Bill Mitch received a B.A. in Anthropology (Archaeology) from Harvard University in 1993. During his studies, he excavated at Mayan sites in Belize and surveyed sites dating from 2,000 B.C. in Louisiana. He switched fields by receiving a M.S. degree in Civil and Environmental Engineering at UC Berkeley. He worked for 3 years in environmental consulting, receiving his P.E. license in Civil Engineering in California. Returning to UC Berkeley in 2000, he received his PhD in Civil and Environmental Engineering in 2003. He moved to Yale as an assistant professor after graduation. His dissertation received the AEESP Outstanding Doctoral Dissertation Award in 2004. At Yale, he serves as the faculty advisor for the Yale Student Chapter of Engineers without Borders. In 2007, he won a NSF CAREER Award. He moved to Stanford University as an associate professor in 2013.

Employing a fundamental understanding of organic chemical reaction pathways, his research explores links between public health, engineering and sustainability. Topics of current interest include:

Public Health and Emerging Carcinogens: Recent changes to the disinfection processes fundamental to drinking and recreational water safety are creating a host of highly toxic byproducts linked to bladder cancer. We seek to understand how these compounds form so we can adjust the disinfection process to prevent their formation.

Global Warming and Oceanography: Oceanic dissolved organic matter is an important global carbon component, and has important impacts on the net flux of CO2 between the ocean and atmosphere. We seek to understand some of the important abiotic chemical reaction pathways responsible for carbon turnover.

Sustainability and Persistant Organic Pollutants (POPs): While PCBs have been banned in the US, we continue to produce a host of structurally similar chemicals. We seem to understand important chemical pathways responsible for POP destruction in the environment, so we can design less persistent and problematic chemicals in the future.

Engineering for Sustainable Wastewater Recycling: The shortage of clean water represents a critical challenge for the next century, and has necessitated the recycling of wastewater. We seek to understand ways of engineer this process in ways to minimize harmful byproduct formation.

Carbon Sequestration: We are evaluating the formation of nitrosamine and nitraminecarcinogens from amine-based carbon capture, as well as techniques to destroy any of these byproducts that form.

Academic Appointments

  • Associate Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering

Honors & Awards

  • Excellence in Review Award, Environmental Science and Technology (2013)
  • Elected Vice-Chair of the 4th Disinfection Byproducts Gordon Conference in 2015, Disinfection Byproducts Gordon Conference (2015)
  • Invited speaker for the 3rd Disinfection Byproducts Gordon Conference, Mt. Holyoke College, Disinfection Byproducts Gordon Conference (2012)
  • Environmental Science and Technology Editors Choice Award Best Paper 3rd runner up, Environmental Science and Technology (2010)
  • Top 10 most-accessed articles, 2nd Quarter, Environmental Science and Technology (2010)
  • Invited speaker, Environmental Sciences Water Gordon Conference (2010)
  • Member, US EPA Scientific Advisory Board Drinking Water Committee (2010)
  • Invited speaker, Disinfection Byproducts Gordon Conference, Mt. Holyoke College (2009)
  • CAREER Award, NSF (2007)
  • Advisor of recipient, ACS Environmental Chemistry Graduate Student Award (2007)
  • Invited speaker, Disinfection Byproducts Gordon Conference, Mt. Holyoke College (2006)
  • Certificate of Merit, 230th ACS National Meeting (2005)
  • Arthur Greer Memorial Prize for teaching and research excellence by a junior faculty member, Yale University (2005)
  • Outstanding Doctoral Dissertation Award, Association of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors and Parsons Engineering (2004)
  • Graduated Summa Cum Laude and elected into the Phi Beta Kappa Academic Honor Society, Harvard University (1993)

Professional Education

  • B.A., Harvard University (Summa Cum Laude), Anthropology (Archaeology) (1993)
  • M.S., University of California, Berkeley, Civil and Environmental Engineering (1996)
  • Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, Civil and Environmental Engineering (2003)

Stanford Advisees

All Publications

  • Controlling Nitrosamines, Nitramines, and Amines in Amine-Based CO2 Capture Systems with Continuous Ultraviolet and Ozone Treatment of Washwater ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Dai, N., Mitch, W. A. 2015; 49 (14): 8878-8886


    Formation of nitrosamines and nitramines from reactions between flue gas NOx and the amines used in CO2 capture units has arisen as a significant concern. Washwater scrubbers can capture nitrosamines and nitramines. They can also capture amines, preventing formation of nitrosamines and nitramines downwind by amine reactions with ambient NOx. The continuous application of UV alone, or a combination of UV and ozone to the return line of a washwater treatment unit was evaluated to control the accumulation of nitrosamines, nitramines and amines in a laboratory-scale washwater unit. With model secondary amine solvents ranging from nonvolatile diethanolamine to volatile morpholine, application of 272-537 mJ/cm(2) UV incident fluence alone reduced the accumulation of nitrosamines and nitramines by approximately an order of magnitude. Modeling indicated that the gains achieved by UV treatment should increase over time, because UV treatment converts the time dependence of nitrosamine accumulation from a quadratic to a linear function. Ozone (21 mg/L) maintained low steady-state concentrations of amines in the washwater. While modeling indicated that more than 80% of nitrosamine accumulation in the washwater was associated with reaction of washwater amines with residual NOx, a reduction in nitrosamine accumulation rates due to ozone oxidation of amines was not fully realized because the ozonation products of amines reduced nitrosamine photolysis rates by competing for photons.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.est.5b01365

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358557900070

    View details for PubMedID 26087660

  • Destruction of Methyl Bromide Sorbed to Activated Carbon by Thiosulfate or Electrolysis ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Yang, Y., Li, Y., Walse, S. S., Mitch, W. A. 2015; 49 (7): 4515-4521


    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) is widely used as a fumigant for postharvest and quarantine applications for agricultural products at port facilities due to the short treatment period required, but it is vented from fumigation chambers to the atmosphere after its use. Due to the potential contributions of CH3Br to stratospheric ozone depletion, technologies for the capture and degradation of the CH3Br are needed to enable its continued use. Although granular activated carbon (GAC) has been used for CH3Br capture and thiosulfate has been used for destruction of CH3Br in aqueous solution, this research explored techniques for direct destruction of CH3Br sorbed to GAC. Submerging the GAC in an aqueous thiosulfate solution achieved debromination of CH3Br while sorbed to the GAC, but it required molar concentrations of thiosulfate because of the high CH3Br loading and produced substantial concentrations of methyl thiosulfate. Submergence of the GAC in water and use of the GAC as the cathode of an electrolysis unit also debrominated sorbed CH3Br. The reaction appeared to involve a one-electron transfer, producing methyl radicals that incorporated into the GAC. Destruction rates increased with decreasing applied voltage down to ∼-1.2 V vs the standard hydrogen electrode. Cycling experiments conducted at -0.77 V indicated that >80% debromination of CH3Br was achieved over ∼30 h with ∼100% Coulombic efficiency. Sorptive capacity and degradation efficiency were maintained over at least 3 cycles. Capture of CH3Br fumes from fumigation chambers onto GAC, and electrolytic destruction of the sorbed CH3Br could mitigate the negative impacts of CH3Br usage pending the development of suitable replacement fumigants.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es505709c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352659000061

    View details for PubMedID 25789797

  • Reduction of Nitroaromatics Sorbed to Black Carbon by Direct Reaction with Sorbed Sulfides ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Xu, W., Pignatello, J. J., Mitch, W. A. 2015; 49 (6): 3419-3426


    Sorption to black carbons is an important sink for organic contaminants in sediments. Previous research has suggested that black carbons (graphite, activated carbon, and biochar) mediate the degradation of nitrated compounds by sulfides by at least two different pathways: reduction involving electron transfer from sulfides through conductive carbon regions to the target contaminant (nitroglycerin) and degradation by sulfur-based intermediates formed by sulfide oxidation (RDX). In this study, we evaluated the applicability of black carbon-mediated reactions to a wider variety of contaminant structures, including nitrated and halogenated aromatic compounds, halogenated heterocyclic aromatic compounds, and halogenated alkanes. Among these compounds, black carbon-mediated transformation by sulfides over a 3-day time scale was limited to nitroaromatic compounds. The reaction for a series of substituted nitroaromatics proceeded by reduction, as indicated by formation of 3-bromoaniline from 3-bromonitrobenzene, and inverse correlation of log kobs with energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO). The log kobs was correlated with sorbed sulfide concentration, but no reduction of 3-bromonitrobenzene was observed in the presence of graphite and sulfite, thiosulfate, or polysulfides. Whereas nitroglycerin reduction occurred in an electrochemical cell containing sheet graphite electrodes in which the reagents were placed in separate compartments, nitroaromatic reduction only occurred when sulfides were present in the same compartment. The results suggest that black carbon-mediated reduction of sorbed nitroaromatics by sulfides involves electron transfer directly from sorbed sulfides rather than transfer of electrons through conductive carbon regions. The existence of three different reaction pathways suggests a complexity to the sulfide-carbon system compared to the iron-carbon system, where contaminants are reduced by electron transfer through conductive carbon regions.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es5045198

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351324400019

    View details for PubMedID 25671390

  • Predicting N-Nitrosamines: N-Nitrosodiethanolamine as a Significant Component of Total N-Nitrosamines in Recycled Wastewater ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Dai, N., Zeng, T., Mitch, W. A. 2015; 2 (3): 54-58
  • Iodide, Bromide, and Ammonium in Hydraulic Fracturing and Oil and Gas Wastewaters: Environmental Implications ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Harkness, J. S., Dwyer, G. S., Warner, N. R., Parker, K. M., Mitch, W. A., Vengosh, A. 2015; 49 (3): 1955-1963


    The expansion of unconventional shale gas and hydraulic fracturing has increased the volume of the oil and gas wastewater (OGW) generated in the U.S. Here we demonstrate that OGW from Marcellus and Fayetteville hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids and Appalachian conventional produced waters is characterized by high chloride, bromide, iodide (up to 56 mg/L), and ammonium (up to 420 mg/L). Br/Cl ratios were consistent for all Appalachian brines, which reflect an origin from a common parent brine, while the I/Cl and NH4/Cl ratios varied among brines from different geological formations, reflecting geogenic processes. There were no differences in halides and ammonium concentrations between OGW originating from hydraulic fracturing and conventional oil and gas operations. Analysis of discharged effluents from three brine treatment sites in Pennsylvania and a spill site in West Virginia show elevated levels of halides (iodide up to 28 mg/L) and ammonium (12 to 106 mg/L) that mimic the composition of OGW and mix conservatively in downstream surface waters. Bromide, iodide, and ammonium in surface waters can impact stream ecosystems and promote the formation of toxic brominated-, iodinated-, and nitrogen disinfection byproducts during chlorination at downstream drinking water treatment plants. Our findings indicate that discharge and accidental spills of OGW to waterways pose risks to both human health and the environment.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es504654n

    View details for Web of Science ID 000349060300086

    View details for PubMedID 25587644

  • Synthesis and Application of a Quaternary Phosphonium Polymer Coagulant To Avoid N-Nitrosamine Formation ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Zeng, T., Pignatello, J. J., Li, R. J., Mitch, W. A. 2014; 48 (22): 13392-13401

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es504091s

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345262900045

  • Superior Removal of Disinfection Byproduct Precursors and Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater in a Staged Anaerobic Fluidized Membrane Bioreactor Compared to Activated Sludge ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY LETTERS McCurry, D. L., Bear, S. E., Bae, J., Sedlak, D. L., McCarty, P. L., Mitch, W. A. 2014; 1 (11): 459-464

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ez500279a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000350831700005

  • Impact of UV/H2O2 Pre-Oxidation on the Formation of Haloacetamides and Other Nitrogenous Disinfection Byproducts during Chlorination ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Chu, W., Gao, N., Yin, D., Krasner, S. W., Mitch, W. A. 2014; 48 (20): 12190-12198

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es502115x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343640900054

  • Enhanced Formation of Disinfection Byproducts in Shale Gas Wastewater-Impacted Drinking Water Supplies ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Parker, K. M., Zeng, T., Harkness, J., Vengosh, A., Mitch, W. A. 2014; 48 (19): 11161-11169

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es5028184

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343016600020

  • Comparative in Vitro Toxicity of Nitrosamines and Nitramines Associated with Amine-based Carbon Capture and Storage ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Wagner, E. D., Osiol, J., Mitch, W. A., Plewa, M. J. 2014; 48 (14): 8203-8211


    Amine-based CO2 capture is a prime contender for the first full-scale implementation of CO2 capture at fossil fuel-fired power plants postcombustion. However, the formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines from reactions of flue gas NOx with the amines presents a potential risk for contaminating airsheds and drinking water supplies. Setting regulatory emission limits is hampered by the dearth of toxicity information for the N-nitramines. This study employed quantitative in vitro bioassays for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium, and chronic cytotoxicity and acute genotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to compare the toxicity of analogous N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines relevant to CO2 capture. Although the rank order was similar for genotoxicity in CHO cells and mutagenicity in S. typhimurium, the Salmonella assay was far more sensitive. In general, mutagenicity was higher with S9 hepatic microsomal activation. The rank order of mutagenicity was N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)>N-nitrosomorpholine>N-nitrodimethylamine>1,4-dinitrosopiperazine>N-nitromorpholine>1,4-dinitropiperazine>N-nitromonoethanolamine>N-nitrosodiethanolamine>N-nitrodiethanolamine. 1-Nitrosopiperazine and 1-nitropiperazine were not mutagenic. Overall, N-nitrosamines were ∼15-fold more mutagenic than their N-nitramine analogues.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es5018009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000339227500065

    View details for PubMedID 24940705

  • Effects of Flue Gas Compositions on Nitrosamine and Nitramine Formation in Postcombustion CO2 Capture Systems ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Dai, N., Mitch, W. A. 2014; 48 (13): 7519-7526

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es501864a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338488700041

  • Sunlight-Driven Photochemical Halogenation of Dissolved Organic Matter in Seawater: A Natural Abiotic Source of Organobromine and Organoiodine ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Diego Mendez-Diaz, J., Shimabuku, K. K., Ma, J., Enumah, Z. O., Pignatello, J. J., Mitch, W. A., Dodd, M. C. 2014; 48 (13): 7418-7427

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es5016668

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338488700029

  • Effect of Chemical Oxidation on the Sorption Tendency of Dissolved Organic Matter to a Model Hydrophobic Surface ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Zeng, T., Wilson, C. J., Mitch, W. A. 2014; 48 (9): 5118-5126


    The application of chemical oxidants may alter the sorption properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM), such as humic and fulvic acids, proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids, affecting their fate in water treatment processes, including attachment to other organic components, activated carbon, and membranes (e.g., organic fouling). Similar reactions with chlorine (HOCl) and bromine (HOBr) produced at inflammatory sites in vivo affect the fate of biomolecules (e.g., protein aggregation). In this study, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was used to evaluate changes in the noncovalent interactions of proteins, polysaccharides, fatty acids, and humic and fulvic acids with a model hydrophobic surface as a function of increasing doses of HOCl, HOBr, and ozone (O3). All three oxidants enhanced the sorption tendency of proteins to the hydrophobic surface at low doses but reduced their sorption tendency at high doses. All three oxidants reduced the sorption tendency of polysaccharides and fatty acids to the hydrophobic surface. HOCl and HOBr increased the sorption tendency of humic and fulvic acids to the hydrophobic surface with maxima at moderate doses, while O3 decreased their sorption tendency. The behavior observed with two water samples was similar to that observed with humic and fulvic acids, pointing to the importance of these constituents. For chlorination, the highest sorption tendency to the hydrophobic surface was observed within the range of doses typically applied during water treatment. These results suggest that ozone pretreatment would minimize membrane fouling by DOM, while chlorine pretreatment would promote DOM removal by activated carbon.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es405257b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335720100058

    View details for PubMedID 24697505

  • Comparison of Halide Impacts on the Efficiency of Contaminant Degradation by Sulfate and Hydroxyl Radical-Based Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Yang, Y., Pignatello, J. J., Ma, J., Mitch, W. A. 2014; 48 (4): 2344-2351


    The effect of halides on organic contaminant destruction efficiency was compared for UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) AOP treatments of saline waters; benzoic acid, 3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid, and cyclohexanecarboxylic acid were used as models for aromatic, alkene, and alkane constituents of naphthenic acids in oil-field waters. In model freshwater, contaminant degradation was higher by UV/S2O8(2-) because of the higher quantum efficiency for S2O8(2-) than H2O2 photolysis. The conversion of (•)OH and SO4(•-) radicals to less reactive halogen radicals in the presence of seawater halides reduced the degradation efficiency of benzoic acid and cyclohexanecarboxylic acid. The UV/S2O8(2-) AOP was more affected by Cl(-) than the UV/H2O2 AOP because oxidation of Cl(-) is more favorable by SO4(•-) than (•)OH at pH 7. Degradation of 3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid, was not affected by halides, likely because of the high reactivity of halogen radicals with alkenes. Despite its relatively low concentration in saline waters compared to Cl(-), Br(-) was particularly important. Br(-) promoted halogen radical formation for both AOPs resulting in ClBr(•-), Br2(•-), and CO3(•-) concentrations orders of magnitude higher than (•)OH and SO4(•-) concentrations and reducing differences in halide impacts between the two AOPs. Kinetic modeling of the UV/H2O2 AOP indicated a synergism between Br(-) and Cl(-), with Br(-) scavenging of (•)OH leading to BrOH(•-), and further reactions of Cl(-) with this and other brominated radicals promoting halogen radical concentrations. In contaminant mixtures, the conversion of (•)OH and SO4(•-) radicals to more selective CO3(•-) and halogen radicals favored attack on highly reactive reaction centers represented by the alkene group of 3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid and the aromatic group of the model compound, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, at the expense of less reactive reaction centers such as aromatic rings and alkane groups represented in benzoic acid and cyclohexanecarboxylic acid. This effect was more pronounced for the UV/S2O8(2-) AOP.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es404118q

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331774100031

    View details for PubMedID 24479380

  • Influence of Amine Structural Characteristics on N-Nitrosamine Formation Potential Relevant to Postcombustion CO2 Capture Systems ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Dai, N., Mitch, W. A. 2013; 47 (22): 13175-13183


    Concerns have arisen for the possible contamination of air or drinking water supplies downwind of amine-based CO2 capture facilities by potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines formed from reactions between flue gas NOx and amine solvents. This study evaluated the influence of amine structure on the potential to form total N-nitrosamines within the absorber and washwater units of a laboratory-scale CO2 capture reactor, and in the solvent after a pressure-cooker treatment as a mimic of desorber conditions. Among 16 amines representing 3 amine classes (alkanolamines, straight-chain and cyclic diamines, and amino acids), the order of the amine was the primary determinant of total N-nitrosamine formation in the absorber unit, with total N-nitrosamine formation in the order: secondary amines ≈ tertiary amines ≫ primary amines. Similar results were observed upon pressure-cooker treatment, due to reactions between nitrite and amines at high temperature. For secondary and tertiary amines, total N-nitrosamine formation under these desorber-like conditions appeared to be more important than in the absorber, but for primary amines, significant formation of total N-nitrosamines was only observed in the absorber. For diamines and amino acids, total N-nitrosamine accumulation rates in washwaters were lowest for primary amines. For alkanolamines, however, total N-nitrosamine accumulation in the washwater was similar regardless of alkanolamine order, due to the combined effects of amine reactivity toward nitrosation and amine volatility. While total N-nitrosamine accumulation rates in washwaters were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than in the absorber, they were comparable to absorber rates for several primary amines. Decarboxylation of the amino acid sarcosine resulted in the accumulation of significant concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrodimethylamine in the washwater.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es4035396

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327360600069

    View details for PubMedID 24138561

  • Influence of ionic strength on triplet-state natural organic matter loss by energy transfer and electron transfer pathways. Environmental science & technology Parker, K. M., Pignatello, J. J., Mitch, W. A. 2013; 47 (19): 10987-10994


    Triplet state excited natural organic matter chromophores ((3)NOM*) are important reactive intermediates in indirect photochemical processes, yet the impact of salt concentrations relevant to estuarine and marine environments on (3)NOM* is poorly understood. The formation rates, pseudo-first-order loss rate constants, and steady-state concentration of (3)NOM* were monitored using the sorbate probe method in synthetic matrices with increasing ionic strength (IS) to seawater values using seawater halides or other salts. The steady-state concentration of (3)NOM* approximately doubled at seawater IS, regardless of the salt used, due to a decrease in the (3)NOM* decay rate constant. The electron transfer-mediated degradation of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (TMP) by (3)NOM* was significantly slowed at higher IS. A model is proposed wherein high IS slows intra-organic matter electron transfer pathways, an important (3)NOM* loss pathway, leading to longer (3)NOM* lifetimes. Although IS did not appear to impact energy transfer pathways directly, the higher (3)NOM* steady-state concentrations promote energy transfer interactions. The observed decrease in decay rate constant, increase in steady-state concentration of (3)NOM* at high IS, and the inhibition of electron transfer pathways should be considered when determining the fate of organic pollutants in estuarine and marine environments.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es401900j

    View details for PubMedID 23952218

  • Dual role for lysine during protein modification by HOCl and HOBr: lysine nitrile as a putative biomarker for oxidative stress. Biochemistry Sivey, J., D., Howell, S., C., Bean, D., J., McCurry, D., L., Mitch, W., A., Wilson, C., J. 2013; 52: 1260-1271
  • Influence of amine structural characteristics of N-nitrosamine formation potential relevant to postcombustion CO2 capture systems. Environ. Sci. Technol. Dai, N., Mitch, W., A. 2013; 47: 13175-13183
  • Application of ultraviolet, ozone, and advanced oxidation treatments to washwaters to destroy nitrosamines, nitramines, amines, and aldehydes formed during amine-based carbon capture. Environ. Sci. Technol. Shah, A., D., Dai, N., Mitch, W., A. 2013; 47: 2799-2808
  • Formation, precursors, control, and occurrence of nitrosamines in drinking water: areview. Wat. Res. Krasner, S., W., Mitch, W., A., McCurry, D., L., Hanigan, D., Westerhoff, P. 2013; 47: 4433-4450
  • The role of black carbon electrical conductivity in mediating hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) transformation on carbon surfaces by sulfides. Environ. Sci. Technol. Xu, W., Pignatello, J., J., Mitch, W., A. 2013; 47: 7129-7136
  • Relative importance of N-nitrosodimethylamine compared to total N-nitrosamines in drinking waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. Dai, N., Mitch, W., A. 2013; 47: 3648-3656
  • Formation and control of emerging C- and N-DBPs in drinking water. Journal AWWA Krasner, S., W., Mitch, W., A., Westerhoff, P., Dotson, A., D. 2012; 104: E582-E595
  • Dichloroacetonitrile and dichloroacetamidecan form independently during chlorination and chloramination of drinking waters, model organic matters and wastewater effluents. Environ. Sci. Technol. Huang, H., Wu, Q.-Y., Hu, H.-Y., Mitch, W., A. 2012; 46: 10624-10631
  • Measurement of nitrosamine and nitramine formation from NOx reactions with amines during amine-based carbon dioxide capture for post-combustion carbon sequestration. Environ. Sci. Technol. Dai, N., Shah, A., D., Hu, L., Plewa, M., J., McKague, B., Mitch, W., A. 2012; 46: 9793-9801
  • Halonitroalkanes, halonitriles, haloamides and N-nitrosamines: A critical review of nitrogenous disinfection byproduct (N-DBP) formation pathways. Environ. Sci. Technol. Shah, A., D., Mitch, W., A. 2012; 46: 119-131
  • Comparative genotoxicity of nitrosamine drinking water disinfection byproducts in Salmonella and mammalian cells. Mutation Research Wagner, E., D., Hsu, K.-M., Lagunas, A., Mitch, W., A., Plewa, M., J. 2012; 741: 109-115
  • Impact of halide ions on natural organic matter-sensitized photolysis of 17β-Estradiol in saline waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. Grebel, J., E., Pignatello, J., J., Mitch, W., A. 2012; 46: 7128-7134
  • Tradeoffs in disinfection byproduct formation associated with precursor pre-oxidation for control of nitrosamine formation. Environ. Sci. Technol. Shah, A., D., Krasner, S., W., Chen, T., C.-F., Gunten, U., von, Mitch, W., A. 2012; 46: 4809-4818
  • Comparative mammalian cell cytotoxicity of water concentrates from disinfected recreational pools. Environ. Sci. Technol. Plewa, M., J., Wagner, E., D., Mitch, W., A. 2011; 45: 4159-4165
  • Sorbic acid as a quantitative probe for the formation, scavenging and steady-state concentrations of the triplet-excited state of organic compounds. Wat. Res. Grebel, J., E., Pignatello, J., J., Mitch, W., A. 2011; 45: 6535-6544
  • Impact of UV disinfection combined with chlorination/chloramination on the formation of halonitromethanes and haloacetonitriles in drinking water. Environ. Sci. Technol. Shah, A., D., Dotson, A., D., Linden, K., G., Mitch, W., A. 2011; 45: 3657-3664
  • Effect of halide ions on organic contaminant degradation by hydroxyl radical-based advanced oxidation processes. Environ. Sci. Technol. Grebel, J., E., Pignatello, J., J., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 44: 6822-6828
  • Chapter 7 Micropollutants in water recycling: A case study of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) exposure from water versus food. Sustainability Science and Engineering Schafer, A., I., Mitch, W., A., Walewijk, S., Munoz, A., Teuten, E. 2010; 2: 203-228
  • Quaternary amines as NDMA precursors: a role for consumer products? Environ. Sci. Technol. Kemper, J., M., Walse, S., S., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 4 (44): 1224-1231
  • Influence of the method of reagent addition on dichloroacetonitrile formation during chloramination. Environ. Sci. Technol. Hayes-Larson, E., L., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 2 (44): 700-706
  • Genotoxicity of water concentrates from recreational pools after various disinfection methods. Environ. Sci. Technol. Liviac, D., Wagner, E., D., Mitch, W., A., Altonji, M., J., Plewa, M., J. 2010; 44: 3537-3332
  • Fecal coliform accumulation within a river subject to seasonally-disinfected wastewater discharges. Wat. Res. Mitch, A., A., Gasner, K., C., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 16 (44): 4776-4782
  • Comparison of byproduct formation in waters treated with chlorine and iodine: relevance to point-of-use treatment Environ. Sci. Technol. Smith, E., M., Plewa, M., J., Lindell, C., L., Richardson, S., D., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 44: 8446-8552
  • Application of an optimized total N-nitrosamine (TONO) assay to pools: placing N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) determinations into perspective. Environ. Sci. Technol. Kulshrestha, P., McKinstry, K., C., Fernandez, B., O., Feelisch, M., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 44: 3369-3375
  • Black-carbon mediated destruction of nitroglycerin and RDX by hydrogen sulfide: relevance to in-situ remediation. Environ. Sci. Technol. Xu, W., Dana, K., E., Mitch, W., A. 2010; 44: 6409-6415
  • Exploring amino acid side chain decomposition using enzymatic digestion and HPLC-MS: combined lysine transformations in chlorinated waters. Anal. Chem. Walse, S., S., Plewa, M., J., Mitch, W., A. 2009; 18 (81): 7650-7659
  • Occurrence and fate of nitrosamines and their precursors in municipal sludge and anaerobic digestion systems. Environ. Sci. Technol. Padhye, L., Tezel, U., Mitch, W., A., Pavlostathis, S., G., Huang, C.-H. 2009; 9 (43): 3087-3093
  • Nitrosamine, dimethylnitramine and chloropicrin formation during strong base anion exchange treatment. Environ. Sci. Technol. Kemper, J., M., Westerhoff, P., Dotson, A., D., Mitch, W., A. 2009; 2 (43): 466-472
  • Impact of halides on the photobleaching of dissolved organic matter. Marine Chem. Grebel, J., E., Pignatello, J., J., Song, W., Cooper, W., J., Mitch, W., A. 2009; 115: 134-144
  • Nitrosamine carcinogens also swim in pools. Environ. Sci. Technol. Walse, S., S., Mitch, W., A. 2008; 4 (42): 1032-1037
  • Degradation of tertiary alkylamines during chlorination/chloramination: implications for formation of aldehydes, nitriles, halonitroalkanes, and nitrosamines. Environ. Sci. Technol. Mitch, W., A., Schreiber, I., M. 2008; 13 (42): 4811 - 4817
  • Abiotic degradation of RDX in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and black carbon. Environ. Sci. Technol. Kemper, J., M., Ammar, E., Mitch, W., A. 2008; 6 (42): 2118-2123
  • Enhanced nitrogenous disinfection byproduct formation near the breakpoint: implications for nitrification control. Environ. Sci. Technol. Schreiber, I., M., Mitch, W., A. 2007; 20 (41): 7039-7046
  • Nitrile, aldehyde and halonitroalkane formation during chlorination/chloramination of primary amines. Environ. Sci. Technol. Joo, S.-H., Mitch, W., A. 2007; 4 (41): 1288-1296
  • Nitrosamine formation pathway revisited: the importance of dichloramine and dissolved oxygen. Environ. Sci. Technol. Schreiber, I., M., Mitch, W., A. 2006; 19 (40): 6007-6014
  • Occurrence and fate of nitrosamines and nitrosamine precursors in wastewater-impacted surface waters using boron as a conservative tracer. Environ. Sci. Technol. Schreiber, I., M., Mitch, W., A. 2006; 10 (40): 3203-3210
  • Minimization of NDMA formation during chlorine disinfection of municipal wastewater by application of pre-formed chloramines. Environ. Eng. Sci. Mitch, W., A., Oelker, G., L., Hawley, E., L., Deeb, R., A., Sedlak, D., L. 2005; 6 (22): 882-890
  • The influence of the order of reagent addition on N-nitrosodimethylamine formation. Environ. Sci. Technol. Schreiber, I., M., Mitch, W., A. 2005; 10 (39): 3811-3818
  • Sources and fate of nitrosodimethylamine and its precursors in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Wat. Environ. Res. Sedlak, D., L., Deeb, R., Hawley, E., Mitch, W., Durbin, T., Mowbray, S. 2005; 1 (77): 32-39
  • Characterization and fate of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors during municipal wastewater treatment Environ. Sci. Technol. Mitch, W., A., Sedlak, D., L. 2004; 5 (38): 1445-1454
  • A N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursor analysis for chlorination of water and wastewater. Wat. Res. Mitch, W., A., Gerecke, A., Sedlak, D., L. 2003; 15 (37): 3733-3741
  • N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a drinking water contaminant: a review. Environ. Eng. Sci. Mitch, W., A., Sharp, J., O., Trussell, R., R., Valentine, R., L., Alvarez-Cohen, L., Sedlak, D., L. 2003; 5 (20): 389-404
  • Factors controlling nitrosamine formation during wastewater chlorination. Water Sci Technol. Mitch, W., A., Sedlak, D., L. 2002; 3 (2): 191-198
  • Formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from dimethylamine during chlorination. Environ. Sci. Technol. Mitch, W., A., Sedlak, D., L. 2002; 36: 588-595