 through November 2010 in premenopausal women in whom day from last menstrual period was recorded were identified. Prospectively recorded BPE levels and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System MRI assessments were extracted from our database. Subject outcomes were determined by using biopsy, imaging follow-up, and linkage with the regional tumor registry (minimum 12-month follow-up). Associations of BPE levels (minimal/mild versus moderate/marked) with menstrual cycle phase (follicular [day 0-15] versus luteal [day 16-35]) and week (1, 2, 3, or 4) were compared. Differences in MRI performance metrics, including abnormal interpretation rate (AIR), positive biopsy rate (PBR), cancer yield, sensitivity, and specificity, were compared between menstrual cycle phase and menstrual cycle week.Three-hundred twenty examinations in 244 premenopausal women met inclusion criteria with nine cancers diagnosed. BPE levels were not associated with menstrual cycle phase or week (P > 0.05). MRI performance metrics (ie, AIR, PBR, cancer yield, sensitivity, or specificity) did not differ significantly based on menstrual cycle phase or menstrual cycle week (P > 0.05).Obtaining screening breast MRI exams during specific phases or weeks of the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women does not reliably produce MRI examinations with lower BPE levels or improved performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbi/wbz022

    View details for PubMedID 31538142

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6735589

  • ACR BI-RADS Assessment Category 4 Subdivisions in Diagnostic Mammography: Utilization and Outcomes in the National Mammography Database RADIOLOGY Elezaby, M., Li, G., Bhargavan-Chatfield, M., Burnside, E. S., DeMartini, W. B. 2018; 287 (2): 416–22


    Purpose To determine the utilization and positive predictive value (PPV) of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Data and Reporting System (BI-RADS) category 4 subdivisions in diagnostic mammography in the National Mammography Database (NMD). Materials and Methods This study involved retrospective review of diagnostic mammography data submitted to the NMD from January 1, 2008 to December 30, 2014. Utilization rates of BI-RADS category 4 subdivisions were compared by year, facility (type, location, census region), and examination (indication, finding type) characteristics. PPV3 (positive predictive value for biopsies performed) was calculated overall and according to category 4 subdivision. The χ2 test was used to test for significant associations. Results Of 1 309 950 diagnostic mammograms, 125 447 (9.6%) were category 4, of which 33.3% (41 841 of 125 447) were subdivided. Subdivision utilization rates were higher (P < .001) in practices that were community, suburban, or in the West; for examination indication of prior history of breast cancer; and for the imaging finding of architectural distortion. Of 41 841 category 4 subdivided examinations, 4A constituted 55.6% (23 258 of 41 841) of the examinations; 4B, 31.8% (13 302 of 41 841) of the examinations; and 4C, 12.6% (5281 of 41 841) of the examinations. Pathologic outcomes were available in 91 563 examinations, and overall category 4 PPV3 was 21.1% (19 285 of 91 563). There was a statistically significant difference in PPV3 according to category 4 subdivision (P < .001): The PPV of 4A was 7.6% (1274 of 16 784), that of 4B was 22% (2317 of 10 408), and that of 4C was 69.3% (2839 of 4099). Conclusion Although BI-RADS suggests their use, subdivisions were utilized in the minority (33.3% [41 841 of 125 447]) of category 4 diagnostic mammograms, with variability based on facility and examination characteristics. When subdivisions were used, PPV3s were in BI-RADS-specified malignancy ranges. This analysis supports the use of subdivisions in broad practice and, given benefits for patient care, should motivate increased utilization. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

    View details for PubMedID 29315061

  • Preoperative Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Use by Breast Density and Family History of Breast Cancer JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH Henderson, L. M., Hubbard, R. A., Zhu, W., Weiss, J., Wernli, K. J., Goodrich, M. E., Kerlikowske, K., DeMartini, W., Ozanne, E. M., Onega, T. 2018


    Use of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among women with a new breast cancer has increased over the past decade. MRI use is more frequent in younger women and those with lobular carcinoma, but associations with breast density and family history of breast cancer are unknown.Data for 3075 women ages >65 years with stage 0-III breast cancer who underwent breast conserving surgery or mastectomy from 2005 to 2010 in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium were linked to administrative claims data to assess associations of preoperative MRI use with mammographic breast density and first-degree family history of breast cancer. Multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association of MRI use with breast density and family history, adjusting for woman and tumor characteristics.Overall, preoperative MRI use was 16.4%. The proportion of women receiving breast MRI was similar by breast density (17.6% dense, 16.9% nondense) and family history (17.1% with family history, 16.5% without family history). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found no difference in preoperative MRI use by breast density (OR = 0.95 for dense vs. nondense, 95% CI: 0.73-1.22) or family history (OR = 0.99 for family history vs. none, 95% CI: 0.73-1.32).Among women aged >65 years with breast cancer, having dense breasts or a first-degree relative with breast cancer was not associated with greater preoperative MRI use. This utilization is in keeping with lack of evidence that MRI has higher yield of malignancy in these subgroups.

    View details for PubMedID 29334616

  • Relationship between preoperative breast MRI and surgical treatment of non-metastatic breast cancer JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Onega, T., Weiss, J. E., Goodrich, M. E., Zhu, W., DeMartini, W. B., Kerlikowske, K., Ozanne, E., Tosteson, A. A., Henderson, L. M., Buist, D. M., Wernli, K. J., Herschorn, S. D., Hotaling, E., O'Donoghue, C., Hubbard, R. 2017; 116 (8): 1008–15


    More extensive surgical treatments for early stage breast cancer are increasing. The patterns of preoperative MRI overall and by stage for this trend has not been well established.Using Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registry data from 2010 through 2014, we identified women with an incident non-metastatic breast cancer and determined use of preoperative MRI and initial surgical treatment (mastectomy, with or without contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM), reconstruction, and breast conserving surgery ± radiation). Clinical and sociodemographic covariates were included in multivariable logistic regression models to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.Of the 13 097 women, 2217 (16.9%) had a preoperative MRI. Among the women with MRI, results indicated 32% higher odds of unilateral mastectomy compared to breast conserving surgery and of mastectomy with CPM compared to unilateral mastectomy. Women with preoperative MRI also had 56% higher odds of reconstruction.Preoperative MRI in women with DCIS and early stage invasive breast cancer is associated with more frequent mastectomy, CPM, and reconstruction surgical treatment. Use of more extensive surgical treatment and reconstruction among women with DCIS and early stage invasive cancer whom undergo MRI warrants further investigation.

    View details for PubMedID 29127715

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5760434

  • Screening Breast MRI Outcomes in Routine Clinical Practice: Comparison to BI-RADS Benchmarks ACADEMIC RADIOLOGY Strigel, R. M., Rollenhagen, J., Burnside, E. S., Elezaby, M., Fowler, A. M., Kelcz, F., Salkowski, L., DeMartini, W. B. 2017; 24 (2): 411-417


    The BI-RADS Atlas 5th Edition includes screening breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome benchmarks. However, the metrics are from expert practices and clinical trials of women with hereditary breast cancer predispositions, and it is unknown if they are appropriate for routine practice. We evaluated screening breast MRI audit outcomes in routine practice across a spectrum of elevated risk patients.This Institutional Review Board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study included all consecutive screening breast MRI examinations from July 1, 2010 to June 30, 2013. Examination indications were categorized as gene mutation carrier (GMC), personal history (PH) breast cancer, family history (FH) breast cancer, chest radiation, and atypia/lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Outcomes were determined by pathology and/or ≥12 months clinical and/or imaging follow-up. We calculated abnormal interpretation rate (AIR), cancer detection rate (CDR), positive predictive value of recommendation for tissue diagnosis (PPV2) and biopsy performed (PPV3), and median size and percentage of node-negative invasive cancers.Eight hundred and sixty examinations were performed in 566 patients with a mean age of 47 years. Indications were 367 of 860 (42.7%) FH, 365 of 860 (42.4%) PH, 106 of 860 (12.3%) GMC, 14 of 860 (1.6%) chest radiation, and 8 of 22 (0.9%) atypia/LCIS. The AIR was 134 of 860 (15.6%). Nineteen cancers were identified (13 invasive, 4 DCIS, two lymph nodes), resulting in CDR of 19 of 860 (22.1 per 1000), PPV2 of 19 of 88 (21.6%), and PPV3 of 19 of 80 (23.8%). Of 13 invasive breast cancers, median size was 10 mm, and 8 of 13 were node negative (61.5%).Performance outcomes of screening breast MRI in routine clinical practice across a spectrum of elevated risk patients met the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System benchmarks, supporting broad application of these metrics. The indication of a personal history of treated breast cancer accounted for a large proportion (42%) of our screening examinations, with breast MRI performance in this population at least comparable to that of other screening indications.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acra.2016.10.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396967000005

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5339052

  • Women's experiences and preferences regarding breast imaging after completing breast cancer treatment PATIENT PREFERENCE AND ADHERENCE Brandzel, S., Rosenberg, D. E., Johnson, D., Bush, M., Kerlikowske, K., Onega, T., Henderson, L., Nekhlyudov, L., DeMartini, W., Wernli, K. J. 2017; 11: 199-204


    After treatment for breast cancer, most women receive an annual surveillance mammography to look for subsequent breast cancers. Supplemental breast MRI is sometimes used in addition to mammography despite the lack of clinical evidence for it. Breast imaging after cancer treatment is an emotionally charged experience, an important part of survivorship care, and a topic about which limited patient information exists. We assessed women's experiences and preferences about breast cancer surveillance imaging with the goal of determining where gaps in care and knowledge could be filled.We conducted six focus groups with a convenience sample of 41 women in California, North Carolina, and New Hampshire (USA). Participants were aged 38-75 years, had experienced stage 0-III breast cancer within the previous 5 years, and had completed initial treatment. We used inductive thematic analysis to identify key themes from verbatim transcripts.Women reported various types and frequencies of surveillance imaging and a range of surveillance imaging experiences and preferences. Many women experienced discomfort during breast imaging and anxiety related to the examination, primarily because they feared subsequent cancer detection. Women reported trust in their providers and relied on providers for imaging decision-making. However, women wanted more information about the treatment surveillance transition to improve their care.There is significant opportunity in breast cancer survivorship care to improve women's understanding about breast cancer surveillance imaging and to provide enhanced support to them at the time their initial treatment ends and at the time of surveillance imaging examinations.

    View details for DOI 10.2147/PPA.S122244

    View details for Web of Science ID 000393480000001

    View details for PubMedID 28203064

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5295805