Clinical Focus


  • Internal Medicine

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Residency: University of California San Diego School of Medicine (2013) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2013)
  • Medical Education: University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine (2010) CA

Clinical Trials


  • Dupilumab and Milk OIT for the Treatment of Cow's Milk Allergy Recruiting

    This is a phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, 2 arm study in approximately 40 subjects aged 4 to 50 years, inclusive, who are allergic to cow's milk. The primary objective is to assess whether dupilumab as an adjunct to milk oral immunotherapy (OIT) compared to placebo improves the safety of milk OIT and rates of desensitization, defined as an increase in the proportion of subjects who pass a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) to at least 2040 mg cumulative milk protein at week 18.

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  • Virtual Reality Technology Versus Standard Technology During Pediatric Oral Food Challenge Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to determine if non-invasive distracting devices (Virtual Reality headset) are more effective than the standard of care of utilizing existing technologies that are currently more common in food allergy research treatment and clinics (i.e. television and patients' personal electronic devices) for decreasing levels anxiety and fear in pediatric patients undergoing oral food challenge (OFC) and their caregivers.

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All Publications


  • Anti-nucleocapsid antibody levels and pulmonary comorbid conditions are linked to post-COVID-19 syndrome. JCI insight Jia, X., Cao, S., Lee, A. S., Manohar, M., Sindher, S. B., Ahuja, N., Artandi, M., Blish, C. A., Blomkalns, A. L., Chang, I., Collins, W. J., Desai, M., Din, H. N., Do, E., Fernandes, A., Geng, L. N., Rosenberg-Hasson, Y., Mahoney, M. R., Glascock, A. L., Chan, L. Y., Fong, S. Y., Phelps, M., Raeber, O., Purington, N., Röltgen, K., Rogers, A. J., Snow, T., Wang, T. T., Solis, D., Vaughan, L., Verghese, M., Maecker, H., Wittman, R., Puri, R., Kistler, A., Yang, S., Boyd, S. D., Pinsky, B. A., Chinthrajah, S., Nadeau, K. C. 2022; 7 (13)

    Abstract

    BACKGROUNDProlonged symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection are well documented. However, which factors influence development of long-term symptoms, how symptoms vary across ethnic groups, and whether long-term symptoms correlate with biomarkers are points that remain elusive.METHODSAdult SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription PCR-positive (RT-PCR-positive) patients were recruited at Stanford from March 2020 to February 2021. Study participants were seen for in-person visits at diagnosis and every 1-3 months for up to 1 year after diagnosis; they completed symptom surveys and underwent blood draws and nasal swab collections at each visit.RESULTSOur cohort (n = 617) ranged from asymptomatic to critical COVID-19 infections. In total, 40% of participants reported at least 1 symptom associated with COVID-19 six months after diagnosis. Median time from diagnosis to first resolution of all symptoms was 44 days; median time from diagnosis to sustained symptom resolution with no recurring symptoms for 1 month or longer was 214 days. Anti-nucleocapsid IgG level in the first week after positive RT-PCR test and history of lung disease were associated with time to sustained symptom resolution. COVID-19 disease severity, ethnicity, age, sex, and remdesivir use did not affect time to sustained symptom resolution.CONCLUSIONWe found that all disease severities had a similar risk of developing post-COVID-19 syndrome in an ethnically diverse population. Comorbid lung disease and lower levels of initial IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were associated with longer symptom duration.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04373148.FUNDINGNIH UL1TR003142 CTSA grant, NIH U54CA260517 grant, NIEHS R21 ES03304901, Sean N Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research at Stanford University, Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, Sunshine Foundation, Crown Foundation, and Parker Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/jci.insight.156713

    View details for PubMedID 35801588

  • Detailed characterization of hospitalized patients infected with the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. Journal of internal medicine Ozdalga, E., Ahuja, N., Sehgal, N., Hom, J., Weng, Y., Pinsky, B., Schulman, K. A., Collins, W. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1111/joim.13501

    View details for PubMedID 35417053

  • Constrictive Pericarditis Revealing Rare Case of ALH Amyloidosis With Underlying Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia). JACC. Case reports Ho, V. V., O'Sullivan, J. W., Collins, W. J., Ozdalga, E., Bell, C. F., Shah, N. D., Krishnam, M. S., Ozawa, M. G., Witteles, R. M. 2022; 4 (5): 271-275

    Abstract

    We present a case of pericardial amyloidosis with associated lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma in a patient with chronic worsening shortness of breath and cough. This case highlights the wide variation in the presentation of cardiac amyloidosis, and the rare occurrence of clinically significant light-chain and heavy-chain amyloidosis in the pericardium.(Level of Difficulty: Advanced.).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaccas.2022.01.007

    View details for PubMedID 35257101

  • SARS-CoV-2 and Perceived Physical, Mental and Social Health in Northern California Fast, K., Lee, A., Hampton, Q., Chinthrajah, S., Sindher, S., Jia, X., Collins, W., Nadeau, K., Cao, S. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2022: AB46
  • Feasibility of Virtual Reality Technology to Improve Experience During Pediatric Oral Food Challenge Collins, W., Adlou, B., Rodriguez, A., Albarran, M., O'Neal, E., Weiss, T., Hsu, K., Sindher, S., Bailenson, J., Caruso, T., Chinthrajah, S. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2022: AB108
  • Self-reported food allergy-associated anxiety during oral immunotherapy declines with time Jiang, S., Cao, S., Collins, W., Fast, K., Hampton, Q., Landes, G., Martinez, K., Tang, H., Sindher, S., Chinthrajah, S. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2022: AB140
  • Climate Change and Global Health: A Call to more Research and more Action. Allergy Agache, I., Sampath, V., Aguilera, J., Akdis, C., Akdis, M., Barry, M., Bouagnon, A., Chinthrajah, S., Collins, W., Dulitzki, C., Erny, B., Gomez, J., Goshua, A., Jutel, M., Kizer, K. W., Kline, O., LaBeaud, A. D., Pali-Scholl, I., Perrett, K. P., Peters, R. L., Plaza, M. P., Prunicki, M., Sack, T., Salas, R. N., Sindher, S. B., Sokolow, S. H., Thiel, C., Veidis, E., Wray, B. D., Traidl-Hoffmann, C., Witt, C., Nadeau, K. C. 1800

    Abstract

    There is increasing understanding, globally, that climate change and increased pollution will have a profound and mostly harmful effect on human health. This review brings together international experts to describe both the direct (such as heat waves) and indirect (such as vector-borne disease incidence) health impacts of climate change. These impacts vary depending on vulnerability (i.e., existing diseases) and the international, economic, political and environmental context. This unique review also expands on these issues to address a third category of potential longer-term impacts on global health: famine, population dislocation, and environmental justice and education. This scholarly resource explores these issues fully, linking them to global health in urban and rural settings in developed and developing countries. The review finishes with a practical discussion of action that health professionals around the world in our field can yet take.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/all.15229

    View details for PubMedID 35073410

  • Building a Learning Health System: Creating an Analytical Workflow for Evidence Generation to Inform Institutional Clinical Care Guidelines. Applied clinical informatics Dash, D., Gokhale, A., Patel, B. S., Callahan, A., Posada, J., Krishnan, G., Collins, W., Li, R., Schulman, K., Ren, L., Shah, N. H. 2022; 13 (1): 315-321

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: One key aspect of a learning health system (LHS) is utilizing data generated during care delivery to inform clinical care. However, institutional guidelines that utilize observational data are rare and require months to create, making current processes impractical for more urgent scenarios such as those posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. There exists a need to rapidly analyze institutional data to drive guideline creation where evidence from randomized control trials are unavailable.OBJECTIVES: This article provides a background on the current state of observational data generation in institutional guideline creation and details our institution's experience in creating a novel workflow to (1) demonstrate the value of such a workflow, (2) demonstrate a real-world example, and (3) discuss difficulties encountered and future directions.METHODS: Utilizing a multidisciplinary team of database specialists, clinicians, and informaticists, we created a workflow for identifying and translating a clinical need into a queryable format in our clinical data warehouse, creating data summaries and feeding this information back into clinical guideline creation.RESULTS: Clinical questions posed by the hospital medicine division were answered in a rapid time frame and informed creation of institutional guidelines for the care of patients with COVID-19. The cost of setting up a workflow, answering the questions, and producing data summaries required around 300hours of effort and $300,000 USD.CONCLUSION: A key component of an LHS is the ability to learn from data generated during care delivery. There are rare examples in the literature and we demonstrate one such example along with proposed thoughts of ideal multidisciplinary team formation and deployment.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0042-1743241

    View details for PubMedID 35235994

  • Asthma phenotypes, associated comorbidities, and long-term symptoms in COVID-19. Allergy Eggert, L. E., He, Z., Collins, W., Lee, A. S., Dhondalay, G., Jiang, S. Y., Fitzpatrick, J., Snow, T. T., Pinsky, B. A., Artandi, M., Barman, L., Puri, R., Wittman, R., Ahuja, N., Blomkalns, A., O'Hara, R., Cao, S., Desai, M., Sindher, S. B., Nadeau, K., Chinthrajah, R. S. 2021

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear if asthma and its allergic phenotype are risk factors for hospitalization or severe disease from SARS-CoV-2.METHODS: All patients over 28 days oldtesting positive for SARS-CoV-2 between March 1 and September 30, 2020, were retrospectively identified and characterized through electronic analysis at Stanford. A sub-cohort was followed prospectively to evaluate long-term COVID-19 symptoms.RESULTS: 168,190 patients underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing, and 6,976 (4.15%) tested positive. In a multivariate analysis, asthma was not an independent risk factor for hospitalization (OR 1.12 [95% CI 0.86, 1.45], p=0.40). Among SARS-CoV-2 positive asthmatics, allergic asthma lowered the risk of hospitalization and had a protective effect compared to non-allergic asthma (OR 0.52 (0.28, 0.91), p=0.026); there was no association between baseline medication use as characterized by GINA and hospitalization risk. Patients with severe COVID-19 disease had lower eosinophil levels during hospitalization compared to patients with mild or asymptomatic disease, independent of asthma status (p=0.0014). In a patient sub-cohort followed longitudinally, asthmatics and non-asthmatics had similar time to resolution of COVID-19 symptoms, particularly lower respiratory symptoms.CONCLUSIONS: Asthma is not a risk factor for more severe COVID-19 disease. Allergic asthmatics were half as likely to be hospitalized with COVID-19 compared to non-allergic asthmatics. Lower levels of eosinophil counts (allergic biomarkers) were associated with a more severe COVID-19 disease trajectory. Recovery was similar among asthmatics and non-asthmatics with over 50% of patients reporting ongoing lower respiratory symptoms three months post-infection.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/all.14972

    View details for PubMedID 34080210

  • Vaccines and Allergic reactions: the past, the current COVID-19 pandemic, and future perspectives. Allergy Sampath, V., Rabinowitz, G., Shah, M., Jain, S., Diamant, Z., Jesenak, M., Rabin, R., Vieths, S., Agache, I., Akdis, M., Barber, D., Breiteneder, H., Chinthrajah, S., Chivato, T., Collins, W., Eiwegger, T., Fast, K., Fokkens, W., O'Hehir, R. E., Ollert, M., O'Mahony, L., Palomares, O., Pfaar, O., Riggioni, C., Shamji, M. H., Sokolowska, M., Torres, M. J., Traidl-Hoffmann, C., van Zelm, M., Wang, D. Y., Zhang, L., Akdis, C., Nadeau, K. C. 2021

    Abstract

    Vaccines are essential public health tools with a favorable safety profile and prophylactic effectiveness that have historically played significant roles in reducing infectious disease burden in populations, when the majority of individuals are vaccinated. The COVID-19 vaccines are expected to have similar positive impacts on health across the globe. While serious allergic reactions to vaccines are rare, their underlying mechanisms and implications for clinical management should be considered to provide individuals with the safest care possible. In this review, we provide an overview of different types of allergic adverse reactions that can potentially occur aftervaccination and individual vaccine components capable of causing the allergic adverse reactions. We present the incidence of allergic adverse reactions during clinical studies and through post-authorization and post-marketing surveillance and provide plausible causes of these reactions based on potential allergenic components present in several common vaccines. Additionally, we review implications for individual diagnosis and management and vaccine manufacturing overall. Finally, we suggest areas for future research.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/all.14840

    View details for PubMedID 33811364

  • Asthma as a predictor of more severe outcomes in COVID-19 infection Eggert, L., Cao, S., He, Z., Dhondalay, G., Jiang, S., Collins, W., Sindher, S., Nadeau, K., Sharon Chinthrajah, R. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: AB44
  • Virtual Reality Reduces Pediatric Anxiety During Food Allergy Clinical Trials: A Pilot Randomized, Pragmatic Study. Frontiers in allergy Alonzi, S., Caruso, T. J., Sindher, S. B., Cao, S., Varadharajulu, S., Collins, W. J., Chinthrajah, R. S. 2021; 2: 779804

    Abstract

    Phlebotomy procedures required in food allergy (FA) diagnosis and clinical trials often induce fear and anxiety for pediatric patients. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether virtual reality (VR) applications were effective in reducing anxiety for pediatric FA patients undergoing phlebotomy during FA clinical trials. Secondary aims assessed fear, pain, procedural compliance, and adverse events. Participants undergoing phlebotomy were enrolled and randomized to a VR group or standard of care (SOC) group for this prospective pilot randomized, pragmatic study. Participants in the VR group played interactive applications on a customized Samsung Gear VR headset and those in the SOC group received the standard of care. Participants' anxiety, fear, and pain were assessed with the Children's Anxiety Meter, Children's Fear Scale, and FACES pain scale pre, during, and post phlebotomy procedure. Compliance was assessed using the modified Induction Compliance Checklist during the procedure and compared between two groups. Forty-nine participants were randomized to VR (n = 26) and SOC (n = 23) groups. Although both the VR and SOC groups experienced a decrease in anxiety and fear from pre- to post-procedure, those in the VR group experienced less anxiety and fear during the procedure than SOC participants. Similarly, both groups experienced an increase in pain from pre- to post-procedure; however, the VR group reported less pain during the procedure than SOC. Fewer symptoms of procedural non-compliance were reported in the VR group. Interactive VR applications may be an effective tool for reducing fear, anxiety, and pain during phlebotomy for FA clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/falgy.2021.779804

    View details for PubMedID 35387040

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8974765

  • Asthma phenotypes, associated comorbidities, and long-term symptoms in COVID-19 European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Eggert, L. E., He, Z., Collins, W., Lee, A. S., Nadeau, K., Chinthrajah, R. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1111/all.14972

  • COVID-19 coagulopathy and thrombosis: Analysis of hospital protocols in response to the rapidly evolving pandemic THROMBOSIS RESEARCH Parks, A. L., Auerbach, A. D., Schnipper, J. L., Anstey, J. E., Sterken, D. G., Hecht, T. H., Fang, M. C., Vaughn, V. M., Dunn, A. S., Linker, A. S., Hunt, D. P., Choi, J. J., Brotman, D. J., Streiff, M. B., Mattison, M. P., Pappas, M. A., Greysen, S., Hemsey, D. F., Dapaah-Afriyie, K., Ahuja, N., Collins, W. J., Herzig, S. J., Bhandari, S., Schumacher, E. R., Duggirala, V. S., O'Leary, K. J., Menard, G. E., Lin, M. Y., Hosp Med Reengn Network HOMERuN 2020; 196: 355–58

    Abstract

    As the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic spread to the US, so too did descriptions of an associated coagulopathy and thrombotic complications. Hospitals created institutional protocols for inpatient management of COVID-19 coagulopathy and thrombosis in response to this developing data. We collected and analyzed protocols from 21 US academic medical centers developed between January and May 2020. We found greatest consensus on recommendations for heparin-based pharmacologic venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients without contraindications. Protocols differed regarding incorporation of D-dimer tests, dosing of VTE prophylaxis, indications for post-discharge pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis, how to evaluate for VTE, and the use of empiric therapeutic anticoagulation. These findings support ongoing efforts to establish international, evidence-based guidelines.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.thromres.2020.09.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000592174300032

    View details for PubMedID 32977136

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7492800

  • Perceived Burden of Treatment and Quality of Life in Long-Term Follow Up after Oral Immunotherapy in Food Allergic Patients Collins, W., Raeber, O., Tupa, D., Cao, S., Nadeau, K., Sindher, S., Chinthrajah, S. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2020: AB147
  • NOTCH1 regulates matrix gla protein and calcification gene networks in human valve endothelium JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR CARDIOLOGY White, M. P., Theodoris, C. V., Liu, L., Collins, W. J., Blue, K. W., Lee, J., Meng, X., Robbins, R. C., Ivey, K. N., Srivastava, D. 2015; 84: 13–23

    Abstract

    Valvular and vascular calcification are common causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Developing effective treatments requires understanding the molecular underpinnings of these processes. Shear stress is thought to play a role in inhibiting calcification. Furthermore, NOTCH1 regulates vascular and valvular endothelium, and human mutations in NOTCH1 can cause calcific aortic valve disease. Here, we determined the genome-wide impact of altering shear stress and NOTCH signaling on human aortic valve endothelium. mRNA-sequencing of primary human aortic valve endothelial cells (HAVECs) with or without knockdown of NOTCH1, in the presence or absence of shear stress, revealed NOTCH1-dependency of the atherosclerosis-related gene connexin 40 (GJA5), and numerous repressors of endochondral ossification. Among these, matrix gla protein (MGP) is highly expressed in aortic valve and vasculature, and inhibits soft tissue calcification by sequestering bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Altering NOTCH1 levels affected MGP mRNA and protein in HAVECs. Furthermore, shear stress activated NOTCH signaling and MGP in a NOTCH1-dependent manner. NOTCH1 positively regulated endothelial MGP in vivo through specific binding motifs upstream of MGP. Our studies suggest that shear stress activates NOTCH1 in primary human aortic valve endothelial cells leading to downregulation of osteoblast-like gene networks that play a role in tissue calcification.

    View details for PubMedID 25871831

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4468000