Clinical Focus


  • Emergency Medicine
  • Clinical Clerkship
  • Undergraduate Medical Education

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Fellowship: Stanford University Emergency Medical Services Fellowship (2020) CA
  • MsED, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Education, Medical Education (2020)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine (2019)
  • Residency: Stanford University Emergency Medicine Residency (2018) CA
  • Medical Education: University of North Carolina School of Medicine (2015) NC

All Publications


  • A nationwide survey of emergency medicine resident workflow efficiency: Are training programs teaching residents to be efficient? AEM education and training Carmelli, G., Watson, E. E., Villarroel, N. A., Dixon, W. W., Clarke, S. O. 2021; 5 (2): e10598

    Abstract

    Background: Workflow efficiency (WFE) is essential to the practice of emergency medicine (EM), but a standardized approach to measuring and teaching it during residency is lacking. In this study we sought to describe how EM residency programs in the United States currently measure and teach WFE and to assess the relative importance of WFE teaching to EM residency program leaders.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all accredited EM residency training programs in the United States in Fall 2019. We invited all allopathic EM residency programs to participate in the study by directly emailing program directors and assistant/associate program directors. We conducted the study and performed descriptive statistics using SurveyMonkey software.Results: We received a total of 133 responses out of 190 total programs (70%) with proportionate representation from 3- and 4-year programs and all regions of the United States. When asked to what extent teaching efficiency should be a priority compared to other educational goals, 65% of program leaders responded with "significant" or "moderate" priority. Most EM programs collect WFE data on their residents, either by tracking patients per hour (78%) or by written evaluations (59%). Common methods for providing WFE data to residents were: "individual data provided along with deidentified rank" (35%), "data provided only during private feedback meetings" (26%), and "no data or rank provided to residents" (16%). Regarding targeted WFE teaching to residents, 88% reported utilizing general on-shift teaching, 48% reported teaching WFE during formal didactics, and 45% during dedicated private feedback sessions.Conclusion: This national study of allopathic U.S. EM programs suggests that most EM program leaders do value WFE teaching. However, we found no consistent approach among programs for tracking or distributing resident WFE data, and many programs lack a formalized way to teach efficiency to their residents.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/aet2.10598

    View details for PubMedID 33969252

  • Development of a 3D printed simulator for closed reduction of distal radius fractures. Perspectives on medical education Dixon, W. n., Miller, N. n., Toal, G. G., Sebok-Syer, S. S., Gisondi, M. A. 2020

    Abstract

    The use of simulators in medical education is critical for developing procedural competence prior to treating patients. Current training of emergency physicians to perform distal radius fracture reduction is inconsistent and inadequate.We developed a 3D printed distal radius fracture simulation training model that is easy to assemble and relatively inexpensive. We present step-by-step instructions to reproduce the model.The model was found to have high fidelity for training by both instructors and participants in a simulation-based mastery learning course.We successfully designed a low cost, easy to reproduce, high fidelity model for use in a simulation-based mastery learning course to teach distal radius fracture reduction.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s40037-020-00609-w

    View details for PubMedID 32989709

  • Simulation-Based Mastery Learning to Teach Distal Radius Fracture Reduction. Simulation in healthcare : journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare Toal, G. G., Gisondi, M. A., Miller, N. M., Sebok-Syer, S. S., Avedian, R. S., Dixon, W. W. 2020; Publish Ahead of Print

    Abstract

    Distal radius fractures are common orthopedic injuries managed in emergency departments. Simulation-based mastery learning is widely recognized to improve provider competence for bedside procedures but has not been studied to teach fracture management. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a simulation-based mastery learning curriculum to teach distal radius fracture reduction to novice orthopedic surgery and emergency medicine residents.We created a novel mastery learning checklist using the Mastery Angoff method of standard setting, paired with a new simulation model designed for this project, to teach orthopedic surgery and emergency medicine interns (N = 22) at the study site. Orthopedic surgery and emergency medicine faculty members participated in checklist development, curriculum design, and implementation. Training included just-in-time asynchronous education with a readiness assessment test, in-classroom expert demonstration, and deliberate practice with feedback. Residents completed a pretest/posttest skills examination and a presurvey/postsurvey assessing procedural confidence.Standard setting resulted in a 41-item checklist with minimum passing score of 37/41 items. All participants met or surpassed the minimum passing score on postexamination. Postsurvey confidence levels were significantly higher than presurvey in all aspects of the distal radius fracture procedure (P < 0.05).This study demonstrated that a simulation-based mastery learning curriculum improved skills and confidence performing distal radius fracture reductions for orthopedic surgery and emergency medicine interns. Future planned studies include curriculum testing across additional institutions, examination of clinical impact, and application of mastery learning for other orthopedic procedures.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000534

    View details for PubMedID 33337726

  • The putative Poc complex controls two distinct Pseudomonas aeruginosa polar motility mechanisms MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY Cowles, K. N., Moser, T. S., Siryaporn, A., Nyakudarika, N., Dixon, W., Turner, J. J., Gitai, Z. 2013; 90 (5): 923-938

    Abstract

    Each Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell localizes two types of motility structures, a single flagellum and one or two clusters of type IV pili, to the cell poles. Previous studies suggested that these motility structures arrive at the pole through distinct mechanisms. Here we performed a swimming motility screen to identify polar flagellum localization factors and discovered three genes homologous to the TonB/ExbB/ExbD complex that have defects in both flagella-mediated swimming and pilus-mediated twitching motility. We found that deletion of tonB3, PA2983 or PA2982 led to non-polar localization of the flagellum and FlhF, which was thought to sit at the top of the flagellar localization hierarchy. Surprisingly, these mutants also exhibited pronounced changes in pilus formation or localization, indicating that these proteins may co-ordinate both the pilus and flagellum motility systems. Thus, we have renamed PA2983 and PA2982, pocA and pocB, respectively, for polar organelle co-ordinator to reflect this function. Our results suggest that TonB3, PocA and PocB may form a membrane-associated complex, which we term the Poc complex. These proteins do not exhibit polar localization themselves, but are required for increased expression of pilus genes upon surface association, indicating that they regulate motility structures through either localization or transcriptional mechanisms.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/mmi.12403

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327374300002

    View details for PubMedID 24102920

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4666538

  • Multiplexed protein detection by proximity ligation for cancer biomarker validation NATURE METHODS Fredriksson, S., Dixon, W., Ji, H., Koong, A. C., Mindrinos, M., Davis, R. W. 2007; 4 (4): 327-329

    Abstract

    We present a proximity ligation-based multiplexed protein detection procedure in which several selected proteins can be detected via unique nucleic-acid identifiers and subsequently quantified by real-time PCR. The assay requires a 1-microl sample, has low-femtomolar sensitivity as well as five-log linear range and allows for modular multiplexing without cross-reactivity. The procedure can use a single polyclonal antibody batch for each target protein, simplifying affinity-reagent creation for new biomarker candidates.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMETH1020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245584900013

    View details for PubMedID 17369836