Bio


Bill Mitch received a B.A. in Anthropology (Archaeology) from Harvard University in 1993. During his studies, he excavated at Mayan sites in Belize and surveyed sites dating from 2,000 B.C. in Louisiana. He switched fields by receiving a M.S. degree in Civil and Environmental Engineering at UC Berkeley. He worked for 3 years in environmental consulting, receiving his P.E. license in Civil Engineering in California. Returning to UC Berkeley in 2000, he received his PhD in Civil and Environmental Engineering in 2003. He moved to Yale as an assistant professor after graduation. His dissertation received the AEESP Outstanding Doctoral Dissertation Award in 2004. At Yale, he serves as the faculty advisor for the Yale Student Chapter of Engineers without Borders. In 2007, he won a NSF CAREER Award. He moved to Stanford University as an associate professor in 2013.

Employing a fundamental understanding of organic chemical reaction pathways, his research explores links between public health, engineering and sustainability. Topics of current interest include:

Public Health and Emerging Carcinogens: Recent changes to the disinfection processes fundamental to drinking and recreational water safety are creating a host of highly toxic byproducts linked to bladder cancer. We seek to understand how these compounds form so we can adjust the disinfection process to prevent their formation.

Global Warming and Oceanography: Oceanic dissolved organic matter is an important global carbon component, and has important impacts on the net flux of CO2 between the ocean and atmosphere. We seek to understand some of the important abiotic chemical reaction pathways responsible for carbon turnover.

Sustainability and Persistant Organic Pollutants (POPs): While PCBs have been banned in the US, we continue to produce a host of structurally similar chemicals. We seem to understand important chemical pathways responsible for POP destruction in the environment, so we can design less persistent and problematic chemicals in the future.

Engineering for Sustainable Wastewater Recycling: The shortage of clean water represents a critical challenge for the next century, and has necessitated the recycling of wastewater. We seek to understand ways of engineer this process in ways to minimize harmful byproduct formation.

Carbon Sequestration: We are evaluating the formation of nitrosamine and nitraminecarcinogens from amine-based carbon capture, as well as techniques to destroy any of these byproducts that form.

Academic Appointments


  • Associate Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering

Honors & Awards


  • Graduated Summa Cum Laude and elected into the Phi Beta Kappa Academic Honor Society, Harvard University (1993)
  • Outstanding Doctoral Dissertation Award, Association of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors and Parsons Engineering (2004)
  • Arthur Greer Memorial Prize for teaching and research excellence by a junior faculty member, Yale University (2005)
  • Certificate of Merit, 230th ACS National Meeting (2005)
  • Invited speaker, Disinfection Byproducts Gordon Conference, Mt. Holyoke College (2006)
  • Advisor of recipient, ACS Environmental Chemistry Graduate Student Award (2007)
  • CAREER Award, NSF (2007)
  • Invited speaker, Disinfection Byproducts Gordon Conference, Mt. Holyoke College (2009)
  • Member, US EPA Scientific Advisory Board Drinking Water Committee (2010)
  • Invited speaker, Environmental Sciences Water Gordon Conference (2010)
  • Top 10 most-accessed articles, 2nd Quarter, Environmental Science and Technology (2010)
  • Environmental Science and Technology Editors Choice Award Best Paper 3rd runner up, Environmental Science and Technology (2010)
  • Invited speaker for the 3rd Disinfection Byproducts Gordon Conference, Mt. Holyoke College, Disinfection Byproducts Gordon Conference (2012)
  • Elected Vice-Chair of the 4th Disinfection Byproducts Gordon Conference in 2015, Disinfection Byproducts Gordon Conference (2012)
  • Excellence in Review Award, Environmental Science and Technology (2013)

Professional Education


  • B.A., Harvard University (Summa Cum Laude), Anthropology (Archaeology) (1993)
  • M.S., University of California, Berkeley, Civil and Environmental Engineering (1996)
  • Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, Civil and Environmental Engineering (2003)

All Publications


  • Synthesis and Application of a Quaternary Phosphonium Polymer Coagulant To Avoid N-Nitrosamine Formation ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Zeng, T., Pignatello, J. J., Li, R. J., Mitch, W. A. 2014; 48 (22): 13392-13401

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es504091s

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345262900045

  • Impact of UV/H2O2 Pre-Oxidation on the Formation of Haloacetamides and Other Nitrogenous Disinfection Byproducts during Chlorination ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Chu, W., Gao, N., Yin, D., Krasner, S. W., Mitch, W. A. 2014; 48 (20): 12190-12198

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es502115x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343640900054

  • Enhanced Formation of Disinfection Byproducts in Shale Gas Wastewater-Impacted Drinking Water Supplies ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Parker, K. M., Zeng, T., Harkness, J., Vengosh, A., Mitch, W. A. 2014; 48 (19): 11161-11169

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es5028184

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343016600020

  • Comparative in Vitro Toxicity of Nitrosamines and Nitramines Associated with Amine-based Carbon Capture and Storage ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Wagner, E. D., Osiol, J., Mitch, W. A., Plewa, M. J. 2014; 48 (14): 8203-8211

    Abstract

    Amine-based CO2 capture is a prime contender for the first full-scale implementation of CO2 capture at fossil fuel-fired power plants postcombustion. However, the formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines from reactions of flue gas NOx with the amines presents a potential risk for contaminating airsheds and drinking water supplies. Setting regulatory emission limits is hampered by the dearth of toxicity information for the N-nitramines. This study employed quantitative in vitro bioassays for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium, and chronic cytotoxicity and acute genotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to compare the toxicity of analogous N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines relevant to CO2 capture. Although the rank order was similar for genotoxicity in CHO cells and mutagenicity in S. typhimurium, the Salmonella assay was far more sensitive. In general, mutagenicity was higher with S9 hepatic microsomal activation. The rank order of mutagenicity was N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)>N-nitrosomorpholine>N-nitrodimethylamine>1,4-dinitrosopiperazine>N-nitromorpholine>1,4-dinitropiperazine>N-nitromonoethanolamine>N-nitrosodiethanolamine>N-nitrodiethanolamine. 1-Nitrosopiperazine and 1-nitropiperazine were not mutagenic. Overall, N-nitrosamines were ∼15-fold more mutagenic than their N-nitramine analogues.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es5018009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000339227500065

    View details for PubMedID 24940705

  • Effects of Flue Gas Compositions on Nitrosamine and Nitramine Formation in Postcombustion CO2 Capture Systems ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Dai, N., Mitch, W. A. 2014; 48 (13): 7519-7526

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es501864a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338488700041

  • Sunlight-Driven Photochemical Halogenation of Dissolved Organic Matter in Seawater: A Natural Abiotic Source of Organobromine and Organoiodine ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Diego Mendez-Diaz, J., Shimabuku, K. K., Ma, J., Enumah, Z. O., Pignatello, J. J., Mitch, W. A., Dodd, M. C. 2014; 48 (13): 7418-7427

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es5016668

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338488700029

  • Effect of Chemical Oxidation on the Sorption Tendency of Dissolved Organic Matter to a Model Hydrophobic Surface ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Zeng, T., Wilson, C. J., Mitch, W. A. 2014; 48 (9): 5118-5126

    Abstract

    The application of chemical oxidants may alter the sorption properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM), such as humic and fulvic acids, proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids, affecting their fate in water treatment processes, including attachment to other organic components, activated carbon, and membranes (e.g., organic fouling). Similar reactions with chlorine (HOCl) and bromine (HOBr) produced at inflammatory sites in vivo affect the fate of biomolecules (e.g., protein aggregation). In this study, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was used to evaluate changes in the noncovalent interactions of proteins, polysaccharides, fatty acids, and humic and fulvic acids with a model hydrophobic surface as a function of increasing doses of HOCl, HOBr, and ozone (O3). All three oxidants enhanced the sorption tendency of proteins to the hydrophobic surface at low doses but reduced their sorption tendency at high doses. All three oxidants reduced the sorption tendency of polysaccharides and fatty acids to the hydrophobic surface. HOCl and HOBr increased the sorption tendency of humic and fulvic acids to the hydrophobic surface with maxima at moderate doses, while O3 decreased their sorption tendency. The behavior observed with two water samples was similar to that observed with humic and fulvic acids, pointing to the importance of these constituents. For chlorination, the highest sorption tendency to the hydrophobic surface was observed within the range of doses typically applied during water treatment. These results suggest that ozone pretreatment would minimize membrane fouling by DOM, while chlorine pretreatment would promote DOM removal by activated carbon.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es405257b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335720100058

    View details for PubMedID 24697505

  • Comparison of Halide Impacts on the Efficiency of Contaminant Degradation by Sulfate and Hydroxyl Radical-Based Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Yang, Y., Pignatello, J. J., Ma, J., Mitch, W. A. 2014; 48 (4): 2344-2351

    Abstract

    The effect of halides on organic contaminant destruction efficiency was compared for UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) AOP treatments of saline waters; benzoic acid, 3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid, and cyclohexanecarboxylic acid were used as models for aromatic, alkene, and alkane constituents of naphthenic acids in oil-field waters. In model freshwater, contaminant degradation was higher by UV/S2O8(2-) because of the higher quantum efficiency for S2O8(2-) than H2O2 photolysis. The conversion of (•)OH and SO4(•-) radicals to less reactive halogen radicals in the presence of seawater halides reduced the degradation efficiency of benzoic acid and cyclohexanecarboxylic acid. The UV/S2O8(2-) AOP was more affected by Cl(-) than the UV/H2O2 AOP because oxidation of Cl(-) is more favorable by SO4(•-) than (•)OH at pH 7. Degradation of 3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid, was not affected by halides, likely because of the high reactivity of halogen radicals with alkenes. Despite its relatively low concentration in saline waters compared to Cl(-), Br(-) was particularly important. Br(-) promoted halogen radical formation for both AOPs resulting in ClBr(•-), Br2(•-), and CO3(•-) concentrations orders of magnitude higher than (•)OH and SO4(•-) concentrations and reducing differences in halide impacts between the two AOPs. Kinetic modeling of the UV/H2O2 AOP indicated a synergism between Br(-) and Cl(-), with Br(-) scavenging of (•)OH leading to BrOH(•-), and further reactions of Cl(-) with this and other brominated radicals promoting halogen radical concentrations. In contaminant mixtures, the conversion of (•)OH and SO4(•-) radicals to more selective CO3(•-) and halogen radicals favored attack on highly reactive reaction centers represented by the alkene group of 3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid and the aromatic group of the model compound, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, at the expense of less reactive reaction centers such as aromatic rings and alkane groups represented in benzoic acid and cyclohexanecarboxylic acid. This effect was more pronounced for the UV/S2O8(2-) AOP.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es404118q

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331774100031

    View details for PubMedID 24479380

  • Influence of Amine Structural Characteristics on N-Nitrosamine Formation Potential Relevant to Postcombustion CO2 Capture Systems ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Dai, N., Mitch, W. A. 2013; 47 (22): 13175-13183

    Abstract

    Concerns have arisen for the possible contamination of air or drinking water supplies downwind of amine-based CO2 capture facilities by potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines formed from reactions between flue gas NOx and amine solvents. This study evaluated the influence of amine structure on the potential to form total N-nitrosamines within the absorber and washwater units of a laboratory-scale CO2 capture reactor, and in the solvent after a pressure-cooker treatment as a mimic of desorber conditions. Among 16 amines representing 3 amine classes (alkanolamines, straight-chain and cyclic diamines, and amino acids), the order of the amine was the primary determinant of total N-nitrosamine formation in the absorber unit, with total N-nitrosamine formation in the order: secondary amines ≈ tertiary amines ≫ primary amines. Similar results were observed upon pressure-cooker treatment, due to reactions between nitrite and amines at high temperature. For secondary and tertiary amines, total N-nitrosamine formation under these desorber-like conditions appeared to be more important than in the absorber, but for primary amines, significant formation of total N-nitrosamines was only observed in the absorber. For diamines and amino acids, total N-nitrosamine accumulation rates in washwaters were lowest for primary amines. For alkanolamines, however, total N-nitrosamine accumulation in the washwater was similar regardless of alkanolamine order, due to the combined effects of amine reactivity toward nitrosation and amine volatility. While total N-nitrosamine accumulation rates in washwaters were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than in the absorber, they were comparable to absorber rates for several primary amines. Decarboxylation of the amino acid sarcosine resulted in the accumulation of significant concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrodimethylamine in the washwater.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es4035396

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327360600069

    View details for PubMedID 24138561

  • Influence of ionic strength on triplet-state natural organic matter loss by energy transfer and electron transfer pathways. Environmental science & technology Parker, K. M., Pignatello, J. J., Mitch, W. A. 2013; 47 (19): 10987-10994

    Abstract

    Triplet state excited natural organic matter chromophores ((3)NOM*) are important reactive intermediates in indirect photochemical processes, yet the impact of salt concentrations relevant to estuarine and marine environments on (3)NOM* is poorly understood. The formation rates, pseudo-first-order loss rate constants, and steady-state concentration of (3)NOM* were monitored using the sorbate probe method in synthetic matrices with increasing ionic strength (IS) to seawater values using seawater halides or other salts. The steady-state concentration of (3)NOM* approximately doubled at seawater IS, regardless of the salt used, due to a decrease in the (3)NOM* decay rate constant. The electron transfer-mediated degradation of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (TMP) by (3)NOM* was significantly slowed at higher IS. A model is proposed wherein high IS slows intra-organic matter electron transfer pathways, an important (3)NOM* loss pathway, leading to longer (3)NOM* lifetimes. Although IS did not appear to impact energy transfer pathways directly, the higher (3)NOM* steady-state concentrations promote energy transfer interactions. The observed decrease in decay rate constant, increase in steady-state concentration of (3)NOM* at high IS, and the inhibition of electron transfer pathways should be considered when determining the fate of organic pollutants in estuarine and marine environments.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es401900j

    View details for PubMedID 23952218

  • Dual role for lysine during protein modification by HOCl and HOBr: lysine nitrile as a putative biomarker for oxidative stress. Biochemistry Sivey, J., D., Howell, S., C., Bean, D., J., McCurry, D., L., Mitch, W., A., Wilson, C., J. 2013; 52: 1260-1271
  • Influence of amine structural characteristics of N-nitrosamine formation potential relevant to postcombustion CO2 capture systems. Environ. Sci. Technol. Dai, N., Mitch, W., A. 2013; 47: 13175-13183
  • Application of ultraviolet, ozone, and advanced oxidation treatments to washwaters to destroy nitrosamines, nitramines, amines, and aldehydes formed during amine-based carbon capture. Environ. Sci. Technol. Shah, A., D., Dai, N., Mitch, W., A. 2013; 47: 2799-2808
  • Formation, precursors, control, and occurrence of nitrosamines in drinking water: areview. Wat. Res. Krasner, S., W., Mitch, W., A., McCurry, D., L., Hanigan, D., Westerhoff, P. 2013; 47: 4433-4450
  • The role of black carbon electrical conductivity in mediating hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) transformation on carbon surfaces by sulfides. Environ. Sci. Technol. Xu, W., Pignatello, J., J., Mitch, W., A. 2013; 47: 7129-7136
  • Relative importance of N-nitrosodimethylamine compared to total N-nitrosamines in drinking waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. Dai, N., Mitch, W., A. 2013; 47: 3648-3656
  • Impact of halide ions on natural organic matter-sensitized photolysis of 17β-Estradiol in saline waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. Grebel, J., E., Pignatello, J., J., Mitch, W., A. 2012; 46: 7128-7134
  • Dichloroacetonitrile and dichloroacetamidecan form independently during chlorination and chloramination of drinking waters, model organic matters and wastewater effluents. Environ. Sci. Technol. Huang, H., Wu, Q.-Y., Hu, H.-Y., Mitch, W., A. 2012; 46: 10624-10631
  • Measurement of nitrosamine and nitramine formation from NOx reactions with amines during amine-based carbon dioxide capture for post-combustion carbon sequestration. Environ. Sci. Technol. Dai, N., Shah, A., D., Hu, L., Plewa, M., J., McKague, B., Mitch, W., A. 2012; 46: 9793-9801
  • Halonitroalkanes, halonitriles, haloamides and N-nitrosamines: A critical review of nitrogenous disinfection byproduct (N-DBP) formation pathways. Environ. Sci. Technol. Shah, A., D., Mitch, W., A. 2012; 46: 119-131
  • Comparative genotoxicity of nitrosamine drinking water disinfection byproducts in Salmonella and mammalian cells. Mutation Research Wagner, E., D., Hsu, K.-M., Lagunas, A., Mitch, W., A., Plewa, M., J. 2012; 741: 109-115
  • Tradeoffs in disinfection byproduct formation associated with precursor pre-oxidation for control of nitrosamine formation. Environ. Sci. Technol. Shah, A., D., Krasner, S., W., Chen, T., C.-F., Gunten, U., von, Mitch, W., A. 2012; 46: 4809-4818
  • Formation and control of emerging C- and N-DBPs in drinking water. Journal AWWA Krasner, S., W., Mitch, W., A., Westerhoff, P., Dotson, A., D. 2012; 104: E582-E595
  • Comparative mammalian cell cytotoxicity of water concentrates from disinfected recreational pools. Environ. Sci. Technol. Plewa, M., J., Wagner, E., D., Mitch, W., A. 2011; 45: 4159-4165
  • Sorbic acid as a quantitative probe for the formation, scavenging and steady-state concentrations of the triplet-excited state of organic compounds. Wat. Res. Grebel, J., E., Pignatello, J., J., Mitch, W., A. 2011; 45: 6535-6544
  • Impact of UV disinfection combined with chlorination/chloramination on the formation of halonitromethanes and haloacetonitriles in drinking water. Environ. Sci. Technol. Shah, A., D., Dotson, A., D., Linden, K., G., Mitch, W., A. 2011; 45: 3657-3664
  • Effect of halide ions on organic contaminant degradation by hydroxyl radical-based advanced oxidation processes. Environ. Sci. Technol. Grebel, J., E., Pignatello, J., J., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 44: 6822-6828
  • Chapter 7 Micropollutants in water recycling: A case study of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) exposure from water versus food. Sustainability Science and Engineering Schafer, A., I., Mitch, W., A., Walewijk, S., Munoz, A., Teuten, E. 2010; 2: 203-228
  • Quaternary amines as NDMA precursors: a role for consumer products? Environ. Sci. Technol. Kemper, J., M., Walse, S., S., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 4 (44): 1224-1231
  • Influence of the method of reagent addition on dichloroacetonitrile formation during chloramination. Environ. Sci. Technol. Hayes-Larson, E., L., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 2 (44): 700-706
  • Genotoxicity of water concentrates from recreational pools after various disinfection methods. Environ. Sci. Technol. Liviac, D., Wagner, E., D., Mitch, W., A., Altonji, M., J., Plewa, M., J. 2010; 44: 3537-3332
  • Fecal coliform accumulation within a river subject to seasonally-disinfected wastewater discharges. Wat. Res. Mitch, A., A., Gasner, K., C., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 16 (44): 4776-4782
  • Comparison of byproduct formation in waters treated with chlorine and iodine: relevance to point-of-use treatment Environ. Sci. Technol. Smith, E., M., Plewa, M., J., Lindell, C., L., Richardson, S., D., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 44: 8446-8552
  • Black-carbon mediated destruction of nitroglycerin and RDX by hydrogen sulfide: relevance to in-situ remediation. Environ. Sci. Technol. Xu, W., Dana, K., E., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 44: 6409-6415
  • Application of an optimized total N-nitrosamine (TONO) assay to pools: placing N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) determinations into perspective. Environ. Sci. Technol. Kulshrestha, P., McKinstry, K., C., Fernandez, B., O., Feelisch, M., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 44: 3369-3375
  • Exploring amino acid side chain decomposition using enzymatic digestion and HPLC-MS: combined lysine transformations in chlorinated waters. Anal. Chem. Walse, S., S., Plewa, M., J., Mitch, W., A. 2009; 18 (81): 7650-7659
  • Occurrence and fate of nitrosamines and their precursors in municipal sludge and anaerobic digestion systems. Environ. Sci. Technol. Padhye, L., Tezel, U., Mitch, W., A., Pavlostathis, S., G., Huang, C.-H. 2009; 9 (43): 3087-3093
  • Nitrosamine, dimethylnitramine and chloropicrin formation during strong base anion exchange treatment. Environ. Sci. Technol. Kemper, J., M., Westerhoff, P., Dotson, A., D., Mitch, W., A. 2009; 2 (43): 466-472
  • Impact of halides on the photobleaching of dissolved organic matter. Marine Chem. Grebel, J., E., Pignatello, J., J., Song, W., Cooper, W., J., Mitch, W., A. 2009; 115: 134-144
  • Abiotic degradation of RDX in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and black carbon. Environ. Sci. Technol. Kemper, J., M., Ammar, E., Mitch, W., A. 2008; 6 (42): 2118-2123
  • Degradation of tertiary alkylamines during chlorination/chloramination: implications for formation of aldehydes, nitriles, halonitroalkanes, and nitrosamines. Environ. Sci. Technol. Mitch, W., A., Schreiber, I., M. 2008; 13 (42): 4811 - 4817
  • Nitrosamine carcinogens also swim in pools. Environ. Sci. Technol. Walse, S., S., Mitch, W., A. 2008; 4 (42): 1032-1037
  • Enhanced nitrogenous disinfection byproduct formation near the breakpoint: implications for nitrification control. Environ. Sci. Technol. Schreiber, I., M., Mitch, W., A. 2007; 20 (41): 7039-7046
  • Nitrile, aldehyde and halonitroalkane formation during chlorination/chloramination of primary amines. Environ. Sci. Technol. Joo, S.-H., Mitch, W., A. 2007; 4 (41): 1288-1296
  • Nitrosamine formation pathway revisited: the importance of dichloramine and dissolved oxygen. Environ. Sci. Technol. Schreiber, I., M., Mitch, W., A. 2006; 19 (40): 6007-6014
  • Occurrence and fate of nitrosamines and nitrosamine precursors in wastewater-impacted surface waters using boron as a conservative tracer. Environ. Sci. Technol. Schreiber, I., M., Mitch, W., A. 2006; 10 (40): 3203-3210
  • Minimization of NDMA formation during chlorine disinfection of municipal wastewater by application of pre-formed chloramines. Environ. Eng. Sci. Mitch, W., A., Oelker, G., L., Hawley, E., L., Deeb, R., A., Sedlak, D., L. 2005; 6 (22): 882-890
  • The influence of the order of reagent addition on N-nitrosodimethylamine formation. Environ. Sci. Technol. Schreiber, I., M., Mitch, W., A. 2005; 10 (39): 3811-3818
  • Sources and fate of nitrosodimethylamine and its precursors in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Wat. Environ. Res. Sedlak, D., L., Deeb, R., Hawley, E., Mitch, W., Durbin, T., Mowbray, S. 2005; 1 (77): 32-39
  • Characterization and fate of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors during municipal wastewater treatment Environ. Sci. Technol. Mitch, W., A., Sedlak, D., L. 2004; 5 (38): 1445-1454
  • A N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursor analysis for chlorination of water and wastewater. Wat. Res. Mitch, W., A., Gerecke, A., Sedlak, D., L. 2003; 15 (37): 3733-3741
  • N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a drinking water contaminant: a review. Environ. Eng. Sci. Mitch, W., A., Sharp, J., O., Trussell, R., R., Valentine, R., L., Alvarez-Cohen, L., Sedlak, D., L. 2003; 5 (20): 389-404
  • Factors controlling nitrosamine formation during wastewater chlorination. Water Sci Technol. Mitch, W., A., Sedlak, D., L. 2002; 3 (2): 191-198
  • Formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from dimethylamine during chlorination. Environ. Sci. Technol. Mitch, W., A., Sedlak, D., L. 2002; 36: 588-595