Clinical Focus

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency Medical Services

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medical Services (2019)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Emergency Medicine Residency CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine (2016)
  • Medical Education: University of California, Irvine (2012) CA
  • Residency: Stanford Hospital and Clinics-ER CA

All Publications

  • Altered Mental Status: Current Evidence-based Recommendations for Prehospital Care WESTERN JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE Sanello, A., Gausche-Hill, M., Mulkerin, W., Sporer, K. A., Brown, J. F., Koenig, K. L., Rudnick, E. M., Salvucci, A. A., Gilbert, G. H. 2018; 19 (3): 527–41


    In the United States emergency medical services (EMS) protocols vary widely across jurisdictions. We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of a patient with an acute change in mental status and to compare these recommendations against the current protocols used by the 33 EMS agencies in the State of California.We performed a literature review of the current evidence in the prehospital treatment of a patient with altered mental status (AMS) and augmented this review with guidelines from various national and international societies to create our evidence-based recommendations. We then compared the AMS protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. The specific protocol components that we analyzed were patient assessment, point-of-care tests, supplemental oxygen, use of standardized scoring, evaluating for causes of AMS, blood glucose evaluation, toxicological treatment, and pediatric evaluation and management.Protocols across 33 EMS agencies in California varied widely. All protocols call for a blood glucose check, 21 (64%) suggest treating adults at <60mg/dL, and half allow for the use of dextrose 10%. All the protocols recommend naloxone for signs of opioid overdose, but only 13 (39%) give specific parameters. Half the agencies (52%) recommend considering other toxicological causes of AMS, often by using the mnemonic AEIOU TIPS. Eight (24%) recommend a 12-lead electrocardiogram; others simply suggest cardiac monitoring. Fourteen (42%) advise supplemental oxygen as needed; only seven (21%) give specific parameters. In terms of considering various etiologies of AMS, 25 (76%) give instructions to consider trauma, 20 (61%) to consider stroke, and 18 (55%) to consider seizure. Twenty-three (70%) of the agencies have separate pediatric AMS protocols; others include pediatric considerations within the adult protocol.Protocols for patients with AMS vary widely across the State of California. The evidence-based recommendations that we present for the prehospital diagnosis and treatment of this condition may be useful for EMS medical directors tasked with creating and revising these protocols.

    View details for PubMedID 29760852

  • Splenic Rupture Diagnosed with Bedside Ultrasound in a Patient with Shock in the Emergency Department Following Colonoscopy. The western journal of emergency medicine Mulkerin, W., Mitarai, T., Gharahbaghian, L., Perera, P. 2015; 16 (5): 758-759

    View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2015.6.27548

    View details for PubMedID 26587104

  • NEXUS chest: validation of a decision instrument for selective chest imaging in blunt trauma. JAMA surgery Rodriguez, R. M., Anglin, D., Langdorf, M. I., Baumann, B. M., Hendey, G. W., Bradley, R. N., Medak, A. J., Raja, A. S., Juhn, P., Fortman, J., Mulkerin, W., Mower, W. R. 2013; 148 (10): 940-946


    Chest radiography (chest x-ray [CXR] and chest computed tomography [CT]) is the most common imaging in blunt trauma evaluation. Unnecessary trauma imaging leads to greater costs, emergency department time, and patient exposure to ionizing radiation. OBJECTIVE To validate our previously derived decision instrument (NEXUS Chest) for identification of blunt trauma patients with very low risk of thoracic injury seen on chest imaging (TICI). We hypothesized that NEXUS Chest would have high sensitivity (>98%) for the prediction of TICI and TICI with major clinical significance.From December 2009 to January 2012, we enrolled blunt trauma patients older than 14 years who received chest radiography in this prospective, observational, diagnostic decision instrument study at 9 US level I trauma centers. Prior to viewing radiographic results, physicians recorded the presence or absence of the NEXUS Chest 7 clinical criteria (age >60 years, rapid deceleration mechanism, chest pain, intoxication, abnormal alertness/mental status, distracting painful injury, and tenderness to chest wall palpation).Thoracic injury seen on chest imaging was defined as pneumothorax, hemothorax, aortic or great vessel injury, 2 or more rib fractures, ruptured diaphragm, sternal fracture, and pulmonary contusion or laceration seen on radiographs. An expert panel generated an a priori classification of clinically major, minor, and insignificant TICIs according to associated management changes.Of 9905 enrolled patients, 43.1% had a single CXR, 42.0% had CXR and chest CT, 6.7% had CXR and abdominal CT (without chest CT), 5.5% had multiple CXRs without CT, and 2.6% had chest CT alone in the emergency department. The most common trauma mechanisms were motorized vehicle crash (43.9%), fall (27.5%), pedestrian struck by motorized vehicle (10.7%), bicycle crash (6.3%), and struck by blunt object, fists, or kicked (5.8%). Thoracic injury seen on chest imaging was seen in 1478 (14.9%) patients with 363 (24.6%) of these having major clinical significance, 1079 (73.0%) minor clinical significance, and 36 (2.4%) no clinical significance. NEXUS Chest had a sensitivity of 98.8% (95% CI, 98.1%-99.3%), a negative predictive value of 98.5% (95% CI, 97.6%.6-99.1%), and a specificity of 13.3% (95% CI, 12.6%-14.1%) for TICI. The sensitivity and negative predictive value for TICI with clinically major injury were 99.7% (95% CI, 98.2%-100.0%) and 99.9% (95% CI, 99.4%-100.0%), respectively.We have validated the NEXUS Chest decision instrument, which may safely reduce the need for chest imaging in blunt trauma patients older than 14 years.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2013.2757

    View details for PubMedID 23925583