Bio


I have been engaged in the study of mechanical properties of materials for nearly 50 years. My early work was on high temperature creep and fracture of metals, focusing on techniques for measuring internal back stresses in deforming metals and featuring the modeling of diffusional deformation and cavity growth processes. My students and I also studied high temperature dispersion strengthening mechanisms and described the effects of threshold stresses on these creep processes. Since the mid-1980's we have focused most of our attention on the mechanical properties of thin film materials used in microprocessors and related devices. We have developed many of the techniques that are now used to study of thin film mechanical properties, including nanoindentation, substrate curvature methods, bulge testing methods and the mechanical testing of micromachined (MEMS) structures. We are also known for our work on the mechanisms of strain relaxation in heteroepitaxial thin films and plastic deformation of thin metal films on substrates. In addition we have engaged in research on the growth, characterization and modeling of thin film microstructures, especially as they relate to the development of intrinsic stresses. Some of our recent work dealt with the mechanical properties of nanostructures and with strain gradients and size effects on the mechanical properties of crystalline materials. Our most recent work deals with the mechanical properties of lithiated nanostructures that are being considered for lithium-ion battery applications.

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Honorary Doctorate of Science, Northwestern University (2012)
  • Heyn Medal, German Society of Materials Science (2011)
  • Fellow, Materials Research Society (2011)
  • Von Hippel Award, Materials Research Society (2007)
  • Honorary Doctorate of Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (2007)
  • Albert Sauveur Achievement Award, ASM International (2003)
  • A.E. White Distinguished Teacher Award, ASM International (2002)
  • Nadai Medal, ASME (2001)
  • Honorary Doctorate of Engineering, Colorado School of Mines (2001)
  • ASM Gold Medal, ASM International (1998)
  • The Metallurgical Society, Educator Award (1995)
  • Acta Metallurgica, Gold Medal (1993)
  • Member, National Academy of Sciences
  • Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences
  • Member, National Academy of Engineering

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, National Academy of Sciences (2013 - Present)
  • Member, National Academy of Engineering (2013 - Present)
  • Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2013 - Present)

Professional Education


  • PhD, Stanford University (1963)

2014-15 Courses


All Publications


  • Kinetics and fracture resistance of lithiated silicon nanostructure pairs controlled by their mechanical interaction NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Lee, S. W., Lee, H., Ryu, I., Nix, W. D., Gao, H., Cui, Y. 2015; 6

    Abstract

    Following an explosion of studies of silicon as a negative electrode for Li-ion batteries, the anomalous volumetric changes and fracture of lithiated single Si particles have attracted significant attention in various fields, including mechanics. However, in real batteries, lithiation occurs simultaneously in clusters of Si in a confined medium. Hence, understanding how the individual Si structures interact during lithiation in a closed space is necessary. Here, we demonstrate physical and mechanical interactions of swelling Si structures during lithiation using well-defined Si nanopillar pairs. Ex situ SEM and in situ TEM studies reveal that compressive stresses change the reaction kinetics so that preferential lithiation occurs at free surfaces when the pillars are mechanically clamped. Such mechanical interactions enhance the fracture resistance of lithiated Si by lessening the tensile stress concentrations in Si structures. This study will contribute to improved design of Si structures at the electrode level for high-performance Li-ion batteries.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms8533

    View details for Web of Science ID 000357179600002

    View details for PubMedID 26112834

  • Instrumented nanoindentation and 3D mechanistic modeling of a shale at multiple scales ACTA GEOTECHNICA Bennett, K. C., Berla, L. A., Nix, W. D., Borja, R. I. 2015; 10 (1): 1-14
  • Mechanical behavior of electrochemically lithiated silicon JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES Berla, L. A., Lee, S. W., Cui, Y., Nix, W. D. 2015; 273: 41-51
  • Robustness of amorphous silicon during the initial lithiation/delithiation cycle JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES Berla, L. A., Lee, S. W., Ryu, I., Cui, Y., Nix, W. D. 2014; 258: 253-259
  • Microscopic model for fracture of crystalline Si nanopillars during lithiation JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES Ryu, I., Lee, S. W., Gao, H., Cui, Y., Nix, W. D. 2014; 255: 274-282
  • Modeling a distribution of point defects as misfitting inclusions in stressed solids JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Cai, W., Sills, R. B., Barnett, D. M., Nix, W. D. 2014; 66: 154-171
  • A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT USING NANOINDENTATION TO DEMONSTRATE THE INDENTATION SIZE EFFECT JOURNAL OF MATERIALS EDUCATION Wright, W. J., Feng, G., Nix, W. D. 2013; 35 (5-6): 135-143
  • 25th Anniversary Article: Understanding the Lithiation of Silicon and Other Alloying Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries ADVANCED MATERIALS McDowell, M. T., Lee, S. W., Nix, W. D., Cui, Y. 2013; 25 (36): 4966-4984

    Abstract

    Alloying anodes such as silicon are promising electrode materials for next-generation high energy density lithium-ion batteries because of their ability to reversibly incorporate a high concentration of Li atoms. However, alloying anodes usually exhibit a short cycle life due to the extreme volumetric and structural changes that occur during lithium insertion/extraction; these transformations cause mechanical fracture and exacerbate side reactions. To solve these problems, there has recently been significant attention devoted to creating silicon nanostructures that can accommodate the lithiation-induced strain and thus exhibit high Coulombic efficiency and long cycle life. In parallel, many experiments and simulations have been conducted in an effort to understand the details of volumetric expansion, fracture, mechanical stress evolution, and structural changes in silicon nanostructures. The fundamental materials knowledge gained from these studies has provided guidance for designing optimized Si electrode structures and has also shed light on the factors that control large-volume change solid-state reactions. In this paper, we review various fundamental studies that have been conducted to understand structural and volumetric changes, stress evolution, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior of nanostructured Si anodes for lithium-ion batteries and compare the reaction process of Si to other novel anode materials.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201301795

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327686700001

    View details for PubMedID 24038172

  • Plasticity of bcc micropillars controlled by competition between dislocation multiplication and depletion ACTA MATERIALIA Ryu, I., Nix, W. D., Cai, W. 2013; 61 (9): 3233-3241
  • In Situ TEM of Two-Phase Lithiation of Amorphous Silicon Nanospheres NANO LETTERS McDowell, M. T., Lee, S. W., Harris, J. T., Korgel, B. A., Wang, C., Nix, W. D., Cui, Y. 2013; 13 (2): 758-764

    Abstract

    To utilize high-capacity Si anodes in next-generation Li-ion batteries, the physical and chemical transformations during the Li-Si reaction must be better understood. Here, in situ transmission electron microscopy is used to observe the lithiation/delithiation of amorphous Si nanospheres; amorphous Si is an important anode material that has been less studied than crystalline Si. Unexpectedly, the experiments reveal that the first lithiation occurs via a two-phase mechanism, which is contrary to previous understanding and has important consequences for mechanical stress evolution during lithiation. On the basis of kinetics measurements, this behavior is suggested to be due to the rate-limiting effect of Si-Si bond breaking. In addition, the results show that amorphous Si has more favorable kinetics and fracture behavior when reacting with Li than does crystalline Si, making it advantageous to use in battery electrodes. Amorphous spheres up to 870 nm in diameter do not fracture upon lithiation; this is much larger than the 150 nm critical fracture diameter previously identified for crystalline Si spheres.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl3044508

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315079500072

    View details for PubMedID 23323680

  • Critical-temperature/Peierls-stress dependent size effects in body centered cubic nanopillars APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Han, S. M., Feng, G., Jung, J. Y., Jung, H. J., Groves, J. R., Nix, W. D., Cui, Y. 2013; 102 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4776658

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314723600032

  • Reaction Front Evolution during Electrochemical Lithiation of Crystalline Silicon Nanopillars ISRAEL JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY Lee, S. W., Berla, L. A., McDowell, M. T., Nix, W. D., Cui, Y. 2012; 52 (11-12): 1118-1123
  • Studying the Kinetics of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation with In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy ADVANCED MATERIALS McDowell, M. T., Ryu, I., Lee, S. W., Wang, C., Nix, W. D., Cui, Y. 2012; 24 (45): 6034-?

    Abstract

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to study the electrochemical lithiation of high-capacity crystalline Si nanoparticles for use in Li-ion battery anodes. The lithiation reaction slows down as it progresses into the particle interior, and analysis suggests that this behavior is due not to diffusion limitation but instead to the influence of mechanical stress on the driving force for reaction.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201202744

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312130300007

    View details for PubMedID 22945804

  • Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Lee, S. W., McDowell, M. T., Berla, L. A., Nix, W. D., Cui, Y. 2012; 109 (11): 4080-4085

    Abstract

    From surface hardening of steels to doping of semiconductors, atom insertion in solids plays an important role in modifying chemical, physical, and electronic properties of materials for a variety of applications. High densities of atomic insertion in a solid can result in dramatic structural transformations and associated changes in mechanical behavior: This is particularly evident during electrochemical cycling of novel battery electrodes, such as alloying anodes, conversion oxides, and sulfur and oxygen cathodes. Silicon, which undergoes 400% volume expansion when alloying with lithium, is an extreme case and represents an excellent model system for study. Here, we show that fracture locations are highly anisotropic for lithiation of crystalline Si nanopillars and that fracture is strongly correlated with previously discovered anisotropic expansion. Contrary to earlier theoretical models based on diffusion-induced stresses where fracture is predicted to occur in the core of the pillars during lithiation, the observed cracks are present only in the amorphous lithiated shell. We also show that the critical fracture size is between about 240 and 360 nm and that it depends on the electrochemical reaction rate.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1201088109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301426700019

    View details for PubMedID 22371565

  • Size dependence of the yield strength of fcc and bcc metallic micropillars with diameters of a few micrometers PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE Lee, S., Nix, W. D. 2012; 92 (10): 1238-1260
  • Size-dependent fracture of Si nanowire battery anodes JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Ryu, I., Choi, J. W., Cui, Y., Nix, W. D. 2011; 59 (9): 1717-1730
  • Novel Size and Surface Oxide Effects in Silicon Nanowires as Lithium Battery Anodes NANO LETTERS McDowell, M. T., Lee, S. W., Ryu, I., Wu, H., Nix, W. D., Choi, J. W., Cui, Y. 2011; 11 (9): 4018-4025

    Abstract

    With its high specific capacity, silicon is a promising anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries, but volume expansion and fracture during lithium reaction have prevented implementation. Si nanostructures have shown resistance to fracture during cycling, but the critical effects of nanostructure size and native surface oxide on volume expansion and cycling performance are not understood. Here, we use an ex situ transmission electron microscopy technique to observe the same Si nanowires before and after lithiation and have discovered the impacts of size and surface oxide on volume expansion. For nanowires with native SiO(2), the surface oxide can suppress the volume expansion during lithiation for nanowires with diameters

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl202630n

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294790200089

    View details for PubMedID 21827158

  • Size effect in compression of single-crystal gold microparticles ACTA MATERIALIA Mordehai, D., Lee, S., Backes, B., Srolovitz, D. J., Nix, W. D., Rabkin, E. 2011; 59 (13): 5202-5215
  • Effects of focused-ion-beam irradiation and prestraining on the mechanical properties of FCC Au microparticles on a sapphire substrate JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Lee, S., Mordehai, D., Rabkin, E., Nix, W. D. 2011; 26 (14): 1653-1661
  • Interconnected Silicon Hollow Nanospheres for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life NANO LETTERS Yao, Y., McDowell, M. T., Ryu, I., Wu, H., Liu, N., Hu, L., Nix, W. D., Cui, Y. 2011; 11 (7): 2949-2954

    Abstract

    Silicon is a promising candidate for the anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity. However, volume changes during cycling cause pulverization and capacity fade, and improving cycle life is a major research challenge. Here, we report a novel interconnected Si hollow nanosphere electrode that is capable of accommodating large volume changes without pulverization during cycling. We achieved the high initial discharge capacity of 2725 mAh g(-1) with less than 8% capacity degradation every hundred cycles for 700 total cycles. Si hollow sphere electrodes also show a Coulombic efficiency of 99.5% in later cycles. Superior rate capability is demonstrated and attributed to fast lithium diffusion in the interconnected Si hollow structure.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl201470j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292849400066

    View details for PubMedID 21668030

  • Dislocation junctions and jogs in a free-standing FCC thin film MODELLING AND SIMULATION IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Lee, S., Aubry, S., Nix, W. D., Cai, W. 2011; 19 (2)
  • Extracting thin film hardness of extremely compliant films on stiff substrates THIN SOLID FILMS Han, S. M., Guyer, E. P., Nix, W. D. 2011; 519 (10): 3221-3224
  • BEYOND THE LAB Develop and follow your own passion MRS BULLETIN Nix, W. D. 2011; 36 (1): 14-15
  • Micro-pillar plasticity controlled by dislocation nucleation at surfaces PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE Nix, W. D., Lee, S. 2011; 91 (7-9): 1084-1096
  • Size effects on strength and plasticity of vanadium nanopillars SCRIPTA MATERIALIA Han, S. M., Bozorg-Grayeli, T., Groyes, J. R., Nix, W. D. 2010; 63 (12): 1153-1156
  • Electromigration-Induced Plastic Deformation in Cu Interconnects: Effects on Current Density Exponent, n, and Implications for EM Reliability Assessment Budiman, A. S., Hau-Riege, C. S., Baek, W. C., Lor, C., Huang, A., Kim, H. S., Neubauer, G., Pak, J., Besser, P. R., Nix, W. D. SPRINGER. 2010: 2483-2488
  • What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon? JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Hopcroft, M. A., Nix, W. D., Kenny, T. W. 2010; 19 (2): 229-238
  • A physically based model for indenter tip shape calibration for nanoindentation JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Berla, L. A., Allen, A. M., Han, S. M., Nix, W. D. 2010; 25 (4): 735-745
  • Geometrical analysis of 3D dislocation dynamics simulations of FCC micro-pillar plasticity MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Lee, S., Nix, W. D. 2010; 527 (7-8): 1903-1910
  • Modelling dislocations in a free-standing thin film MODELLING AND SIMULATION IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Weinberger, C. R., Aubry, S., Lee, S., Nix, W. D., Cai, W. 2009; 17 (7)
  • Study of strain softening behavior of Al-Al3Sc multilayers using microcompression testing ACTA MATERIALIA Han, S. M., Phillips, M. A., Nix, W. D. 2009; 57 (15): 4473-4490
  • Uniaxial compression of fcc Au nanopillars on an MgO substrate: The effects of prestraining and annealing ACTA MATERIALIA Lee, S., Han, S. M., Nix, W. D. 2009; 57 (15): 4404-4415
  • Electromigration-Induced Plasticity: Texture Correlation and Implications for Reliability Assessment JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS Budiman, A. S., Besser, P. R., Hau-Riege, C. S., Marathe, A., Joo, Y., Tamura, N., Patel, J. R., Nix, W. D. 2009; 38 (3): 379-391
  • Microstructure Effect on EM-Induced Degradations in Dual Inlaid Copper Interconnects IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DEVICE AND MATERIALS RELIABILITY Sukharev, V., Kteyan, A., Zschech, E., Nix, W. D. 2009; 9 (1): 87-97
  • A quantitative analysis for the stress field around an elastoplastic indentation/contact Feng, G., Qu, S., Huang, Y., Nix, W. D. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. 2009: 704-718
  • Storage and loss stiffnesses and moduli as determined by dynamic nanoindentation Wright, W. J., Nix, W. D. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. 2009: 863-871
  • Exploiting New Opportunities in Materials Research by Remembering and Applying Old Lessons MRS BULLETIN Nix, W. D. 2009; 34 (2): 82-91
  • Yielding and Strain Hardening in Metallic Thin Films on Substrates: an Edge Dislocation Climb Model MATHEMATICS AND MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Nix, W. D. 2009; 14 (1-2): 207-219
  • Indentation size effects in single crystal copper as revealed by synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Feng, G., Budiman, A. S., Nix, W. D., Tamura, N., Patel, J. R. 2008; 104 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2966297

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259265100014

  • A model for power law creep controlled hillock growth MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Berla, L. A., Joo, Y., Nix, W. D. 2008; 488 (1-2): 594-600
  • Formation of chiral branched nanowires by the Eshelby Twist NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Zhu, J., Peng, H., Marshall, A. F., Barnett, D. M., Nix, W. D., Cui, Y. 2008; 3 (8): 477-481

    Abstract

    Manipulating the morphology of inorganic nanostructures, such as their chirality and branching structure, has been actively pursued as a means of controlling their electrical, optical and mechanical properties. Notable examples of chiral inorganic nanostructures include carbon nanotubes, gold multishell nanowires, mesoporous nanowires and helical nanowires. Branched nanostructures have also been studied and been shown to have interesting properties for energy harvesting and nanoelectronics. Combining both chiral and branching motifs into nanostructures might provide new materials properties. Here we show a chiral branched PbSe nanowire structure, which is formed by a vapour-liquid-solid branching from a central nanowire with an axial screw dislocation. The chirality is caused by the elastic strain of the axial screw dislocation, which produces a corresponding Eshelby Twist in the nanowires. In addition to opening up new opportunities for tailoring the properties of nanomaterials, these chiral branched nanowires also provide a direct visualization of the Eshelby Twist.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nnano.2008.179

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258325800011

    View details for PubMedID 18685634

  • Nanoscale deformation - Seeing is believing NATURE MATERIALS Hemker, K. J., Nix, W. D. 2008; 7 (2): 97-98

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nmat2103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252673000009

    View details for PubMedID 18219327

  • A search for evidence of strain gradient hardening in Au submicron pillars under uniaxial compression using synchrotron X-ray micro diffraction ACTA MATERIALIA Budiman, A. S., Han, S. M., Greer, J. R., Tamura, N., Patel, J. R., Nix, W. D. 2008; 56 (3): 602-608
  • Size dependence in mechanical properties of gold at the micron scale in the absence of strain gradients APPLIED PHYSICS A-MATERIALS SCIENCE & PROCESSING Greer, J. R., Nix, W. D. 2008; 90 (1): 203-203
  • A model for electromigration-induced degradation mechanisms in dual-inlaid copper interconnects: Effect of microstructure JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Sukharev, V., Zschech, E., Nix, W. D. 2007; 102 (5)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2775538

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249474100020

  • A model for hillock growth in Al thin films controlled by plastic deformation ACTA MATERIALIA Hwang, S., Nix, W. D., Joo, Y. 2007; 55 (15): 5297-5301
  • An analytical expression for the stress field around an elastoplastic indentation/contact ACTA MATERIALIA Feng, G., Qu, S., Huang, Y., Nix, W. D. 2007; 55 (9): 2929-2938
  • In-situ observation of electromigration in eutectic SnPb solder lines: Atomic migration and hillock formation JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS Yoon, M., Ko, M., Kim, O., Park, Y., Nix, W. D., Joo, Y. 2007; 36 (5): 562-567
  • Deformation at the nanometer and micrometer length scales: Effects of strain gradients and dislocation starvation Nix, W. D., Greer, J. R., Feng, G., Lilleodden, E. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2007: 3152-3157
  • An improved analysis for viscoelastic damping in dynamic nanoindentation INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SURFACE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Wright, W. J., Maloney, A. R., Nix, W. D. 2007; 1 (2-3): 274-292
  • Microstructure effect on EM-induced degradations in dual-inlaid copper interconnects STRESS-INDUCED PHENOMENA IN METALLIZATION Kteyan, A., Sukharev, V., Meyer, M., Zschech, E., Nix, W. D. 2007; 945: 42-55
  • Plasticity-amplified diffusivity: Dislocation cores as fast drffusion paths in cu interconnects 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL RELIABILITY PHYSICS SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS - 45TH ANNUAL Budiman, A. S., Hau-Riege, C. S., Besser, P. R., Marathe, A., Joo, Y., Tamura, N., Patel, J. R., Nix, W. D. 2007: 122-127
  • Electromigration-induced plasticity and texture in Cu interconnects STRESS-INDUCED PHENOMENA IN METALLIZATION Budiman, A. S., Hau-Riege, C. S., Besser, P. R., Marathe, A., Joo, Y. C., Tamura, N., Patel, J. R., Nix, W. D. 2007; 945: 56-65
  • Indentation of a hard film on a soft substrate: Strain gradient hardening effects INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLASTICITY Zhang, F., Saha, R., Huang, Y., Nix, W. D., Hwang, K. C., Qu, S., Li, M. 2007; 23 (1): 25-43
  • Comparison of Line stress predictions with measured electromigration failure times 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATED RELIABILITY WORKSHOP FINAL REPORT Morusupalli, R. R., Nix, W. D., Patel, J. R. 2007: 124-127
  • Single layer mesoporous silica thin films as templates for metallic nanoscale arrays JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Hussen, G. N., Shirakawa, H., Nix, W. D., Clemens, B. M. 2006; 100 (11)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2189927

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242887400154

  • Size effect in contact compression of nano- and microscale pyramid structures ACTA MATERIALIA Wang, J., Lian, J., Greer, J. R., Nix, W. D., Kim, K. 2006; 54 (15): 3973-3982
  • A model of size effects in nano-indentation JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Huang, Y., Zhang, F., Hwang, K. C., Nix, W. D., Pharr, G. M., Feng, G. 2006; 54 (8): 1668-1686
  • Crystal plasticity in Cu damascene interconnect lines undergoing electromigration as revealed by synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Budiman, A. S., Nix, W. D., Tamura, N., Valek, B. C., Gadre, K., Maiz, J., Spolenak, R., Patel, J. R. 2006; 88 (23)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2210451

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238914500090

  • Nanoscale gold pillars strengthened through dislocation starvation PHYSICAL REVIEW B Greer, J. R., Nix, W. D. 2006; 73 (24)
  • A study of the mechanical properties of nanowires using nanoindentation JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Feng, G., Nix, W. D., Yoon, Y., Lee, C. J. 2006; 99 (7)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2189020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236770900055

  • Microstructural length-scale effects in the nanoindentation behavior of thin gold films ACTA MATERIALIA Lilleodden, E. T., Nix, W. D. 2006; 54 (6): 1583-1593
  • Determining hardness of thin films in elastically mismatched film-on-substrate systems using nanoindentation ACTA MATERIALIA Han, S. M., Saha, R., Nix, W. D. 2006; 54 (6): 1571-1581
  • Size dependence in mechanical properties of gold at the micron scale in the absence of strain gradients (vol 53, pg 1821, 2005) ACTA MATERIALIA Greer, J. R., OLIVER, W. C., Nix, W. D. 2006; 54 (6): 1705-1705
  • Anelastic behavior of copper thin films on silicon substrates: Damping associated with dislocations ACTA MATERIALIA Choi, D. H., Nix, W. D. 2006; 54 (3): 679-687
  • Electromigration-induced plastic deformation in Cu damascene interconnect lines as revealed by Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction MATERIALS, TECHNOLOGY AND RELIABILITY OF LOW-K DIELECTRICS AND COPPER INTERCONNECTS Budiman, A. S., Tamura, N., Valek, B. C., Gadre, K., Maiz, J., Spolenak, R., Patel, J. R., Nix, W. D. 2006; 914: 295-304
  • Remarks MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Nix, W. D. 2005; 409 (1-2): 5-6
  • Mechanism-based strain gradient crystal plasticity - II. Analysis JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Han, C. S., Gao, H. J., Huang, Y. G., Nix, W. D. 2005; 53 (5): 1204-1222
  • Mechanism-based strain gradient crystal plasticity - I. Theory JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Han, C. S., Gao, H. J., Huang, Y. G., Nix, W. D. 2005; 53 (5): 1188-1203
  • Size dependence of mechanical properties of gold at the sub-micron scale APPLIED PHYSICS A-MATERIALS SCIENCE & PROCESSING Greer, J. R., Nix, W. D. 2005; 80 (8): 1625-1629
  • Combinatorial studies of mechanical properties of Ti-Al thin films using nanoindentation ACTA MATERIALIA Han, S. M., Shah, R., Banerjee, R., Viswanathan, G. B., Clemens, B. M., Nix, W. D. 2005; 53 (7): 2059-2067
  • Size dependence of mechanical properties of gold at the micron scale in the absence of strain gradients ACTA MATERIALIA Greer, J. R., OLIVER, W. C., Nix, W. D. 2005; 53 (6): 1821-1830
  • A microbeam bending method for studying stress-strain relations for metal thin films on silicon substrates JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Florando, J. N., Nix, W. D. 2005; 53 (3): 619-638
  • Critical thickness enhancement of epitaxial SiGe films grown on small structures JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Liang, Y., Nix, W. D., Griffin, P. B., Plummer, J. D. 2005; 97 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1854204

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226841900030

  • Misfit dislocation dissociation and Lomer formation in low mismatch SiGe/Si heterostructures JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Marshall, A. F., Aubertine, D. B., Nix, W. D., McIntyre, P. C. 2005; 20 (2): 447-455
  • Comparison of the telephone cord delamination method for measuring interfacial adhesion with the four-point bending method ACTA MATERIALIA Lee, A., Litteken, C. S., Dauskardt, R. H., Nix, W. D. 2005; 53 (3): 609-616
  • Comparison of line stress predictions with measured electromigration failure times THIN FILMS STRESSES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES XI Morusupalli, R. R., Nix, W. D., Patel, J. R., Budiman, A. S. 2005; 875: 313-318
  • Comparison of line Stress predictions with measured electromigration failure times MATERIALS, TECHNOLOGY AND RELIABILITY OF ADVANCED INTERCONNECTS-2005 Morusupalli, R. R., Nix, W. D., Patel, J. R., Budiman, A. S. 2005; 863: 253-258
  • Indenter tip radius effect on the Nix-Gao relation in micro- and nanoindentation hardness experiments JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Qu, S., Huang, Y., Nix, W. D., Jiang, H., Zhang, F., Hwang, K. C. 2004; 19 (11): 3423-3434
  • Quantitative impedance measurement using atomic force microscopy JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS O'Hayre, R., Feng, G., Nix, W. D., Prinz, F. B. 2004; 96 (6): 3540-3549

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1778217

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223720000082

  • Studies of the driving force for room-temperature microstructure evolution in electroplated copper films JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B Lee, H., Nix, W. D., Wong, S. S. 2004; 22 (5): 2369-2374

    View details for DOI 10.1116/1.1788680

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225048300022

  • Indentation size effect in MgO SCRIPTA MATERIALIA Feng, G., Nix, W. D. 2004; 51 (6): 599-603
  • Sample dimensions influence strength and crystal plasticity SCIENCE Uchic, M. D., Dimiduk, D. M., Florando, J. N., Nix, W. D. 2004; 305 (5686): 986-989

    Abstract

    When a crystal deforms plastically, phenomena such as dislocation storage, multiplication, motion, pinning, and nucleation occur over the submicron-to-nanometer scale. Here we report measurements of plastic yielding for single crystals of micrometer-sized dimensions for three different types of metals. We find that within the tests, the overall sample dimensions artificially limit the length scales available for plastic processes. The results show dramatic size effects at surprisingly large sample dimensions. These results emphasize that at the micrometer scale, one must define both the external geometry and internal structure to characterize the strength of a material.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223250700042

    View details for PubMedID 15310897

  • Shear band spacing under bending of Zr-based metallic glass plates ACTA MATERIALIA Conner, R. D., Li, Y., Nix, W. D., Johnson, W. L. 2004; 52 (8): 2429-2434
  • Stress induced delamination methods for the study of adhesion of Pt thin films to Si ACTA MATERIALIA Lee, A., Clemens, B. M., Nix, W. D. 2004; 52 (7): 2081-2093
  • Anelasticity and damping of thin aluminum films on silicon substrates JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Choi, D. H., Kim, H., Nix, W. D. 2004; 13 (2): 230-237
  • Coherency and surface stress effects in metal multilayers SCRIPTA MATERIALIA Ramaswamy, V., Nix, W. D., Clemens, B. M. 2004; 50 (6): 711-715
  • Mechanical property measurements of pure Ni, Ni3Al, and Ni-base superalloys at the micron-size scale SURFACES AND INTERFACES IN NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS AND TRENDS IN LIGA, MINIATURIZATION, AND NANOSCALE MATERIALS Uchic, M. D., Dimiduk, D. M., Seekely, M. J., Florando, J. N., Nix, W. D. 2004: 321-321
  • Some challenges in understanding. mechanical properties at the nanometer and micrometer length scales SURFACES AND INTERFACES IN NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS AND TRENDS IN LIGA, MINIATURIZATION, AND NANOSCALE MATERIALS Nix, W. D., Gang, F., Greer, J. R. 2004: 273-273
  • Unexpected mode of plastic deformation in Cu damascene lines undergoing electromigration MATERIALS, TECHNOLOGY AND RELIABILITY FOR ADVANCED INTERCONNECTS AND LOW-K DIELECTRICS-2004 Budiman, A. S., Tamura, N., Valek, B. C., Gadre, K., Maiz, J., Spolenak, R., Caldwell, W. A., Nix, W. D., Patel, J. R. 2004; 812: 345-350
  • The prospects for mechanical ratcheting of bulk metallic glasses AMORPHOUS AND NANOCRYSTALLINE METALS Wright, W. J., Dauskardt, R. H., Nix, W. D. 2004; 806: 319-324
  • Early stage of plastic deformation in thin films undergoing electromigration JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Valek, B. C., Tamura, N., Spolenak, R., Caldwell, W. A., MacDowell, A. A., Celestre, R. S., Padmore, H. A., Braman, J. C., Batterman, B. W., Nix, W. D., Patel, J. R. 2003; 94 (6): 3757-3761

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1600843

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185419600010

  • Self-assembled nanostructures through wavelength-controlled spinodal decomposition APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Greaney, P. A., Chrzan, D. C., Clemens, B. M., Nix, W. D. 2003; 83 (7): 1364-1366

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1602581

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184748600028

  • Shear bands and cracking of metallic glass plates in bending JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Conner, R. D., Johnson, W. L., Paton, N. E., Nix, W. D. 2003; 94 (2): 904-911

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1582555

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183842200013

  • Microstructure and nanoindentation hardness of Al/Al3Sc multilayers ACTA MATERIALIA Phillips, M. A., Clemens, B. M., Nix, W. D. 2003; 51 (11): 3171-3184
  • A model for dislocation behavior during deformation of Al/Al3SC (fcc/L1(2))metallic multilayers ACTA MATERIALIA Phillips, M. A., Clemens, B. M., Nix, W. D. 2003; 51 (11): 3157-3170
  • Atomistic simulations of elastic deformation and dislocation nucleation during nanoindentation JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Lilleodden, E. T., Zimmerman, J. A., Foiles, S. M., Nix, W. D. 2003; 51 (5): 901-920
  • Surface diffusion and growth of patterned nanostructures on strained surfaces PHYSICAL REVIEW B Sabiryanov, R. F., Larsson, M. I., Cho, K. J., Nix, W. D., Clemens, B. M. 2003; 67 (12)
  • Growth and properties of small Co islands on a strained Pt surface Sabiryanov, R. F., Cho, K., Larsson, M. I., Nix, W. D., Clemens, B. M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2003: 365-368
  • Free volume coalescence and void formation in shear bands in metallic glass JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Wright, W. J., Hufnagel, T. C., Nix, W. D. 2003; 93 (3): 1432-1437

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1531212

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180630200014

  • Exploring specimen size effects in plastic deformation of Ni-3(Al, Ta) DEFECT PROPERTIES AND RELATED PHENOMENA IN INTERMETALLIC ALLOYS Uchic, M. D., Dimiduk, D. M., Florando, J. N., Nix, W. D. 2003; 753: 27-32
  • Identification of elastic-plastic material parameters from pyramidal indentation of thin films PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES Huber, N., Nix, W. D., Gao, H. 2002; 458 (2023): 1593-1620
  • Confined capillary stresses during the initial growth of thin films on amorphous substrates JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME Gill, S. P., Gao, H., Ramaswamy, V., Nix, W. D. 2002; 69 (4): 425-432

    View details for DOI 10.1115/1.1469001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176668800005

  • Inhomogeneous deformation in metallic glasses JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Huang, R., Suo, Z., Prevost, J. H., Nix, W. D. 2002; 50 (5): 1011-1027
  • Effects of the substrate on the determination of thin film mechanical properties by nanoindentation ACTA MATERIALIA Saha, R., Nix, W. D. 2002; 50 (1): 23-38
  • Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of strain-induced nanopatterning on hexagonal surfaces MODELING AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MATERIALS BEHAVIOR AND EVOLUTION Larsson, M. I., Lee, B., Sabiryanov, R., Cho, K., Nix, W., Clemens, B. M. 2002; 731: 269-274
  • High strength nanoscale Al/Al3Sc multilayers formed by interface reaction NANOSTRUCTURED INTERFACES Phillips, M. A., Clemens, B. M., Nix, W. D. 2002; 727: 65-70
  • Special issue - 12th International Conference on the Strength of Materials - ICSMA-12 - Preface MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Mills, M. J., Fraser, H. L., Mukherjee, A. K., Nix, W. D., Schwarz, R. B. 2001; 319: XVII-XVII
  • Microstructural mechanical properties and yield point effects in Mo alloys MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Goken, M., Sakidja, R., Nix, W. D., Perepezko, J. H. 2001; 319: 902-908
  • Soft films on hard substrates - nanoindentation of tungsten films on sapphire substrates Saha, R., Nix, W. D. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2001: 898-901
  • Observation of the strengthening of Pt layers in Ni/Pt and Pd/Pt multilayers by in-situ substrate curvature measurement Ramaswamy, V., Phillips, M. A., Nix, W. D., Clemens, B. M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2001: 887-892
  • Localized heating during serrated plastic flow in bulk metallic glasses Wright, W. J., Schwarz, R. B., Nix, W. D. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2001: 229-232
  • Sigmoidal creep of Ni-3(Al, Ta) INTERMETALLICS Uchic, M. D., Nix, W. D. 2001; 9 (12): 1053-1061
  • Effect of intrinsic lattice resistance in strain gradient plasticity ACTA MATERIALIA Qiu, X., Huang, Y., Nix, W. D., Hwang, K. C., Gao, H. 2001; 49 (19): 3949-3958
  • Primary creep of Ni-3(Al, Ta) in the anomalous flow regime Uchic, M. D., Chrzan, D. C., Nix, W. D. ELSEVIER SCI LTD. 2001: 963-969
  • Indentation of a soft metal film on a hard substrate: strain gradient hardening effects JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Saha, R., Xue, Z. Y., Huang, Y., Nix, W. D. 2001; 49 (9): 1997-2014
  • Comparison of mechanical properties of Ni3Al thin films in disordered FCC and ordered L1(2) phases ACTA MATERIALIA Huang, Y., Aziz, M. J., Hutchinson, J. W., Evans, A. G., Saha, R., Nix, W. D. 2001; 49 (14): 2853-2861
  • Study of the effect of grain boundary migration on hillock formation in Al thin films JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Kim, D. K., Nix, W. D., Vinci, R. P., Deal, M. D., Plummer, J. D. 2001; 90 (2): 781-788
  • Deformation mechanisms of the Zr40Ti14Ni10Cu12Be24 bulk metallic glass Wright, W. J., Saha, R., Nix, W. D. JAPAN INST METALS. 2001: 642-649
  • Hardness and modulus of the lamellar microstructure in PST-TiAl studied by nanoindentations and AFM ACTA MATERIALIA Goken, M., Kempf, M., Nix, W. D. 2001; 49 (5): 903-911
  • Low force electrical contact measurements using piezoresistive MEMS cantilevers to characterize thin-film metallization TRANSDUCERS '01: EUROSENSORS XV, DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS, VOLS 1 AND 2 Pruitt, B., Choi, D. H., Florando, J., Martens, R., Wenzel, S., Reynolds, C., Nix, W., Kenny, T. 2001: 1032-1035
  • Role of delocalized nitrogen in determining the local atomic arrangement and mechanical properties of amorphous carbon nitride thin films JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY A Holloway, B. C., Kraft, O., Shuh, D. K., Nix, W. D., Kelly, M., Pianetta, P., Hagstrom, S. 2000; 18 (6): 2964-2971
  • Stress and microstructure evolution during initial growth of Pt on amorphous substrates JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Phillips, M. A., Ramaswamy, V., Clemens, B. M., Nix, W. D. 2000; 15 (11): 2540-2546
  • A study of microindentation hardness tests by mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Huang, Y., Xue, Z., Gao, H., Nix, W. D., Xia, Z. C. 2000; 15 (8): 1786-1796
  • A search for strain gradients in gold thin films on substrates using x-ray diffraction JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Leung, O. S., Munkholm, A., Brennan, S., Nix, W. D. 2000; 88 (3): 1389-1396
  • Creep-controlled diffusional hillock formation in blanket aluminum thin films as a mechanism of stress relaxation JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Kim, D., Nix, W. D., Deal, M. D., Plummer, J. D. 2000; 15 (8): 1709-1718
  • Microstructure of thermal hillocks on blanket Al thin films THIN SOLID FILMS Kim, D., Heiland, B., Nix, W. D., Arzt, E., Deal, M. D., Plummer, J. D. 2000; 371 (1-2): 278-282
  • Critical thickness in the HgCdTe/CdZnTe system Berding, M. A., Nix, W. D., Rhiger, D. R., Sen, S., Sher, A. SPRINGER. 2000: 676-679
  • X-ray measurements of the depth dependence of stress in gold films Brennan, S., Munkholm, A., Leung, O. S., Nix, W. D. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2000: 125-129
  • Surface-energy-driven intermixing and its effect on the measurement of interface stress JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Clemens, B. M., Nix, W. D., Ramaswamy, V. 2000; 87 (6): 2816-2820
  • Finite element analysis of the wedge delamination test INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Schulze, M., Nix, W. D. 2000; 37 (7): 1045-1063
  • Decrepitation Model For Capacity Loss During Cycling of Alloys in Rechargeable Electrochemical Systems IONICS Huggins, R. A., Nix, W. D. 2000; 6 (1-2): 57-63
  • A model for calculating substrate curvature during coalescence of PT islands on an amorphous substrate MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS-EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING Phillips, M. A., Ramaswamy, V., Clemens, B. M., Nix, W. D. 2000; 578: 39-44
  • Wafer curvature studies of strengthening mechanisms in thin films on substrates THIN FILMS-STRESSES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES VIII Leung, O. S., Nix, W. D. 2000; 594: 51-56
  • Mechanisms of time-dependent plasticity in polycrystalline thin films on substrates DEFORMATION, PROCESSING, AND PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Dalbec, T. R., Leung, O. S., Nix, W. D. 2000: 95-108
  • Diffusional hillock formation in Al thin films controlled by creep THIN FILMS-STRESSES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES VIII Kim, D. K., Nix, W. D., Arzt, E., Deal, M. D., Plummer, J. D. 2000; 594: 129-134
  • Mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity - II. Analysis JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Huang, Y., Gao, H., Nix, W. D., Hutchinson, J. W. 2000; 48 (1): 99-128
  • Mechanical properties of a particle-strengthened polyurethane foam JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE Goods, S. H., Neuschwanger, C. L., Whinnery, L. L., Nix, W. D. 1999; 74 (11): 2724-2736
  • Modeling plasticity at the micrometer scale NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN Gao, H., Huang, Y., Nix, W. D. 1999; 86 (11): 507-515
  • Self-immobilization of superdislocations in L1(2) alloys: a simple statistical analysis PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STRUCTURE DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Chrzan, D. C., Uchic, M. D., Nix, W. D. 1999; 79 (10): 2397-2412
  • Strain directed assembly of nanoparticle arrays within a semiconductor JOURNAL OF NANOPARTICLE RESEARCH Hung, C., Marshall, A. F., Kim, D., Nix, W. D., Harris, J. S., Kiehl, R. A. 1999; 1 (3): 329-347
  • A physically based model of electromigration and stress-induced void formation in microelectronic interconnects JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Gleixner, R. J., Nix, W. D. 1999; 86 (4): 1932-1944
  • Crack-like grain-boundary diffusion wedges in thin metal films ACTA MATERIALIA Gao, H., Zhang, L., Nix, W. D., Thompson, C. V., Arzt, E. 1999; 47 (10): 2865-2878
  • Crystallite coalescence: A mechanism for intrinsic tensile stresses in thin films JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Nix, W. D., Clemens, B. M. 1999; 14 (8): 3467-3473
  • Stress-driven surface evolution in heteroepitaxial thin films: Anisotropy of the two-dimensional roughening mode JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Ozkan, C. S., Nix, W. D., Gao, H. J. 1999; 14 (8): 3247-3256
  • Indentation plastic displacement field: Part II. The case of hard films on soft substrates JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Tsui, T. Y., Vlassak, J., Nix, W. D. 1999; 14 (6): 2204-2209
  • Mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity - I. Theory JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Gao, H., Huang, Y., Nix, W. D., Hutchinson, J. W. 1999; 47 (6): 1239-1263
  • Indentation plastic displacement field: Part I. The case of soft films on hard substrates JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Tsui, T. Y., Vlassak, J., Nix, W. D. 1999; 14 (6): 2196-2203
  • Interpretation of x-ray photoelectron spectra of elastic amorphous carbon nitride thin films APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Holloway, B. C., Kraft, O., Shuh, D. K., Kelly, M. A., Nix, W. D., Pianetta, P., Hagstrom, S. 1999; 74 (22): 3290-3292
  • Growth and characterization of epitaxial NiMnSb/PtMnSb C1(b) Heusler alloy superlattices JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Mancoff, F. B., Bobo, J. F., Richter, O. E., Bessho, K., Johnson, P. R., Sinclair, R., Nix, W. D., White, R. L., Clemens, B. M. 1999; 14 (4): 1560-1569
  • High-temperature deformation behavior of NiAl(Ti) solid-solution single crystals METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Kitabjian, P. H., Garg, A., Noebe, R. D., Nix, W. D. 1999; 30 (3): 587-600
  • Atomistic models of dislocation formation at crystal surface ledges in Si1-xGex/Si(100) heteroepitaxial thin films PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STRUCTURE DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Gao, H., Ozkan, C. S., Nix, W. D., Zimmerman, J. A., Freund, L. B. 1999; 79 (2): 349-370
  • Modeling plasticity at the micrometer scale Die Naturwissenschaften Gao, H., Huang, Y., Nix, W. D. 1999; 86 (11): 507-15

    Abstract

    Plastic deformation exhibits a strong dependence upon size at and below micrometer length scales. To model micrometer scale plasticity we propose a theory called mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity (MSG), which connects microscale dislocation interactions to mesoscale plasticity via a hierarchical framework linking Taylor's dislocation hardening model to strain gradient plasticity. We distinguish the microscale, at which dislocation interaction is considered, from the mesoscale, at which the plasticity theory is formulated. The MSG theory differs from all existing phenomenological theories of plasticity in its mechanism-based guiding principles. We show that the MSG theory gives predictions in agreement with microindentation, microtorsion, and microbending experiments.

    View details for PubMedID 10551944

  • Measurement of thin film mechanical properties by microbeam bending MATERIALS RELIABILITY IN MICROELECTRONICS IX Florando, J., Fujimoto, H., Ma, Q., Kraft, O., Schwaiger, R., Nix, W. D. 1999; 563: 231-236
  • Surface roughening of heteroepitaxial thin films ANNUAL REVIEW OF MATERIALS SCIENCE Gao, H. J., Nix, W. D. 1999; 29: 173-209
  • An atomistic interpretation of interface stress SCRIPTA MATERIALIA Nix, W. D., Gao, H. J. 1998; 39 (12): 1653-1661
  • Yielding and strain hardening of thin metal films on substrates Nix, W. D. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 1998: 545-554
  • Determination of indenter tip geometry and indentation contact area for depth-sensing indentation experiments JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH McElhaney, K. W., Vlassak, J. J., Nix, W. D. 1998; 13 (5): 1300-1306
  • Effect of "bamboo" grain boundaries on the maximum electromigration-induced stress in microelectronic interconnect lines JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Gleixner, R. J., Nix, W. D. 1998; 83 (7): 3595-3599
  • Measurement of the lattice thermal expansion coefficients of thin metal films on substrates JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Kraft, O., Nix, W. D. 1998; 83 (6): 3035-3038
  • In memory of O.C. Shepard JOM-JOURNAL OF THE MINERALS METALS & MATERIALS SOCIETY Nix, W. D. 1998; 50 (3): 52-52
  • Indentation size effects in crystalline materials: A law for strain gradient plasticity JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Nix, W. D., Gao, H. J. 1998; 46 (3): 411-425
  • Atomic size effects in Ni-Al based solid solutions ACTA MATERIALIA Kitabjian, P. H., Nix, W. D. 1998; 46 (2): 701-710
  • Determination of temperature dependent unstressed lattice spacings in crystalline thin films on substrates THIN-FILMS - STRESSES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES VII Cornella, G., Lee, S., Kraft, O., Nix, W. D., Bravman, J. C. 1998; 505: 527-532
  • Stress evolution in sputtered FCC metal multilayers THIN-FILMS - STRESSES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES VII Ramaswamy, V., Nix, W. D., Clemens, B. M. 1998; 505: 589-593
  • Modeling of failure time distributions for interconnects due to stress voiding and electromigration MATERIALS RELIABILITY IN MICROELECTRONICS VIII Wolfer, W. G., Bartelt, M. C., DIKE, J. J., Hoyt, J. J., Gleixner, R. J., Nix, W. D. 1998; 516: 147-158
  • In-situ TEM observations of surface roughening and defect formation in lattice mismatched heteroepitaxial thin films THIN-FILMS - STRESSES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES VII Ozkan, C. S., Nix, W. D., Gao, H. J. 1998; 505: 291-298
  • Stress evolution during growth of sputtered Ni/Cu multilayers MECHANISMS AND PRINCIPLES OF EPITAXIAL GROWTH IN METALLIC SYSTEMS Ramaswamy, V., Clemens, B. M., Nix, W. D. 1998; 528: 161-168
  • A new technique for visualizing the displacement field of indentations: The case of a soft film on a hard substrate THIN-FILMS - STRESSES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES VII Vlassak, J. J., Tsui, T. Y., Nix, W. D. 1998; 505: 71-76
  • Alloying effects in electromigration: Modeling and experiments STRESS INDUCED PHENOMENA IN METALLIZATION - FOURTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP Spolenak, R., Kraft, O., Nix, W. D., Arzt, E. 1998: 147-158
  • An analysis technique for extraction of thin film stresses from x-ray data APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Cornella, G., Lee, S. H., Nix, W. D., Bravman, J. C. 1997; 71 (20): 2949-2951
  • Elastic and plastic properties of thin films on substrates: nanoindentation techniques Nix, W. D. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 1997: 37-44
  • Void nucleation in passivated interconnect lines: Effects of site geometries, interfaces, and interface flaws JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Gleixner, R. J., Clemens, B. M., Nix, W. D. 1997; 12 (8): 2081-2090
  • Void nucleation on a contaminated patch JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Clemens, B. M., Nix, W. D., Gleixner, R. J. 1997; 12 (8): 2038-2042
  • A simple technique for measuring the adhesion of brittle films to ductile substrates with application to diamond-coated titanium JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Vlassak, J. J., DRORY, M. D., Nix, W. D. 1997; 12 (7): 1900-1910
  • Strain relaxation and defect formation in heteroepitaxial Si1-xGex films via surface roughening induced by controlled annealing experiments APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Ozkan, C. S., Nix, W. D., Gao, H. J. 1997; 70 (17): 2247-2249
  • The solid-solution alloying effects of Ti on the high-temperature deformation behavior of NiAl single crystals HIGH-TEMPERATURE ORDERED INTERMETALLIC ALLOYS VII Kitabjian, P. H., Garg, A., Noebe, R., Nix, W. D. 1997; 460: 479-486
  • Primary creep of Ni-3(Al,Ta) single crystals at room temperature Uchic, M. D., Nix, W. D. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 1997: 437-442
  • An examination of mass transport paths in conventional and highly textured Al-Cu interconnect lines POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILMS - STRUCTURE, TEXTURE, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS III Gleixner, R. J., Kaneko, H., Matsuo, M., Toyoda, H., Nix, W. D. 1997; 472: 319-324
  • Effect of stresses on defect nucleation in Si1-xGex/Si heteroepitaxial systems DEFECTS IN ELECTRONIC MATERIALS II Ozkan, C. S., Nix, W. D., Gao, H. J. 1997; 442: 373-379
  • Measuring interfacial fracture toughness with the blister test Hohlfelder, R. J., Luo, H., Vlassak, J. J., Chidsey, C. E., Nix, W. D. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 1997: 115-120
  • An analysis of void nucleation in passivated interconnect lines due to vacancy condensation and interface contamination THIN FILMS: STRESSES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES VI Gleixner, R. J., Nix, W. D. 1997; 436: 405-410
  • Scanning stiffness microscopy - A novel technique for detecting sub-surface cracks MATERIALS RELIABILITY IN MICROELECTRONICS VII Saha, R., Tsui, T. Y., Ross, C. A., Nix, W. D. 1997; 473: 285-290
  • Anisotropic behaviour of surface roughening in lattice mismatched heteroepitaxial thin films THIN FILMS: STRESSES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES VI Ozkan, C. S., Nix, W. D., Gao, H. J. 1997; 436: 487-492
  • Critical thickness condition for a strained compliant substrate/epitaxial film system APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Freund, L. B., Nix, W. D. 1996; 69 (2): 173-175
  • High-temperature deformation properties of NiAl single crystals METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE FORBES, K. R., Glatzel, U., Darolia, R., Nix, W. D. 1996; 27 (5): 1229-1240
  • Identification of precipitate phases in a mechanically alloyed rapidly solidified Al-Fe-Ce alloy METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Ovecoglu, M. L., Suryanarayana, C., Nix, W. D. 1996; 27 (4): 1033-1041
  • High-temperature creep behavior of single crystals of the solid-solution alloy NiAl-2.5Ti CREEP AND FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES Kitabjian, P. H., Garg, A., Noebe, R. D., Nix, W. D. 1996: 667-676
  • Mechanisms of dislocation creep in single phase nickel and titanium aluminides STRUCTURAL INTERMETALLICS 1997 Hemker, K. J., Nix, W. D. 1996: 21-32
  • An analysis of void nucleation in passivated interconnect lines due to vacancy condensation and interface contamination MATERIALS RELIABILITY IN MICROELECTRONICS VI Gleixner, R. J., Nix, W. D. 1996; 428: 475-480
  • EFFECT OF COHERENCY STRESSES ON THE HARDNESS OF EPITAXIAL FE(001)/PT(001) MULTILAYERS (VOL 66, PG 2969, 1995) APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Daniels, B. J., Nix, W. D., Clemens, B. M. 1995; 67 (7): 1036-1036
  • EFFECT OF COHERENCY STRESSES ON THE HARDNESS OF EPITAXIAL FE(001)/PT(001) MULTILAYERS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Daniels, B. J., Nix, W. D., Clemens, B. M. 1995; 66 (22): 2969-2971
  • ANION ORDERING IN AGED STABILIZED BISMUTH OXIDE MATERIALS LETTERS Jiang, N., Buchanan, R. M., Stevenson, D. A., Nix, W. D., Li, J. Z., Yang, J. L. 1995; 22 (5-6): 215-219
  • ENHANCED MECHANICAL HARDNESS IN COMPOSITIONALLY MODULATED FE(001)/PT(001) AND FE(001)/CR(001) EPITAXIAL THIN-FILMS THIN SOLID FILMS Daniels, B. J., Nix, W. D., Clemens, B. M. 1994; 253 (1-2): 218-222
  • INTRINSIC STRESSES IN COMPOSITIONALLY MODULATED AU-NI THIN-FILMS AND THE SUPERMODULUS EFFECT JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Baker, S. P., Nix, W. D. 1994; 9 (12): 3145-3152
  • MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITIONALLY MODULATED AU-NI THIN-FILMS - NANOINDENTATION AND MICROCANTILEVER DEFLECTION EXPERIMENTS JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Baker, S. P., Nix, W. D. 1994; 9 (12): 3131-3145
  • ROLE OF DISLOCATION BLOCKING IN LIMITING STRAIN RELAXATION IN HETEROEPITAXIAL FILMS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS GILLARD, V. T., Nix, W. D., Freund, L. B. 1994; 76 (11): 7280-7287
  • ELECTROMIGRATION FAILURE BY SHAPE CHANGE OF VOIDS IN BAMBOO LINES JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Arzt, E., Kraft, O., Nix, W. D., Sanchez, J. E. 1994; 76 (3): 1563-1571
  • MEASURING THE ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF ANISOTROPIC MATERIALS BY MEANS OF INDENTATION EXPERIMENTS JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Vlassak, J. J., Nix, W. D. 1994; 42 (8): 1223-1245
  • MECHANICAL STRENGTH AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF OXYGEN ION-IMPLANTED AL FILMS JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Bader, S., Flinn, P. A., Arzt, E., Nix, W. D. 1994; 9 (2): 318-327
  • THE ELASTIC BIAXIAL MODULUS OF AG-PD MULTILAYERED THIN-FILMS MEASURED USING THE BULGE TEST JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Small, M. K., Daniels, B. J., Clemens, B. M., Nix, W. D. 1994; 9 (1): 25-30
  • STUDY OF THE DISLOCATION PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH STRAIN RELAXATION IN SI-GE HETEROEPITAXIAL FILMS ZEITSCHRIFT FUR METALLKUNDE GILLARD, V. T., Nix, W. D. 1993; 84 (12): 874-880
  • MECHANICAL-BEHAVIOR OF THIN-FILMS MRS BULLETIN Bravman, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1992; 17 (7): 25-27
  • THE EFFECT OF OXYGEN ON THE THERMAL-STABILITY OF SI1-XGEX STRAINED LAYERS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Noble, D. B., Hoyt, J. L., Nix, W. D., Gibbons, J. F., LADERMAN, S. S., Turner, J. E., Scott, M. P. 1991; 58 (14): 1536-1538
  • FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CONE INDENTATION INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Bhattacharya, A. K., Nix, W. D. 1991; 27 (8): 1047-1058
  • GEOMETRIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE INTERNAL-STRESS DISTRIBUTION AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE CREEP RATE OF DISCONTINUOUS FIBER REINFORCED METALS ACTA METALLURGICA ET MATERIALIA Dragone, T. L., Nix, W. D. 1990; 38 (10): 1941-1953
  • MEASURING STIFFNESSES AND RESIDUAL-STRESSES OF SILICON-NITRIDE THIN-FILMS Hong, S., Weihs, T. P., Bravman, J. C., Nix, W. D. MINERALS METALS MATERIALS SOC. 1990: 903-909
  • ON THE QUESTION OF STRAIN RATE CONTINUITY IN STRESS RATE CHANGE EXPERIMENTS SCRIPTA METALLURGICA ET MATERIALIA Kuo, C. M., FORBES, K. R., Baker, S. P., Nix, W. D. 1990; 24 (9): 1623-1628
  • NUMERICAL-ANALYSIS OF CREEP CRACK-GROWTH IN PRECAVITATED POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Kim, Y. S., Nix, W. D. 1990; 127 (1): 41-50
  • MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF NANOPHASE TIO2 AS DETERMINED BY NANOINDENTATION JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Mayo, M. J., Siegel, R. W., Narayanasamy, A., Nix, W. D. 1990; 5 (5): 1073-1082
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE CRACK-GROWTH IN COPPER UNDER CYCLIC LOADING CONDITIONS SCRIPTA METALLURGICA ET MATERIALIA Kim, Y. S., Nix, W. D. 1990; 24 (1): 213-218
  • STRAIN-HARDENING AND SUBSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTION IN NI-CO SOLID-SOLUTIONS AT LARGE STRAINS MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Hughes, D. A., Nix, W. D. 1989; 122 (2): 153-172
  • CREEP CRACK-GROWTH IN COPPER CONTAINING PRE-IMPLANTED GRAIN-BOUNDARY CAVITIES ACTA METALLURGICA Kim, Y. S., Nix, W. D. 1989; 37 (9): 2531-2538
  • DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SUPERPLASTIC FLOW MECHANISMS IN TORSION ACTA METALLURGICA Mayo, M. J., Nix, W. D. 1989; 37 (4): 1121-1134
  • THE ABSENCE OF STEADY-STATE FLOW DURING LARGE STRAIN PLASTIC-DEFORMATION OF SOME FCC METALS AT LOW AND INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURES METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Hughes, D. A., Nix, W. D. 1988; 19 (12): 3013-3024
  • MECHANICAL DEFLECTION OF CANTILEVER MICROBEAMS - A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR TESTING THE MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF THIN-FILMS JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Weihs, T. P., Hong, S., Bravman, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1988; 3 (5): 931-942
  • MECHANISMS OF ELEVATED-TEMPERATURE DEFORMATION IN THE B2 ALUMINIDES NIAL AND COAL JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE YANEY, D. L., Nix, W. D. 1988; 23 (9): 3088-3098
  • MECHANISMS AND CONTROLLING FACTORS IN CREEP FRACTURE MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Nix, W. D. 1988; 103 (1): 103-110
  • A MICRO-INDENTATION STUDY OF SUPERPLASTICITY IN PB, SN, AND SN-38 WT-PERCENT-PB ACTA METALLURGICA Mayo, M. J., Nix, W. D. 1988; 36 (8): 2183-2192
  • CRACK TIP STRESS-FIELDS AND DISLOCATION NUCLEATION IN ANISOTROPIC MATERIALS SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Dragone, T. L., Nix, W. D. 1988; 22 (3): 431-435
  • DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF THE FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE TO SLIDING OF A FIBER IN A BRITTLE MATRIX SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Weihs, T. P., Nix, W. D. 1988; 22 (2): 271-275
  • TWO-DIMENSIONAL THERMAL-OXIDATION OF SILICON .2. MODELING STRESS EFFECTS IN WET OXIDES IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Kao, D. B., McVittie, J. P., Nix, W. D., Saraswat, K. C. 1988; 35 (1): 25-37
  • FINITE-ELEMENT SIMULATION OF INDENTATION EXPERIMENTS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Bhattacharya, A. K., Nix, W. D. 1988; 24 (9): 881-891
  • STRESSES AND DEFORMATION PROCESSES IN THIN-FILMS ON SUBSTRATES CRC CRITICAL REVIEWS IN SOLID STATE AND MATERIALS SCIENCES Doerner, M. F., Nix, W. D. 1988; 14 (3): 225-268
  • ANALYSIS OF ELASTIC AND PLASTIC-DEFORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH INDENTATION TESTING OF THIN-FILMS ON SUBSTRATES INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Bhattacharya, A. K., Nix, W. D. 1988; 24 (12): 1287-1298
  • ELASTIC INTERACTIONS OF SCREW DISLOCATIONS IN THIN-FILMS ON SUBSTRATES ACTA METALLURGICA Ovecoglu, M. L., Doerner, M. F., Nix, W. D. 1987; 35 (12): 2947-2957
  • CONTROLLING FACTORS FOR CRACK-GROWTH UNDER CREEP CONDITIONS ACTA METALLURGICA Wang, J. S., Kim, Y. S., Nix, W. D. 1987; 35 (10): 2593-2605
  • ANALYSIS OF THE INTERFACIAL STRESSES PRODUCED BY A PILE-UP OF DISCRETE EDGE DISLOCATIONS IN 2 PHASE MATERIALS ACTA METALLURGICA Ovecoglu, M. L., Barnett, D. M., Nix, W. D. 1987; 35 (7): 1779-1789
  • SIMULATIONS OF STABLE CRACK-PROPAGATION BASED ON CAVITY GROWTH BY COUPLED DIFFUSIONAL AND CREEP PROCESSES ACTA METALLURGICA Earthman, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1987; 35 (7): 1475-1485
  • A NEW STRAIN RATE CHANGE TECHNIQUE FOR DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN PURE METAL AND ALLOY TYPE CREEP-BEHAVIOR ACTA METALLURGICA YANEY, D. L., Gibeling, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1987; 35 (6): 1391-1400
  • A NUMERICAL-MODEL FOR PREDICTION OF CREEP FRACTURE MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Wang, J. S., Nix, W. D. 1987; 89: 73-80
  • ELEVATED-TEMPERATURE DEFORMATION-BEHAVIOR OF AN AL-8.4 WT PCT FE-3.6 WT PCT CE ALLOY METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE YANEY, D. L., Nix, W. D. 1987; 18 (5): 893-902
  • TWO-DIMENSIONAL THERMAL-OXIDATION OF SILICON .1. EXPERIMENTS IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Kao, D. B., McVittie, J. P., Nix, W. D., Saraswat, K. C. 1987; 34 (5): 1008-1017
  • MEASUREMENT AND INTERPRETATION OF STRESS IN ALUMINUM-BASED METALLIZATION AS A FUNCTION OF THERMAL HISTORY IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Flinn, P. A., Gardner, D. S., Nix, W. D. 1987; 34 (3): 689-699
  • CHARACTERIZATIONS OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE CRACK-GROWTH IN COPPER AND CU + 1 WT-PERCENT-SB UNDER DIFFERENT LOADING CONDITIONS ACTA METALLURGICA Earthman, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1987; 35 (2): 463-472
  • ON THE LIMITATIONS OF DYNAMIC RECOVERY AS REVEALED BY TEMPERATURE-CHANGE TESTS AT LARGE STRAINS SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Hughes, D. A., Nix, W. D. 1986; 20 (10): 1455-1458
  • DISLOCATIONS IN EXTRUDED CO-49.3 AT-PERCENT-AL JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE YANEY, D. L., Pelton, A. R., Nix, W. D. 1986; 21 (6): 2083-2087
  • MEASUREMENT OF ANELASTIC CREEP STRAINS IN A1-5.5 AT PERCENT MG USING A NEW TECHNIQUE - IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MECHANISM OF CLASS-I CREEP ACTA METALLURGICA Mills, M. J., Gibeling, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1986; 34 (5): 915-925
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE CREEP AND FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF A CLASS-I SOLID-SOLUTION ALLOY - CU-2.7 AT-PERCENT-SN ACTA METALLURGICA Wang, J. S., Nix, W. D. 1986; 34 (3): 545-555
  • CONSTRAINED CAVITY GROWTH-MODELS OF LONGITUDINAL CREEP DEFORMATION OF OXIDE DISPERSION STRENGTHENED ALLOYS METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Stephens, J. J., Nix, W. D. 1986; 17 (2): 281-293
  • VOID FORMATION IN INCONEL MA-754 BY HIGH-TEMPERATURE OXIDATION METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Rosenstein, A. H., TIEN, J. K., Nix, W. D. 1986; 17 (1): 151-162
  • CHARACTERIZATION OF RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED AND MECHANICALLY ALLOYED AL-FE-CE POWDERS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF POWDER METALLURGY Ovecoglu, M. L., Nix, W. D. 1986; 22 (1): 17-?
  • UNLOADING YIELD EFFECTS IN ALUMINUM-ALLOYS METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Nieh, T. G., Nix, W. D. 1986; 17 (1): 121-126
  • TIME-DEPENDENT DEFORMATION OF METALS METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Nix, W. D., Gibeling, J. C., Hughes, D. A. 1985; 16 (12): 2215-2226
  • A DISLOCATION LOOP MODEL FOR CREEP OF SOLID-SOLUTIONS BASED ON THE STEADY-STATE AND TRANSIENT CREEP-PROPERTIES OF A1-5.5 AT PERCENT-MG ACTA METALLURGICA Mills, M. J., Gibeling, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1985; 33 (8): 1503-1514
  • A STATISTICAL-ANALYSIS OF CAVITY NUCLEATION AT PARTICLES IN GRAIN-BOUNDARIES ACTA METALLURGICA Wang, J. S., Stephens, J. J., Nix, W. D. 1985; 33 (6): 1009-1021
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE DEFORMATION OF ULTRA-FINE-GRAINED OXIDE DISPERSION STRENGTHENED ALLOYS METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Gregory, J. K., Gibeling, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1985; 16 (5): 777-787
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE INTERGRANULAR CRACK-GROWTH PROCESSES IN COPPER AND COPPER WITH 1 WT-PERCENT ANTIMONY ACTA METALLURGICA Earthman, J. C., Gibeling, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1985; 33 (5): 805-817
  • ANALYSIS OF CAVITY NUCLEATION IN SOLIDS SUBJECTED TO EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL-STRESSES ACTA METALLURGICA HIRTH, J. P., Nix, W. D. 1985; 33 (3): 359-368
  • THE EFFECT OF GRAIN MORPHOLOGY ON LONGITUDINAL CREEP-PROPERTIES OF INCONEL MA-754 AT ELEVATED-TEMPERATURES METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Stephens, J. J., Nix, W. D. 1985; 16 (7): 1307-1324
  • DIFFUSIONALLY MODIFIED DISLOCATION PARTICLE ELASTIC INTERACTIONS ACTA METALLURGICA Srolovitz, D. J., Luton, M. J., PETKOVICLUTON, R., Barnett, D. M., Nix, W. D. 1984; 32 (7): 1079-1088
  • A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DETERMINATION OF DEFORMATION MECHANISMS BY STRAIN RATE CHANGE TESTS ACTA METALLURGICA Gibeling, J. C., HOLBROOK, J. H., Nix, W. D. 1984; 32 (9): 1287-1295
  • EFFECT OF OXIDATION-KINETICS ON THE NEAR THRESHOLD FATIGUE CRACK-GROWTH BEHAVIOR OF A NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Yuen, J. L., ROY, P., Nix, W. D. 1984; 15 (9): 1769-1775
  • THE EFFECTS OF PRE-EXISTING GRAIN-BOUNDARY CAVITIES ON THE CREEP-RUPTURE LIFE OF A COPPER-ANTIMONY ALLOY SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Yu, K. S., Nix, W. D. 1984; 18 (3): 259-264
  • ON THE RELATION BETWEEN CREEP CAVITATION AND GRAIN-BOUNDARY ORIENTATION SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Yu, K. S., Nix, W. D. 1984; 18 (2): 173-178
  • A STUDY OF INTERGRANULAR CAVITY GROWTH CONTROLLED BY THE COUPLING OF DIFFUSION AND POWER LAW CREEP ACTA METALLURGICA Wang, J. S., Martinez, L., Nix, W. D. 1983; 31 (6): 873-881
  • A STUDY OF THE CHEMICAL-COMPOSITION OF GRAIN-BOUNDARIES AND CREEP CAVITY SURFACES IN A CU-SB ALLOY METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Yu, K. S., Joshi, A., Nix, W. D. 1983; 14 (12): 2447-2454
  • THE EFFECTS OF SEGREGATION ON THE KINETICS OF INTERGRANULAR CAVITY GROWTH UNDER CREEP CONDITIONS METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Nix, W. D., Yu, K. S., Wang, J. S. 1983; 14 (4): 563-570
  • INTRODUCTION TO THE VIEWPOINT SET ON CREEP CAVITATION SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Nix, W. D. 1983; 17 (1): 1-4
  • THE BINDING FORCE BETWEEN AN EDGE DISLOCATION AND A FERMI DIRAC SOLUTE ATMOSPHERE ACTA METALLURGICA Barnett, D. M., OLIVER, W. C., Nix, W. D. 1982; 30 (3): 673-678
  • THE BINDING FORCE BETWEEN A PEIERLS-NABARRO EDGE DISLOCATION AND A FERMI-DIRAC SOLUTE ATMOSPHERE ACTA METALLURGICA Barnett, D. M., Wong, G., Nix, W. D. 1982; 30 (11): 2035-2041
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE DEFORMATION OF OXIDE DISPERSION STRENGTHENED AL AND AL-MG SOLID-SOLUTIONS ACTA METALLURGICA OLIVER, W. C., Nix, W. D. 1982; 30 (7): 1335-1347
  • A NUMERICAL STUDY OF CAVITY GROWTH CONTROLLED BY COUPLED SURFACE AND GRAIN-BOUNDARY DIFFUSION METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Martinez, L., Nix, W. D. 1982; 13 (3): 427-437
  • AN ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT CAVITY GROWTH CONTROLLED BY GRAIN-BOUNDARY DIFFUSION METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Martinez, L., Nix, W. D. 1981; 12 (1): 23-30
  • SEGREGATION DURING DIFFUSIONAL CREEP OF A BINARY SOLID-SOLUTION ACTA METALLURGICA FUENTESSAMANIEGO, R., Nix, W. D., POUND, G. M. 1981; 29 (3): 487-492
  • OBSERVATIONS OF ANELASTIC BACKFLOW FOLLOWING STRESS REDUCTIONS DURING CREEP OF PURE METALS ACTA METALLURGICA Gibeling, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1981; 29 (10): 1769-1784
  • STEADY-STATE DIFFUSIONAL GROWTH OF AN AXISYMMETRIC CAVITY ON A GRAIN-BOUNDARY PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STRUCTURE DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FUENTESSAMANIEGO, R., Nix, W. D. 1981; 44 (3): 601-612
  • EMBRITTLEMENT OF COPPER DUE TO SEGREGATION OF OXYGEN TO GRAIN-BOUNDARIES METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Nieh, T. G., Nix, W. D. 1981; 12 (5): 893-901
  • EFFECTS OF CAPILLARITY ON INTERGRANULAR CAVITY GROWTH CONTROLLED BY DIFFUSION AND PLASTICITY SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Martinez, L., Nix, W. D. 1981; 15 (7): 757-761
  • EFFECTS OF STRAIN-HARDENING IN HYDROSTATIC EXTRUSION OF AXISYMMETRIC BIMETAL RODS METALS TECHNOLOGY OLIVER, W. C., Nix, W. D. 1981; 8 (FEB): 75-76
  • THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM-ALLOYS PRODUCED BY MECHANICAL ALLOYING - POWDER PROCESSING AND RESULTANT POWDER STRUCTURES METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Gilman, P. S., Nix, W. D. 1981; 12 (5): 813-824
  • THE EFFECTS OF GRAIN SHAPE ON NABARRO-HERRING AND COBLE CREEP PROCESSES METALS FORUM Nix, W. D. 1981; 4 (1-2): 38-43
  • APPROPRIATE DIFFUSION-COEFFICIENTS FOR DESCRIBING CREEP PROCESSES IN SOLID-SOLUTION ALLOYS SCRIPTA METALLURGICA FUENTESSAMANIEGO, R., Nix, W. D. 1981; 15 (1): 15-20
  • THE DESCRIPTION OF ELEVATED-TEMPERATURE DEFORMATION IN TERMS OF THRESHOLD STRESSES AND BACK STRESSES - A REVIEW MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Gibeling, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1980; 45 (2): 123-135
  • COMPARISON OF THE DIMPLE SPACING ON INTERGRANULAR CREEP FRACTURE SURFACES WITH THE SLIP BAND SPACING FOR COPPER SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Nieh, T. G., Nix, W. D. 1980; 14 (3): 365-368
  • VACANCY AND SUBSTITUTIONAL SOLUTE DISTRIBUTION AROUND AN EDGE DISLOCATION IN EQUILIBRIUM AND IN STEADY-STATE GLIDE MOTION PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STRUCTURE DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FUENTESSAMANIEGO, R., Nix, W. D., POUND, G. M. 1980; 42 (5): 591-600
  • THE INFLUENCE OF 2ND PHASE PARTICLES ON THE FREE DISLOCATION DENSITY DURING CREEP OF STAINLESS-STEEL SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Singer, R. F., Blum, W., Nix, W. D. 1980; 14 (7): 755-760
  • A NUMERICAL STUDY OF LONG-RANGE INTERNAL-STRESSES ASSOCIATED WITH SUBGRAIN BOUNDARIES ACTA METALLURGICA Gibeling, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1980; 28 (12): 1743-1752
  • THE FORMATION OF WATER-VAPOR BUBBLES IN COPPER AND THEIR EFFECT ON INTERGRANULAR CREEP FRACTURE ACTA METALLURGICA Nieh, T. G., Nix, W. D. 1980; 28 (5): 557-566
  • CONDITIONS FOR VALIDITY OF THE EXPRESSION DELTA-S=-(DELTA-DELTA-G/DELTA-T)T SCRIPTA METALLURGICA POUND, G. M., Lothe, J., Nix, W. D., Barnett, D. M., DiMelfi, R. J. 1980; 14 (3): 369-372
  • IDENTIFICATION OF DISPERSOID PHASES CREATED IN ALUMINUM DURING MECHANICAL ALLOYING METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Singer, R. F., OLIVER, W. C., Nix, W. D. 1980; 11 (11): 1895-1901
  • EQUIVALENCE OF 2 METHODS FOR COMPUTING THE ACTIVATION ENTROPY FOR DISLOCATION-MOTION ACTA METALLURGICA DiMelfi, R. J., Nix, W. D., Barnett, D. M., POUND, G. M. 1980; 28 (2): 231-237
  • NUMERICAL STUDY OF NECKING IN THE PLANE TENSION TEST INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Burke, M. A., Nix, W. D. 1979; 15 (5): 379-393
  • SUPERPLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF A SINGLE PHASE-60-PB - 40 IN ALLOY SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Wei, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1979; 13 (11): 1017-1020
  • THEORETICAL DESCRIPTIONS OF CLIMB CONTROLLED STEADY-STATE CREEP AT HIGH AND INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURES ACTA METALLURGICA Spingarn, J. R., Barnett, D. M., Nix, W. D. 1979; 27 (9): 1549-1561
  • STUDY OF INTERGRANULAR CAVITY GROWTH IN AG + 0.1-PERCENT-MGO AT ELEVATED-TEMPERATURES ACTA METALLURGICA Nieh, T. G., Nix, W. D. 1979; 27 (6): 1097-1106
  • NUMERICAL STUDY OF CAVITY GROWTH CONTROLLED BY SURFACE-DIFFUSION ACTA METALLURGICA Pharr, G. M., Nix, W. D. 1979; 27 (10): 1615-1631
  • APPLICATION OF THE METHODS OF DISLOCATION DYNAMICS TO DESCRIBE PLASTIC-FLOW IN BOTH BCC AND FCC METALS ACTA METALLURGICA Pharr, G. M., Nix, W. D. 1979; 27 (3): 433-444
  • MODEL FOR CREEP BASED ON THE CLIMB OF DISLOCATIONS AT GRAIN-BOUNDARIES ACTA METALLURGICA Spingarn, J. R., Nix, W. D. 1979; 27 (2): 171-177
  • KINETICS OF CAVITY GROWTH AND CREEP FRACTURE IN SILVER CONTAINING IMPLANTED GRAIN-BOUNDARY CAVITIES ACTA METALLURGICA Goods, S. H., Nix, W. D. 1978; 26 (5): 739-752
  • STUDY OF CREEP-PROPERTIES OF A NI-FE METALLIC GLASS SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Gibeling, J. C., Nix, W. D. 1978; 12 (10): 919-926
  • DIFFUSIONAL CREEP AND DIFFUSIONALLY ACCOMMODATED GRAIN REARRANGEMENT ACTA METALLURGICA Spingarn, J. R., Nix, W. D. 1978; 26 (9): 1389-1398
  • CRITIQUE OF AYRES-STEIN METHOD OF PREDICTING CLEAVAGE PLANES IN METALS SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Pharr, G. M., Barnett, D. M., Nix, W. D. 1978; 12 (11): 973-978
  • NUMERICAL-ANALYSIS OF EDGE DISLOCATION CLIMB PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STRUCTURE DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Burke, M. A., Nix, W. D. 1978; 37 (4): 479-488
  • COALESCENCE OF LARGE GRAIN-BOUNDARY CAVITIES IN SILVER DURING TENSION CREEP ACTA METALLURGICA Goods, S. H., Nix, W. D. 1978; 26 (5): 753-758
  • HIGH DUCTILITIES IN PHYSICALLY VAPOR-DEPOSITED NICKEL THIN SOLID FILMS Spingarn, J. R., Jacobson, B. E., Nix, W. D. 1977; 45 (3): 507-515
  • INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MICROSTRUCTURES AND MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF PHYSICALLY VAPOR-DEPOSITED NI-AL2O3 ALLOYS THIN SOLID FILMS Jacobson, B. E., Spingarn, J. R., Nix, W. D. 1977; 45 (3): 517-526
  • ROLE OF DIFFUSION IN DETERMINING CONTROLLING CREEP MECHANISMS IN AL-ZN SOLID-SOLUTIONS .2. METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE CHIN, B. A., Nix, W. D., POUND, G. M. 1977; 8 (10): 1523-1530
  • STRESS DEPENDENCE OF CRACK GROWTH-RATE DURING CREEP INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FRACTURE DiMelfi, R. J., Nix, W. D. 1977; 13 (3): 341-348
  • DISLOCATION-STRUCTURE OF NI-20CR-2THO2 AFTER HIGH-TEMPERATURE DEFORMATION ACTA METALLURGICA Hausselt, J. H., Nix, W. D. 1977; 25 (6): 595-607
  • MODEL FOR CREEP FRACTURE BASED ON PLASTIC GROWTH OF CAVITIES AT TIPS OF GRAIN-BOUNDARY WEDGE CRACKS ACTA METALLURGICA Nix, W. D., MATLOCK, D. K., DiMelfi, R. J. 1977; 25 (5): 495-503
  • ROLE OF DIFFUSION IN DETERMINING CONTROLLING CREEP MECHANISMS IN AL-ZN SOLID-SOLUTIONS .1. METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE CHIN, B. A., POUND, G. M., Nix, W. D. 1977; 8 (10): 1517-1522
  • MODEL FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE DEFORMATION OF DISPERSION STRENGTHENED METALS BASED ON SUBSTRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS IN NI-20CR-2THO2 ACTA METALLURGICA Hausselt, J. H., Nix, W. D. 1977; 25 (12): 1491-1502
  • ANALYSIS OF ENTROPY OF THERMALLY ACTIVATED DISLOCATION-MOTION BASED ON THEORY OF THERMOELASTICITY PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC RESEARCH DiMelfi, R. J., Nix, W. D., Barnett, D. M., HOLBROOK, J. H., POUND, G. M. 1976; 75 (2): 573-582
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE CREEP OF NI-20CR-2THO-2 SINGLE-CRYSTALS ACTA METALLURGICA LUND, R. W., Nix, W. D. 1976; 24 (5): 469-481
  • STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF PHYSICALLY VAPOR-DEPOSITED CHROMIUM METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE REILEY, T. C., Nix, W. D. 1976; 7 (11): 1695-1701
  • COMPARISON OF EMBRITTLING EFFECTS OF H2O BUBBLES IN AG WITH THOSE OF HE BUBBLES IN NI 6 PERCENT W ACTA METALLURGICA Goods, S. H., Nix, W. D. 1976; 24 (11): 1041-1046
  • COMPARISON OF OROWAN STRESS WITH THRESHOLD STRESS FOR CREEP FOR NI-20CR-2THO2 SINGLE-CRYSTALS SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Pharr, G. M., Nix, W. D. 1976; 10 (11): 1007-1010
  • HOLE GROWTH IN PLANE VISCOUS CREEP INCLUDING INTERACTION EFFECTS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES DiMelfi, R. J., Nix, W. D. 1976; 12 (3): 217-225
  • PLASTIC INSTABILITIES IN TENSION CREEP ACTA METALLURGICA Burke, M. A., Nix, W. D. 1975; 23 (7): 793-798
  • HIGH CREEP ACTIVATION-ENERGIES FOR DISPERSION STRENGTHENED METALS METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE LUND, R. W., Nix, W. D. 1975; 6 (7): 1329-1333
  • EFFECTS OF HELIUM ON HIGH-TEMPERATURE CREEP AND FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF NI-6PERCENT W JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS MATLOCK, D. K., Nix, W. D. 1975; 56 (2): 145-152
  • INFLUENCE OF SUBGRAIN BOUNDARIES ON RATE CONTROLLING CREEP PROCESSES IN FE-3 PCT SI METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE STANG, R. G., Nix, W. D., Barrett, C. R. 1975; 6 (11): 2065-2071
  • EFFECT OF SAMPLE SIZE ON STEADY-STATE CREEP CHARACTERISTICS OF NI-6 PCT-W METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS MATLOCK, D. K., Nix, W. D. 1974; 5 (6): 1401-1412
  • MODEL FOR MOBILE DISLOCATION DENSITY ACTA METALLURGICA GASCANER, R., Nix, W. D. 1974; 22 (3): 257-264
  • EDGE DISLOCATION CLIMB OVER NONDEFORMABLE CIRCULAR INCLUSIONS METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS HOLBROOK, J. H., Nix, W. D. 1974; 5 (5): 1033-1039
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE DISLOCATION MOBILITY IN LIF .1. CHARGED DISLOCATIONS IN IONIC-CRYSTALS MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Menezes, R. A., Nix, W. D. 1974; 16 (1-2): 57-66
  • EFFECTS OF SHOCK LOADING AND COLD ROLLING ON STRUCTURE AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE CREEP-PROPERTIES OF STRENGTHENED NI-18.6 PCT CR-4.3 PCT AL METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS Harrigan, W. C., Barrett, C. R., Nix, W. D. 1974; 5 (1): 205-216
  • COMPUTER-SIMULATION OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE DEFORMATION MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GASCANER, R., Nix, W. D. 1974; 14 (2): 131-142
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE DISLOCATION MOBILITY IN LIF .2. GLIDE MOBILITY OF DISLOCATIONS AT HIGH-TEMPERATURES MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Menezes, R. A., Nix, W. D. 1974; 16 (1-2): 67-73
  • INTERACTION FORCE BETWEEN TETRAGONAL DEFECTS AND SCREW DISLOCATIONS IN CUBIC-CRYSTALS ACTA METALLURGICA Barnett, D. M., Nix, W. D. 1973; 21 (8): 1157-1168
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE CREEP IN FE-3 PCT SI METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS STANG, R. G., Nix, W. D., Barrett, C. R. 1973; 4 (7): 1695-1699
  • SOLID-SOLUTION STRENGTHENING IN TI-AL ALLOYS METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS ROSENBER, H. W., Nix, W. D. 1973; 4 (5): 1333-1338
  • MODELS FOR GRAIN REARRANGEMENT RESULTING FROM GRAIN-BOUNDARY SLIDING PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE Cannon, W. R., Nix, W. D. 1973; 27 (1): 9-16
  • THERMALLY ACTIVATED DISLOCATION MOTION PAST POINT OBSTACLES INCLUDING EFFECTS OF DISLOCATION SHAPE PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC RESEARCH DiMelfi, R. J., Nix, W. D. 1973; 58 (1): 331-342
  • EFFECTS OF SHOCK LOADING AND COLD ROLLING ON STRUCTURE AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE CREEP-PROPERTIES OF FE-3.75 PCT SI METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS Harrigan, W. C., Barrett, C. R., Nix, W. D. 1973; 4 (6): 1615-1621
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE DISLOCATION MOBILITIES IN DOPED LIF PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE Menezes, R. A., Nix, W. D. 1973; 27 (5): 1201-1209
  • CREEP IN BINARY SOLID-SOLUTIONS - POSSIBLE EXPLANATION FOR ANOMALOUS BEHAVIOR SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Rao, M. V., Nix, W. D. 1973; 7 (12): 1255-1260
  • COERCIVE FORCE OF IRON RESULTING FROM INTERACTION OF DOMAIN BOUNDARIES WITH LARGE NONMAGNETIC INCLUSIONS PHYSICAL REVIEW A-GENERAL PHYSICS Nix, W. D., Huggins, R. A. 1964; 135 (2A): A401-?
  • DOMAIN CONFIGURATIONS ABOUT NONMAGNETIC PARTICLES IN IRON PHYSICAL REVIEW Nix, W. D., Huggins, R. A. 1961; 121 (4): 1038-?